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Querying Federations

of Triple Pattern Fragments
Ruben Verborgh
Tutorial
Linked Data Fragments
Triple Pattern Fragments
Federated querying
Querying Federations

of Triple Pattern Fragments
Linked Data Fragments
Triple Pattern Fragments
Federated querying
Querying Federations

of Triple Pattern Fragments
A whole spectrum of trade-offs

exists between the two extremes.
high server costlow server cost
data

dump
SPARQL

endpoi...
data
metadata
controls
What triples does it contain?
What do we know about it?
How to access more data?
All RDF interfaces...
all dataset triples
(none)
data dump
number of triples, file size
data
metadata
controls
Each type of Linked Data Fragment
...
triples matching the query
(none)
(none)
SPARQL query result
data
metadata
controls
Each type of Linked Data Fragment

is ...
Linked Data Fragments
Triple Pattern Fragments
Federated querying
Querying Federations

of Triple Pattern Fragments
We design new mixes of trade-offs

with much lower server-side cost.
high server costlow server cost
data

dump
SPARQL

qu...
low server cost
data

dump
SPARQL

query results
high availability
live data
Linked Data

documents
Triple Pattern

Fragme...
matches of a triple pattern
total number of matches
access to all other fragments
data
metadata
controls
(paged)
A Triple ...
data (first 100)
controls (other fragments)
metadata (total count)
Give them a SPARQL query.

Give them a URL of any dataset fragment.
How can intelligent clients

solve SPARQL queries over...
Let’s follow the execution

of an example SPARQL query.
SELECT ?artist ?name WHERE {
?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist;
rdfs:la...
The client looks inside the fragment

to see how to access the dataset.
<http://fragments.dbpedia.org/2014/en#dataset> hyd...
The client splits the query

into the available fragments.
SELECT ?artist ?name WHERE {
?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist;
rdfs...
The client gets the fragments

and inspects their metadata.
?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist.
first 100 triples
96.000
?artist ...
?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist. 96.000
?artist rdfs:label ?name. 12.000.000
?artist dbont:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua.
dbpedia:...
Clients execute the query in 3 seconds

on a highly available, low-cost server.
SELECT ?artist ?name WHERE {
?artist a dbp...
Querying Datasets on
1 10 100
10100100010000
clients
throughput(q/hr)
Virtuoso 6
Fuseki–tdb
triple pattern
Fig. 3.1: Serve...
The server traffic is higher,

but requests are significantly lighter.
ets on the Web with High Availability 13
oso 6 Virt...
Caching is significantly more effective,

as clients reuse fragments for queries.
1 10 100
0
2
clients
t(mb)
Fig. 3.2: Ser...
The server uses much less CPU,

allowing for higher availability.
server CPU usage per core
1 10 100
0
50
100
150
clients
...
Linked Data Fragments
Triple Pattern Fragments
Federated querying
Querying Federations

of Triple Pattern Fragments
Federated querying is native

to Triple Pattern Fragment clients.
Every query is decomposed locally.
Clients send simple r...
For federation, we just send queries

to multiple servers.
No prior source selection.
Each triple pattern is sent to all s...
Federation compares pretty well

to SPARQL endpoint federation.
dge
date
n of
nter-
mea-
s on
er in
pos-
the
nter-
ular
om...
Federation compares pretty well

to SPARQL endpoint federation.
dge
date
n of
nter-
mea-
s on
er in
pos-
the
nter-
ular
om...
Federation compares pretty well,

even time-wise in some cases.
LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD CD
50
100
executiontime(s...
Federation compares pretty well,

even time-wise in some cases.
LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD CD
50
100
executiontime(
...
Note the different setup

in the previous comparisons.
SPARQL endpoint federation

was measured with local servers.
Triple...
Linked Data Fragments
Triple Pattern Fragments
Federated querying
Querying Federations

of Triple Pattern Fragments
Triple Pattern Fragments are easy:

all software is available as open source.
github.com/LinkedDataFragments
linkeddatafra...
More than 650.000 TPF interfaces

are available for federated querying.
fragments.dbpedia.org
lodlaundromat.org/wardrobe/
...
tutorial.linkeddatafragments.org
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of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 1 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 2 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 3 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 4 Querying federations 
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of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 20 Querying federations 
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of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 22 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 23 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 24 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 25 Querying federations 
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of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 27 Querying federations 
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of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 29 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 30 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 31 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 32 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 33 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 34 Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments Slide 35
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Querying federations 
of Triple Pattern Fragments

  1. 1. Querying Federations
 of Triple Pattern Fragments Ruben Verborgh Tutorial
  2. 2. Linked Data Fragments Triple Pattern Fragments Federated querying Querying Federations
 of Triple Pattern Fragments
  3. 3. Linked Data Fragments Triple Pattern Fragments Federated querying Querying Federations
 of Triple Pattern Fragments
  4. 4. A whole spectrum of trade-offs
 exists between the two extremes. high server costlow server cost data
 dump SPARQL
 endpoint interface offered by the server high availability low availability high bandwidth low bandwidth out-of-date data live data low client costhigh client cost Linked Data
 documents
  5. 5. data metadata controls What triples does it contain? What do we know about it? How to access more data? All RDF interfaces offer fragments
 with the following characteristics.
  6. 6. all dataset triples (none) data dump number of triples, file size data metadata controls Each type of Linked Data Fragment
 is defined by three characteristics.
  7. 7. triples matching the query (none) (none) SPARQL query result data metadata controls Each type of Linked Data Fragment
 is defined by three characteristics.
  8. 8. Linked Data Fragments Triple Pattern Fragments Federated querying Querying Federations
 of Triple Pattern Fragments
  9. 9. We design new mixes of trade-offs
 with much lower server-side cost. high server costlow server cost data
 dump SPARQL
 query results high availability low availability high bandwidth low bandwidth out-of-date data live data low client costhigh client cost Linked Data
 documents
  10. 10. low server cost data
 dump SPARQL
 query results high availability live data Linked Data
 documents Triple Pattern
 Fragments A Triple Pattern Fragments interface
 is low-cost and enables clients to query.
  11. 11. matches of a triple pattern total number of matches access to all other fragments data metadata controls (paged) A Triple Pattern Fragments interface
 is low-cost and enables clients to query.
  12. 12. data (first 100) controls (other fragments) metadata (total count)
  13. 13. Give them a SPARQL query.
 Give them a URL of any dataset fragment. How can intelligent clients
 solve SPARQL queries over fragments? They look inside the fragment
 to see how to access the dataset and use the metadata
 to decide how to plan the query.
  14. 14. Let’s follow the execution
 of an example SPARQL query. SELECT ?artist ?name WHERE { ?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist; rdfs:label ?name; dbpedia-owl:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua. FILTER LANGMATCHES(LANG(?name), "EN") } Find names of artists born in Padua, Italy. Fragment: http://fragments.dbpedia.org/2014/en
  15. 15. The client looks inside the fragment
 to see how to access the dataset. <http://fragments.dbpedia.org/2014/en#dataset> hydra:search [ hydra:template "http://fragments.dbpedia.org/2014/en {?subject,predicate,object}"; hydra:mapping [ hydra:variable "subject"; hydra:property rdf:subject ], [ hydra:variable "predicate"; hydra:property rdf:predicate ], [ hydra:variable "object"; hydra:property rdf:object ] ]. Fragment: http://fragments.dbpedia.org/2014/en “I can query the dataset by triple pattern.”
  16. 16. The client splits the query
 into the available fragments. SELECT ?artist ?name WHERE { ?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist; rdfs:label ?name; dbpedia-owl:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua. FILTER LANGMATCHES(LANG(?name), "EN") }
  17. 17. The client gets the fragments
 and inspects their metadata. ?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist. first 100 triples 96.000 ?artist rdfs:label ?name. first 100 triples 12.000.000 ?artist dbont:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua. first 100 triples 135
  18. 18. ?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist. 96.000 ?artist rdfs:label ?name. 12.000.000 ?artist dbont:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua. dbpedia:Alberto_Benettin dbont:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua. 135 dbpedia:Alberto_Bigon dbont:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua. The metadata enables the client
 to choose the right starting point. dbp:Alberto_Benettin a dbont:Artist. dbp:Alberto_Benettin rdfs:label ?name.
  19. 19. Clients execute the query in 3 seconds
 on a highly available, low-cost server. SELECT ?artist ?name WHERE { ?artist a dbpedia-owl:Artist; rdfs:label ?name; dbpedia-owl:birthPlace dbpedia:Padua. FILTER LANGMATCHES(LANG(?name), "EN") } Try it yourself:
 bit.ly/artistspadua
  20. 20. Querying Datasets on 1 10 100 10100100010000 clients throughput(q/hr) Virtuoso 6 Fuseki–tdb triple pattern Fig. 3.1: Server performance (log-log plot) The query throughput is lower,
 but resilient to high client numbers. executed SPARQL queries per hour
  21. 21. The server traffic is higher,
 but requests are significantly lighter. ets on the Web with High Availability 13 oso 6 Virtuoso 7 –tdb Fuseki–hdt pattern fragments 1 10 100 0 2 4 clients datasent(mb) Fig. 3.2: Server network trafficdata sent by server in MB
  22. 22. Caching is significantly more effective,
 as clients reuse fragments for queries. 1 10 100 0 2 clients t(mb) Fig. 3.2: Server network traffic 1 10 100 0 10 20 clients sent(mb) Fig. 3.4: Cache network traffic 6 8 ramus data sent by cache in MB
  23. 23. The server uses much less CPU,
 allowing for higher availability. server CPU usage per core 1 10 100 0 50 100 150 clients #timeou Fig. 3.3: Query timeouts 1 1 10 100 0 50 100 clients cpuuse(%) Fig. 3.5: Server processor usage per core 1 100 e(%)
  24. 24. Linked Data Fragments Triple Pattern Fragments Federated querying Querying Federations
 of Triple Pattern Fragments
  25. 25. Federated querying is native
 to Triple Pattern Fragment clients. Every query is decomposed locally. Clients send simple requests to a server. For clients, it doesn’t matter
 which server they send queries to.
  26. 26. For federation, we just send queries
 to multiple servers. No prior source selection. Each triple pattern is sent to all servers. If a certain pattern has no result,
 just don’t send more specific patterns.
  27. 27. Federation compares pretty well
 to SPARQL endpoint federation. dge date n of nter- mea- s on er in pos- the nter- ular om- TPF ANAPSID ANAPSIDEG FedX(warm) SPLENDID LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LS . . . . . LS . . . . . FedBench recall
  28. 28. Federation compares pretty well
 to SPARQL endpoint federation. dge date n of nter- mea- s on er in pos- the nter- ular om- TPF ANAPSID ANAPSIDEG FedX(warm) SPLENDID LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LD . . . . . LS . . . . . LS . . . . . recall Complex
 queries ets mat hed EC ated Data CD) om- gain was , ac- m in ncy. bers the ems: Ex- LS . . . . . LS . . . . . LS . . . . . LS . . . . . LS . . . . . CD . . . . . CD . . . . . CD . . . . . CD . . . . . CD . . . . . CD . . . . . CD . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . C . . . . . # queries = . .
  29. 29. Federation compares pretty well,
 even time-wise in some cases. LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD CD 50 100 executiontime(s) 150 200 250 300 iontime(s) LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD CD CD CD CD CD LS LS LS LS LS C C C C C C C C TPF ANAPSID ANAPSID EG FedX SPLENDID mes of FedBench query execution on the TPF client/server setup compared to SPARQL endp FedBench
  30. 30. Federation compares pretty well,
 even time-wise in some cases. LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD CD 50 100 executiontime( LS LS LS LS LS LS LS C C C C 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 executiontime(s) TPF ANAPSID ANAPSID EG FedX Figure : Evaluation times of FedBench query execution on the TPF client/server setup c systems (timeout of s). These measurements should be considered together with TPF-related measurements were performed in the context of this article; the numbers LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD LD CD CD CD CD CD LS LS LS LS LS C C C C C C C C TPF ANAPSID ANAPSID EG FedX SPLENDID mes of FedBench query execution on the TPF client/server setup compared to SPARQL endp LD LD LD LD LD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD LS C C C C C C C C C C NAPSID ANAPSID EG FedX SPLENDID xecution on the TPF client/server setup compared to SPARQL endpoint federation nts should be considered together with the recall for each query (Table ). The the context of this article; the numbers for the four SPARQL endpoint federation Complex
 queries
  31. 31. Note the different setup
 in the previous comparisons. SPARQL endpoint federation
 was measured with local servers. Triple Pattern Fragments federation
 was measured over the Web.
  32. 32. Linked Data Fragments Triple Pattern Fragments Federated querying Querying Federations
 of Triple Pattern Fragments
  33. 33. Triple Pattern Fragments are easy:
 all software is available as open source. github.com/LinkedDataFragments linkeddatafragments.org Software Documentation and specification
  34. 34. More than 650.000 TPF interfaces
 are available for federated querying. fragments.dbpedia.org lodlaundromat.org/wardrobe/ data.linkeddatafragments.org
  35. 35. tutorial.linkeddatafragments.org
  • AnandChandrashekar

    Sep. 17, 2018
  • PatrickLampl

    Aug. 18, 2016

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