Global Population and Mobility

R
GLOBALCITIES,
POPULATION
GROWTH, AND
GLOBAL
MIGRATION
ROY D. PERFUMA
FACILITATOR, SS023 ( CONTEMPORARY WORLD)
LearningOutcomes:
1.Identifytheattributesofaglobalcity.
2.Analysetherolesofcitiesasengines
ofglobalization
3.Explainthetheoryofdemographic
transitionanditsimpactonglobal
population
4.Displayfirsthandknowledgeofthe
experiencesofOFWs
5.Explainthecostandbenefitsofthe
country’slaborexportpolicy
2
Definition of Terms
Migrant- a citizen who leaves his/her
country of birth to work or reside in
another country
Refugee – a person who has been forced to
flee his/ her country to escape war,
political persecution, catastrophe, natural
disaster, and the like.
Remittances- money sent by migrant to
their home countries
Diaspora- the movement of a community
of migrants bound by a common cultural
heritage and/ or home country
3
Definition of Terms
Immigration-international movement of people
into a destination country of which they are not
natives or where they do not
possess citizenship in order to settle or reside
there
Emigration-is the act of leaving a resident
country or place of residence with the intent to
settle elsewhere
• Emigrate is from the point of view of the
departure. Think exit.
• Immigrate is from the point of view of the
destination. Think come in.
• Migrate is all about the moving. Think move.
4
TheGlobalCity
Cosmopolitan	as	an		Attribute
“Cultural Diversity is detected on the surface
as “cosmopolitan feel”. The global city’s
“natives” encounter and engage daily with a
mixture of immigrants and visitors. The result is
cosmopolitan consumption,cosmopolitan work
culture, global networking and “glocal”
transnational community relations”
-Val	Colic-Peisker
5
The Global City
Cosmopolitanism is a phenomenon mostly
associated with the global city. Large diverse cities
attracting people, material and cultural products
from all over the world.
It usually evokes pleasant images of travel,
exploration and “worldly” pursuit by the “
citizens of the world “.
A consumerist world of malls and
supermarkets, of theme parks and leisure
centers offerings, a cross-cultural variety of
food, fashion, entertainmentand various
consumables and artifacts.
6
The Global City
Post-industrial character as another attribute
“the condition in which the
production of goods has ceased and
switched to handling and shifting
money and ideas”
Val-Colic-
Peisker
Example of Global Cities
which transition as former
industrial and
manufacturing centers.
SINGAPORE
SHANGHAI
7
8
Lorem	ipsum	dolor	sit	amet,	consectetur	adipiscing	elit.
The Global City
Its Colonial Roots and Linkages
“Global cities transitioned from
being colonial entrepots to
become major financial hubs
and destination centers. The
nodal points in the global city
network have formed
themselves in places where
networks already existed”
-
Gregory Bracken
9
The Global City
The Impact of Post-Colonialism on the Consoli dation of Global Cities
• The politics of post-colonial survival
became successful development policies
that paved the way for the emergence of
tiger economies
“Leaders of post-colonial societies strived to
industrialize their countries, provide social
services to their citizens, and achieve a
higher standard of living for their residents…
all these efforts to legitimize their leadership
after gaining independent from their colonial
masters”
-George Bracken
Vijay Prasad
“The post colonial survival enabled
Third World colonies to leap from
agrarian or semi-industrial status to
industrial, and now to post-industrial
era.”
10
Economic Globalization and the Birth of Mega Cities
Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES:
1. The dispersal of globalization-related
economic activities such as managing,
coordinating, financing a firm’s network of
operation
2. The complexity of the central functions in the
headquarters of global companies leads to
outsource “ accounting, legal, public relations,
programming, telecommunications, and other
such services.
11
Economic Globalization and the Birth of Mega Cities
Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES:
3. Those specialized service firms engaged in the
most complex and globalized markets are
subject to conglomeration economies or the
benefits that come when companies and
people locate one another together in cities
and industrial clusters
12
Economic Globalization and the Birth of Global Cities
Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES:
4. Outsourcing makes corporation freer to opt for
any location, because less work done in the
headquarters is subject to agglomeration
economies.
5 . Specialized service firms need to provide a
global service which has meant a global
network of affiliates or partnerships that
resulted to the strengthening cross border city-
to-city transactions and networks.
13
Economic Globalization and the Birth of Global Cities
Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES:
6. The demand for high level professionals and
high profit making specialized service firms
created spatial and socio-economic inequality.
7. Informalizing part of or all production and
distribution activities, including services, is one
way of surviving under these conditions.
14
The Global Cities
NegativeImpact to its Cosmopolitan Population
• Surging prices of real estate/
falling housing affordability
• Residential hypermobility
• Long working hours
• Competitive and precarious
labor market
• Traffic Congestions/ Long
commuting hours
• Urban anonymity/ relative
social isolation
• Crime Incidence 15
The Global Cities As Engines of Globalization
“ Global cities are command points in the global economy”
- Chris Hudson
16
1. Global cities provide spaces for
industries that produce commodities and
firms that provide services such as
accounting, banking, information
processing, etc.
2. Global cities offer convenience through
proximity and just-in-time production of
products and services
CATEGORIZATION OF THE
GLOBAL CITIES
.
1.FIRST TIER “ TRULY GLOBAL
CITIES” AS THE MOST
POWERFUL GLOBAL
FINANCIAL ARTICULATIONS
LONDON
NEW YORK
TOKYO
17
CATEGORIZATION OF THE
GLOBAL CITIES
.
2. SECOND TIER CITIES BASED
ON THE LEVEL OF THEIR
MULTINATIONAL
ARTICULATIONS
MIAMI
LOS ANGELES
FRANKFURT
AMSTERDAM
SINGAPORE
18
CATEGORIZATION OF THE
GLOBAL CITIES
. 3.	THIRD TIER CITIES BASED ON THEIR
IMPORTANCE OF THEIR NATIONAL
ARTICULATION
PARIS
ZURICH
MADRID
SYDNEY
SEOUL
BANGKOK
TAIPEI
SAO PAULO
MEXICO CITY
19
CATEGORIZATION OF THE
GLOBAL CITIES
.
4. FOURTH TIER CITIES BASED
ON SUBNATIONAL AND
REGIONAL ARTICULATIONS
OSAKA-KOBE-KANSAI IN
JAPAN
HONGKONG AND THE PEARL
RIVER DELTA IN CHINA
20
GLOBALIZATION’S DISCONTENT BY JOSEPH STIGLITZ
” Those formerlyimportant manufacturing centers
and ports cities that have lost functions and are on
decline, not only in the less developed countries
but also in the most advanced economies”
Deindustrialized regions in the US, UK and other
developednations which failed to catch up with the
so called” knowledge economy” or failure to
compete with the newly industrialized countries
such as Brazil and China
21
Global Demography
The Theory of Demographic Transition
a period of high birth and death rates to eras
of lower birth and death rates, as society
transitioned from agrarian or pre-industrial to
industrialization
22
Global Demography
The Theory of Demographic Transition
” Before the start of the demographic
transition, life was short, birth were many,
growth was slow and the population was young.
During transition, first mortality and then
fertility declined, causing population growth
rates to accelerate and then slow again, moving
toward low fertility , long life and an old
population”
Ronald Lee
23
Global Demography
How Industrialization Affected the Health of
the Citizens?
4Ds - Disruption, Deprivation, Disease and
Death during industrialization
24
Global Demography
Four Stages of Classical Demographic
Transition ( International Union for the
Scientific Study of the Population)
1. Pre-transition
High birth rates, and high fluctuating death
rates
Population growth checked by Malthusian
preventive ( late marriage) and positive
check(famine, disaster, war, pestilence)
25
Global Demography
Four Stages of Classical Demographic
Transition ( International Union for the
Scientific Study of the Population)
1. Pre-transition
High birth rates, and high fluctuating death
rates
Population growth checked by Malthusian
preventive ( late marriage) and positive
check(famine, disaster, war, pestilence)
26
Global Demography
Four Stages of Classical Demographic
Transition ( International Union for the
Scientific Study of the Population)
2. Early Transition
Death rate begins to fall as birth rates remain
high , thus rapid population growth
27
Global Demography
Four Stages of Classical Demographic
Transition ( International Union for the
Scientific Study of the Population)
3. Late Transition
Birth rates start to decline and the population
growth decelerates
28
Global Demography
Four Stages of Classical Demographic
Transition ( International Union for the
Scientific Study of the Population)
4. Post-Transition
low birth and death rates and population
growth is negligible or even declined
29
GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY
1
High Birth
and Death
Rates
2
Lower
Death rates
because of
modern
medicine
30
3
Low Birth
rate due to
improved
economic
condition
4
Population
Stability
because of
low death
and birth
rates
Five Stages of Demographic Transition according to Drew Grover
(LEDCs on Stages 2 - 3, MEDCs on Stages 4 - 5
5
Fertility
rates fall
resulting to
aging
population
31
32
GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY
FACTORS THAT WOULD AFFECT
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
(Livi-Bacci)
1. Man-made disasters
2. Emergence of new deadly
diseases (HIV, EBOLA, H1N1
SARS)
3. Rising cost of health care
system
4. Demographic aging
Managed Migration as a solution to
Global population stability
Young migrants from populous
Third World Countries can help
solve the problem of labour
shortage in First World Countries
as a result of aging population and
low fertility rates.
33
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT
PUSH FACTORS FROM HOMELAND
• UNEMPLOYMENT
• SOCIAL UNREST/ REBELLION
• POLITICAL CRISIS
• POVERTY
• MINIMUM WAGES
• POOR LIVING CONDITION
• CORRUPTION IN THE
GOVERNMENT
• LACK OF EMPLOYMENT
OPPORTUNITIES
• SOCIAL MOBILITY
• GOVERNMENT POLICIES
PULL FACTORS TO THE DESTINATION
COUNTRY
BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS
HIGH STANDARD OF LIVING
ATTRACTIVE COMPENSATION
PACKAGE
MORE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
34
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT
THE PHILIPPINES’ LABOR EXPORT
POLICY ( LEP)
PD 442 ( LABOR CODE OF 1974)
‘ TO STRENGTHEN THE NETWORK OF PUBLIC
EMPLOYMENTOFFICES AND PLACEMENT OF
WORKERS, LOCALLY AND OVERSEAS, TO SERVE
NATIONALDEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES”
LEP AS A SOLUTION TO
SOCIAL UNREST
MASSIVE DOMESTIC UNEMPLOYMENT
RATE
POLITICAL CRISIS
POVERTY
35
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs
36
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs
37
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs
38
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS
THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF THE
LEP IN THE PHILIPPINE ECONOMY
NEGLECT / FAILURE TO
MODERNIZE MANUFACTURING
AND AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
NEGATIVE BALANCE OF TRADE.
( EXPORT VS IMPORT)
POOR INVESTMENTS IN
INFRASTRUCTURE, AGRICULTURE,
MINING AND SOCIAL DEVT
INABILITY TO PURSUE SOUND
AND LONG TERM ECONOMIC
POLICIES
39
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS
40
EXPLOITATION OF THE OVERSEAS FILIPINO WORKERS
Low Salaries/Below the Minimum
Wages in host country
Less compensation and benefits
Racial Discrimination
Physical abuse and maltreatment/
death
Involvement in the transnational
crimes ( drug mules)
41
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS
Threats on the Labor Export
Policy
Deskilling of migrant labor in
many immigration countries
- Mismatch of jobs (DH as
former professionals e.g
teachers, etc)
42
Typical OFW Destinations
Source:	BSP	AND	UN	HDR	
Destination Amount of
OFW
Remittances
in USD
SCORE IN
THE Human
Devt Index
Destination Amount of
OFW
Remittances
in USD
SCORE IN
THE Human
Devt Index
Destination Amount of
OFW
Remittances
in USD
SCORE IN
THE Human
Devt Index
USA 8.931	B 0.92 UAE 2.155 B 0.84 Norway 185.39 M 0.95
CANADA 572.8	M 0.92 SINGAPORE 1.657	B 0.92 Qatar 1.059	B 0.86
SAUDI
ARABIA
2.63	B 0.85 GERMANY 706.2	B 0.93 Australia 639.84	M 0.94
UK 1.423	B 0.90 ITALY 238.849	B 0.89 Greece 216.3	M 0.87
JAPAN 1.362	B 0.90 HONGKONG 759.293	M 0.92 South	Korea 220.51	M 0.90
43
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS
THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF THE
LEP
BRAIN DRAIN PROBLEM/ High
Human Development Index( HDI) in
the host countries like UK, US,
Japan etc.
• Shortage of health professional/
full-blown crisis in the health care
system
Social Cost of Labor Export on
Families of OFWs
• Broken Marriages
• Drug Addiction
• Sexual Immorality
• School Drop-outs
• Suicide
• Psychological Breakdown
44
GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS
45
ThankYou
Roy	D.	Perfuma
+63	9285544992
rdperfuma@mcm.edu.ph
www.mcm.edu.ph
1 von 46

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Global Population and Mobility

  • 1. GLOBALCITIES, POPULATION GROWTH, AND GLOBAL MIGRATION ROY D. PERFUMA FACILITATOR, SS023 ( CONTEMPORARY WORLD)
  • 3. Definition of Terms Migrant- a citizen who leaves his/her country of birth to work or reside in another country Refugee – a person who has been forced to flee his/ her country to escape war, political persecution, catastrophe, natural disaster, and the like. Remittances- money sent by migrant to their home countries Diaspora- the movement of a community of migrants bound by a common cultural heritage and/ or home country 3
  • 4. Definition of Terms Immigration-international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there Emigration-is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere • Emigrate is from the point of view of the departure. Think exit. • Immigrate is from the point of view of the destination. Think come in. • Migrate is all about the moving. Think move. 4
  • 5. TheGlobalCity Cosmopolitan as an Attribute “Cultural Diversity is detected on the surface as “cosmopolitan feel”. The global city’s “natives” encounter and engage daily with a mixture of immigrants and visitors. The result is cosmopolitan consumption,cosmopolitan work culture, global networking and “glocal” transnational community relations” -Val Colic-Peisker 5
  • 6. The Global City Cosmopolitanism is a phenomenon mostly associated with the global city. Large diverse cities attracting people, material and cultural products from all over the world. It usually evokes pleasant images of travel, exploration and “worldly” pursuit by the “ citizens of the world “. A consumerist world of malls and supermarkets, of theme parks and leisure centers offerings, a cross-cultural variety of food, fashion, entertainmentand various consumables and artifacts. 6
  • 7. The Global City Post-industrial character as another attribute “the condition in which the production of goods has ceased and switched to handling and shifting money and ideas” Val-Colic- Peisker Example of Global Cities which transition as former industrial and manufacturing centers. SINGAPORE SHANGHAI 7
  • 9. The Global City Its Colonial Roots and Linkages “Global cities transitioned from being colonial entrepots to become major financial hubs and destination centers. The nodal points in the global city network have formed themselves in places where networks already existed” - Gregory Bracken 9
  • 10. The Global City The Impact of Post-Colonialism on the Consoli dation of Global Cities • The politics of post-colonial survival became successful development policies that paved the way for the emergence of tiger economies “Leaders of post-colonial societies strived to industrialize their countries, provide social services to their citizens, and achieve a higher standard of living for their residents… all these efforts to legitimize their leadership after gaining independent from their colonial masters” -George Bracken Vijay Prasad “The post colonial survival enabled Third World colonies to leap from agrarian or semi-industrial status to industrial, and now to post-industrial era.” 10
  • 11. Economic Globalization and the Birth of Mega Cities Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES: 1. The dispersal of globalization-related economic activities such as managing, coordinating, financing a firm’s network of operation 2. The complexity of the central functions in the headquarters of global companies leads to outsource “ accounting, legal, public relations, programming, telecommunications, and other such services. 11
  • 12. Economic Globalization and the Birth of Mega Cities Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES: 3. Those specialized service firms engaged in the most complex and globalized markets are subject to conglomeration economies or the benefits that come when companies and people locate one another together in cities and industrial clusters 12
  • 13. Economic Globalization and the Birth of Global Cities Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES: 4. Outsourcing makes corporation freer to opt for any location, because less work done in the headquarters is subject to agglomeration economies. 5 . Specialized service firms need to provide a global service which has meant a global network of affiliates or partnerships that resulted to the strengthening cross border city- to-city transactions and networks. 13
  • 14. Economic Globalization and the Birth of Global Cities Saskia Sassen’s HYPOTHESES: 6. The demand for high level professionals and high profit making specialized service firms created spatial and socio-economic inequality. 7. Informalizing part of or all production and distribution activities, including services, is one way of surviving under these conditions. 14
  • 15. The Global Cities NegativeImpact to its Cosmopolitan Population • Surging prices of real estate/ falling housing affordability • Residential hypermobility • Long working hours • Competitive and precarious labor market • Traffic Congestions/ Long commuting hours • Urban anonymity/ relative social isolation • Crime Incidence 15
  • 16. The Global Cities As Engines of Globalization “ Global cities are command points in the global economy” - Chris Hudson 16 1. Global cities provide spaces for industries that produce commodities and firms that provide services such as accounting, banking, information processing, etc. 2. Global cities offer convenience through proximity and just-in-time production of products and services
  • 17. CATEGORIZATION OF THE GLOBAL CITIES . 1.FIRST TIER “ TRULY GLOBAL CITIES” AS THE MOST POWERFUL GLOBAL FINANCIAL ARTICULATIONS LONDON NEW YORK TOKYO 17
  • 18. CATEGORIZATION OF THE GLOBAL CITIES . 2. SECOND TIER CITIES BASED ON THE LEVEL OF THEIR MULTINATIONAL ARTICULATIONS MIAMI LOS ANGELES FRANKFURT AMSTERDAM SINGAPORE 18
  • 19. CATEGORIZATION OF THE GLOBAL CITIES . 3. THIRD TIER CITIES BASED ON THEIR IMPORTANCE OF THEIR NATIONAL ARTICULATION PARIS ZURICH MADRID SYDNEY SEOUL BANGKOK TAIPEI SAO PAULO MEXICO CITY 19
  • 20. CATEGORIZATION OF THE GLOBAL CITIES . 4. FOURTH TIER CITIES BASED ON SUBNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ARTICULATIONS OSAKA-KOBE-KANSAI IN JAPAN HONGKONG AND THE PEARL RIVER DELTA IN CHINA 20
  • 21. GLOBALIZATION’S DISCONTENT BY JOSEPH STIGLITZ ” Those formerlyimportant manufacturing centers and ports cities that have lost functions and are on decline, not only in the less developed countries but also in the most advanced economies” Deindustrialized regions in the US, UK and other developednations which failed to catch up with the so called” knowledge economy” or failure to compete with the newly industrialized countries such as Brazil and China 21
  • 22. Global Demography The Theory of Demographic Transition a period of high birth and death rates to eras of lower birth and death rates, as society transitioned from agrarian or pre-industrial to industrialization 22
  • 23. Global Demography The Theory of Demographic Transition ” Before the start of the demographic transition, life was short, birth were many, growth was slow and the population was young. During transition, first mortality and then fertility declined, causing population growth rates to accelerate and then slow again, moving toward low fertility , long life and an old population” Ronald Lee 23
  • 24. Global Demography How Industrialization Affected the Health of the Citizens? 4Ds - Disruption, Deprivation, Disease and Death during industrialization 24
  • 25. Global Demography Four Stages of Classical Demographic Transition ( International Union for the Scientific Study of the Population) 1. Pre-transition High birth rates, and high fluctuating death rates Population growth checked by Malthusian preventive ( late marriage) and positive check(famine, disaster, war, pestilence) 25
  • 26. Global Demography Four Stages of Classical Demographic Transition ( International Union for the Scientific Study of the Population) 1. Pre-transition High birth rates, and high fluctuating death rates Population growth checked by Malthusian preventive ( late marriage) and positive check(famine, disaster, war, pestilence) 26
  • 27. Global Demography Four Stages of Classical Demographic Transition ( International Union for the Scientific Study of the Population) 2. Early Transition Death rate begins to fall as birth rates remain high , thus rapid population growth 27
  • 28. Global Demography Four Stages of Classical Demographic Transition ( International Union for the Scientific Study of the Population) 3. Late Transition Birth rates start to decline and the population growth decelerates 28
  • 29. Global Demography Four Stages of Classical Demographic Transition ( International Union for the Scientific Study of the Population) 4. Post-Transition low birth and death rates and population growth is negligible or even declined 29
  • 30. GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY 1 High Birth and Death Rates 2 Lower Death rates because of modern medicine 30 3 Low Birth rate due to improved economic condition 4 Population Stability because of low death and birth rates Five Stages of Demographic Transition according to Drew Grover (LEDCs on Stages 2 - 3, MEDCs on Stages 4 - 5 5 Fertility rates fall resulting to aging population
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY FACTORS THAT WOULD AFFECT DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION (Livi-Bacci) 1. Man-made disasters 2. Emergence of new deadly diseases (HIV, EBOLA, H1N1 SARS) 3. Rising cost of health care system 4. Demographic aging Managed Migration as a solution to Global population stability Young migrants from populous Third World Countries can help solve the problem of labour shortage in First World Countries as a result of aging population and low fertility rates. 33
  • 34. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT PUSH FACTORS FROM HOMELAND • UNEMPLOYMENT • SOCIAL UNREST/ REBELLION • POLITICAL CRISIS • POVERTY • MINIMUM WAGES • POOR LIVING CONDITION • CORRUPTION IN THE GOVERNMENT • LACK OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES • SOCIAL MOBILITY • GOVERNMENT POLICIES PULL FACTORS TO THE DESTINATION COUNTRY BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS HIGH STANDARD OF LIVING ATTRACTIVE COMPENSATION PACKAGE MORE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES 34
  • 35. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT THE PHILIPPINES’ LABOR EXPORT POLICY ( LEP) PD 442 ( LABOR CODE OF 1974) ‘ TO STRENGTHEN THE NETWORK OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENTOFFICES AND PLACEMENT OF WORKERS, LOCALLY AND OVERSEAS, TO SERVE NATIONALDEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES” LEP AS A SOLUTION TO SOCIAL UNREST MASSIVE DOMESTIC UNEMPLOYMENT RATE POLITICAL CRISIS POVERTY 35
  • 36. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs 36
  • 37. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs 37
  • 38. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs 38
  • 39. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF THE LEP IN THE PHILIPPINE ECONOMY NEGLECT / FAILURE TO MODERNIZE MANUFACTURING AND AGRICULTURAL SECTOR NEGATIVE BALANCE OF TRADE. ( EXPORT VS IMPORT) POOR INVESTMENTS IN INFRASTRUCTURE, AGRICULTURE, MINING AND SOCIAL DEVT INABILITY TO PURSUE SOUND AND LONG TERM ECONOMIC POLICIES 39
  • 40. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS 40
  • 41. EXPLOITATION OF THE OVERSEAS FILIPINO WORKERS Low Salaries/Below the Minimum Wages in host country Less compensation and benefits Racial Discrimination Physical abuse and maltreatment/ death Involvement in the transnational crimes ( drug mules) 41
  • 42. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS Threats on the Labor Export Policy Deskilling of migrant labor in many immigration countries - Mismatch of jobs (DH as former professionals e.g teachers, etc) 42
  • 43. Typical OFW Destinations Source: BSP AND UN HDR Destination Amount of OFW Remittances in USD SCORE IN THE Human Devt Index Destination Amount of OFW Remittances in USD SCORE IN THE Human Devt Index Destination Amount of OFW Remittances in USD SCORE IN THE Human Devt Index USA 8.931 B 0.92 UAE 2.155 B 0.84 Norway 185.39 M 0.95 CANADA 572.8 M 0.92 SINGAPORE 1.657 B 0.92 Qatar 1.059 B 0.86 SAUDI ARABIA 2.63 B 0.85 GERMANY 706.2 B 0.93 Australia 639.84 M 0.94 UK 1.423 B 0.90 ITALY 238.849 B 0.89 Greece 216.3 M 0.87 JAPAN 1.362 B 0.90 HONGKONG 759.293 M 0.92 South Korea 220.51 M 0.90 43
  • 44. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF THE LEP BRAIN DRAIN PROBLEM/ High Human Development Index( HDI) in the host countries like UK, US, Japan etc. • Shortage of health professional/ full-blown crisis in the health care system Social Cost of Labor Export on Families of OFWs • Broken Marriages • Drug Addiction • Sexual Immorality • School Drop-outs • Suicide • Psychological Breakdown 44
  • 45. GLOBAL MIGRATION AND LABOR EXPORT: OFWs IN FOCUS 45