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Sub.:- Principles of Seed Technology
Course No. :- APB- 5221
Credit hours:- 3(1+2)
Lec. No.-1 :- Seed and seed Technology
Presented by:-
Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya
Raipur, C.G.
Presented by:-
Lt. Roshan Parihar, Asstt. Professor (GPB)
Deptt. of Genetics & Plant Breeding
BTC College of Agriculture & Research Station
,Sarkanda, Bilaspur,(CG)-495001
Introduction of Seed production
Introduction contains the topicsIntroduction contains the topics
1.Definition1.Definition and scope ofand scope of
seed and seed technologyseed and seed technology..seed and seed technologyseed and seed technology..
2.Concept of Seed Quality.2.Concept of Seed Quality.
3.Categories3.Categories and classes ofand classes of
seeds.seeds.
What is seed?
• A seed, stands for any of the following used
for sowing or planting,
• i. Seeds of food crops including edible oil
seeds and seeds of fruit and vegetables
• ii. Cotton seeds
• iii. Seeds of cattle fodder
4/24/2020 3
• iii. Seeds of cattle fodder
• iv. Jute seeds
• v. Seedlings, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, roots,
cuttings, all types of grafts and other
vegetatively propagated material for food
crops or cattle fodder.
Seed:A true seed is a
reproductive unit that develops from
ovules and contains an embryo
sporophyte and food reserves; the
Definitions
4/24/2020 4
sporophyte and food reserves; the
food is located either in embryo
itself or in some external storage
tissue; it is the fertilized mature
ovule.
Seed
2. A mature ovule consisting of an
embryonic plant together with a
store of food, all surrounded by a
protective coat.
4/24/2020 5
protective coat.
3. Any plant part used for the
purpose of further propagation or
multiplication.it is also termed as
Propagule.
Concept of seed technology
Difference between seed and grain is vital.
• The main concept is to harness the potential
of embryo , the embedded living portion
with in the food storage tissue. Its main work
is to protect the biological entity and lookis to protect the biological entity and look
after its welfare.
• When we deal the second component ,the
food storage tissue welfare and quality than
we deal the food technology
Difference between scientifically produced seed and the
grain (used as seed)
S.
No
Scientifically produced seed Grain (used as seed)
01 It is the results of well planned seed
production programme.
It is the part of commercial
produce, saved for
sowing/ planting
purposes.
4/24/2020 7
02
03
It is the result of sound Scientific
knowledge, organized effort,
investment on processing, storage
and marketing facilities.
The pedigree of the seed is
ensured. It can be related to the
initial breeders seed.
No such knowledge or
effort is required.
Its varietal purity is
unknown.
Difference between scientifically produced seed and the
grain (used as seed)
4 The seed is tested for planting
quality, namely, germination, purity
admixture of weed seeds and other
crop seeds, seed health and seed
moisture content.
Routine seed testing is not done
5 The seed is scientifically
processed, treated and packed and
The grain used as seed may be
manually cleaned. In some cases,
4/24/2020 8
processed, treated and packed and
labeled with proper lot identity.
manually cleaned. In some cases,
prior to sowing it may also be
treated. This is not labeled
6 During production effort is made to
rogue out off types, diseased plants
Objectionable weeds and other crop
plants at appropriate stages of crop
growth which ensures satisfactory
seed purity and health.
No such effort is made. Hence, the
purity and health status may be
inferior.
Concept of Seed quality fo'ks"krk] xq.k]
• Genetic purity (Trueness to the parent type)
identical in plant agronomic and other
characters.
• Physical purity ( Seed lot should be of same• Physical purity ( Seed lot should be of same
kind , free from inert matter,broken grains
less than half in size, soil and dust
particle,chaff etc).
• Seed germination and vigour.
• Planting value (It is the real worth of seed)
It is calculated by pure live seed percentage.PLS
PLS= Pure seed % ⁄ 100 X Germina on % / 100 X 100.
• Freedom from weeds and other crop seeds.
• Seed health (Absence of disease and pest on
seed lot).
• Seed moisture (Seed must be dried to safe
moisture content)
Other seed characteristics
• Seed size (Should be higher)
• Seed weight (Should be higher)
• Seed specific gravity (Should be higher)
• Seed colour (seed shine indicates seed• Seed colour (seed shine indicates seed
quality and health )
SEED QUALITY : It is the degree of excellence
in regard to the characteristics referred above
that determines the seed quality
Role of Seed / Seed Technology
1. A carrier of new technology. (112 % in
cereals, 124 % in potatoes, 142 % in sugar beet reported in
central Europe)
2. A basic tool for secured food supply.
3. A principal means to secure crop
yield in less favorable areas of
production.
4. A medium for rapid rehabilitation of
agriculture in case of natural disaster.
What is Seed Technology ?
Seed technology is the creation and
application of the knowledge on
seed for its better usage in
agriculture.
4/24/2020 13
agriculture.
That discipline of study having to do
with seed production, maintainence,
quality and preservation (Cowan
1973)
Goals/Aims of Seed Technology
1. Rapid multiplication of popular
varieties.
2. Timely supply of improves
4/24/2020 14
2. Timely supply of improves
seeds/Propagules in time and space.
3. Assurance of high quality seeds.
4. Availability of seeds at a reasonable
price
Scope of Seed Technology /
1. Provision of scientific technique for Seed
production .
2. Provision of guidelines to maintain the
seed certification standards.
3. Adequate and timely supply of seeds on the
4/24/2020 15
3. Adequate and timely supply of seeds on the
market.
4. Provision of technical knowledge to check
the govt. statutory guidelines of seed
standards.
Classes of seed/ chtks dk ntkZ
•Nucleus or Basic Seed /
BREEDER SEED
4/24/2020 16
• BREEDER SEED
• FOUNDATION SEED/
• CERTIFIED SEED
pj.k /Stages I of Seed production
Nucleus Seed
BREEDER SEED
FOUNDATION SEEDFOUNDATION SEED
CERTIFIED SEED
Farmers field
Stages II of Seed production
Nucleus Seed I
BREEDER SEED I
Nucleus Seed II
BREEDER SEED II
FOUNDATION SEED I
CERTIFIED SEED I
Farmers field
FOUNDATION SEED II
CERTIFIED SEED II
Nucleus or Basic Seed
Nucleus seed (or basic seed) is
the original or first seed (=
propagating material) of a
variety available with the
producing breeder or any other
recognized breeder of the crop.
4/24/2020 19
recognized breeder of the crop.
This seed has 100% genetic and
physical purity along with high
standards of all other seed
quality parameters.
BREEDER SEED
• Breeder seed is the progeny of
the nucleus seed and is the
source for foundation seed.
• Its production is directly
4/24/2020 20
• Its production is directly
controlled by the originating
plant breeder who developed
the variety, or any other
institution or qualified breeder
recognized by the authorities.
FOUNDATION SEED
• It is the progeny of breeder
seed or certified Foundation
Seed itself.
• When it is the progeny of
breeder seed it is called
4/24/2020 21
breeder seed it is called
Foundation Seed Stage I.
• When it is the progeny of
certified foundation seed-I, it
is called; Foundation Seed
Stage II
CERTIFIED SEED
• Certified seed is the seed,
which is certified by a Seed
Certification Agency notified
under section 8 of the Indian
Seeds Act (1966) or by any
4/24/2020 22
Seeds Act (1966) or by any
other foreign certification
agency provided the concerned
agency is recognized by the
Government of India through
notification in the Official
Gazette.
CERTIFIED SEED
• Generally, it is known as
the progeny of
foundation seed and its
production is so handled
as to maintain specified
4/24/2020 23
as to maintain specified
genetic identity and
purity standards as
prescribed for the crop
being certified.
Types of Certified Seed
Certified Seed
Certified Foundation Stage I & II
Certified Seed Stage I & II
Seed multiplication system
• A. Three - Generation model
Breeder seed - Foundation seed - Certified seed
• B. Four - Generation model
Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I) FoundationBreeder seed - Foundation seed (I) Foundation
seed (II) - Certified seed
• C. Five - Generation model
Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I)- Foundation
seed (II) -Certified seed (I) - Certified seed (II)
Colour of certification tags
for different classes of seeds
1.Basic or Nucleus seed: Tag is not used
Certificate given by breeder
2.Breeder seed: Golden brown
4/24/2020 26
2.Breeder seed: Golden brown
3.Foundation seed: White tag
4.Certified seed:Blue
[shade ISI No.104 Azure blue]
Importance of Seed Production
• Multiplication of superior varieties.
• Availability of superior varieties to
masses
• Maintenance of genetic purity.
• Supply of high quality seeds with
excellent quality.excellent quality.
• Seeds have high germination status.
• Seeds have high vigour and viability
status.
• Seeds have high physical purity.
• It maintains the excellent health
status of seed
Seed and seed technology

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Seed and seed technology

  • 1. Sub.:- Principles of Seed Technology Course No. :- APB- 5221 Credit hours:- 3(1+2) Lec. No.-1 :- Seed and seed Technology Presented by:- Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Raipur, C.G. Presented by:- Lt. Roshan Parihar, Asstt. Professor (GPB) Deptt. of Genetics & Plant Breeding BTC College of Agriculture & Research Station ,Sarkanda, Bilaspur,(CG)-495001
  • 2. Introduction of Seed production Introduction contains the topicsIntroduction contains the topics 1.Definition1.Definition and scope ofand scope of seed and seed technologyseed and seed technology..seed and seed technologyseed and seed technology.. 2.Concept of Seed Quality.2.Concept of Seed Quality. 3.Categories3.Categories and classes ofand classes of seeds.seeds.
  • 3. What is seed? • A seed, stands for any of the following used for sowing or planting, • i. Seeds of food crops including edible oil seeds and seeds of fruit and vegetables • ii. Cotton seeds • iii. Seeds of cattle fodder 4/24/2020 3 • iii. Seeds of cattle fodder • iv. Jute seeds • v. Seedlings, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, roots, cuttings, all types of grafts and other vegetatively propagated material for food crops or cattle fodder.
  • 4. Seed:A true seed is a reproductive unit that develops from ovules and contains an embryo sporophyte and food reserves; the Definitions 4/24/2020 4 sporophyte and food reserves; the food is located either in embryo itself or in some external storage tissue; it is the fertilized mature ovule.
  • 5. Seed 2. A mature ovule consisting of an embryonic plant together with a store of food, all surrounded by a protective coat. 4/24/2020 5 protective coat. 3. Any plant part used for the purpose of further propagation or multiplication.it is also termed as Propagule.
  • 6. Concept of seed technology Difference between seed and grain is vital. • The main concept is to harness the potential of embryo , the embedded living portion with in the food storage tissue. Its main work is to protect the biological entity and lookis to protect the biological entity and look after its welfare. • When we deal the second component ,the food storage tissue welfare and quality than we deal the food technology
  • 7. Difference between scientifically produced seed and the grain (used as seed) S. No Scientifically produced seed Grain (used as seed) 01 It is the results of well planned seed production programme. It is the part of commercial produce, saved for sowing/ planting purposes. 4/24/2020 7 02 03 It is the result of sound Scientific knowledge, organized effort, investment on processing, storage and marketing facilities. The pedigree of the seed is ensured. It can be related to the initial breeders seed. No such knowledge or effort is required. Its varietal purity is unknown.
  • 8. Difference between scientifically produced seed and the grain (used as seed) 4 The seed is tested for planting quality, namely, germination, purity admixture of weed seeds and other crop seeds, seed health and seed moisture content. Routine seed testing is not done 5 The seed is scientifically processed, treated and packed and The grain used as seed may be manually cleaned. In some cases, 4/24/2020 8 processed, treated and packed and labeled with proper lot identity. manually cleaned. In some cases, prior to sowing it may also be treated. This is not labeled 6 During production effort is made to rogue out off types, diseased plants Objectionable weeds and other crop plants at appropriate stages of crop growth which ensures satisfactory seed purity and health. No such effort is made. Hence, the purity and health status may be inferior.
  • 9. Concept of Seed quality fo'ks"krk] xq.k] • Genetic purity (Trueness to the parent type) identical in plant agronomic and other characters. • Physical purity ( Seed lot should be of same• Physical purity ( Seed lot should be of same kind , free from inert matter,broken grains less than half in size, soil and dust particle,chaff etc). • Seed germination and vigour.
  • 10. • Planting value (It is the real worth of seed) It is calculated by pure live seed percentage.PLS PLS= Pure seed % ⁄ 100 X Germina on % / 100 X 100. • Freedom from weeds and other crop seeds. • Seed health (Absence of disease and pest on seed lot). • Seed moisture (Seed must be dried to safe moisture content)
  • 11. Other seed characteristics • Seed size (Should be higher) • Seed weight (Should be higher) • Seed specific gravity (Should be higher) • Seed colour (seed shine indicates seed• Seed colour (seed shine indicates seed quality and health ) SEED QUALITY : It is the degree of excellence in regard to the characteristics referred above that determines the seed quality
  • 12. Role of Seed / Seed Technology 1. A carrier of new technology. (112 % in cereals, 124 % in potatoes, 142 % in sugar beet reported in central Europe) 2. A basic tool for secured food supply. 3. A principal means to secure crop yield in less favorable areas of production. 4. A medium for rapid rehabilitation of agriculture in case of natural disaster.
  • 13. What is Seed Technology ? Seed technology is the creation and application of the knowledge on seed for its better usage in agriculture. 4/24/2020 13 agriculture. That discipline of study having to do with seed production, maintainence, quality and preservation (Cowan 1973)
  • 14. Goals/Aims of Seed Technology 1. Rapid multiplication of popular varieties. 2. Timely supply of improves 4/24/2020 14 2. Timely supply of improves seeds/Propagules in time and space. 3. Assurance of high quality seeds. 4. Availability of seeds at a reasonable price
  • 15. Scope of Seed Technology / 1. Provision of scientific technique for Seed production . 2. Provision of guidelines to maintain the seed certification standards. 3. Adequate and timely supply of seeds on the 4/24/2020 15 3. Adequate and timely supply of seeds on the market. 4. Provision of technical knowledge to check the govt. statutory guidelines of seed standards.
  • 16. Classes of seed/ chtks dk ntkZ •Nucleus or Basic Seed / BREEDER SEED 4/24/2020 16 • BREEDER SEED • FOUNDATION SEED/ • CERTIFIED SEED
  • 17. pj.k /Stages I of Seed production Nucleus Seed BREEDER SEED FOUNDATION SEEDFOUNDATION SEED CERTIFIED SEED Farmers field
  • 18. Stages II of Seed production Nucleus Seed I BREEDER SEED I Nucleus Seed II BREEDER SEED II FOUNDATION SEED I CERTIFIED SEED I Farmers field FOUNDATION SEED II CERTIFIED SEED II
  • 19. Nucleus or Basic Seed Nucleus seed (or basic seed) is the original or first seed (= propagating material) of a variety available with the producing breeder or any other recognized breeder of the crop. 4/24/2020 19 recognized breeder of the crop. This seed has 100% genetic and physical purity along with high standards of all other seed quality parameters.
  • 20. BREEDER SEED • Breeder seed is the progeny of the nucleus seed and is the source for foundation seed. • Its production is directly 4/24/2020 20 • Its production is directly controlled by the originating plant breeder who developed the variety, or any other institution or qualified breeder recognized by the authorities.
  • 21. FOUNDATION SEED • It is the progeny of breeder seed or certified Foundation Seed itself. • When it is the progeny of breeder seed it is called 4/24/2020 21 breeder seed it is called Foundation Seed Stage I. • When it is the progeny of certified foundation seed-I, it is called; Foundation Seed Stage II
  • 22. CERTIFIED SEED • Certified seed is the seed, which is certified by a Seed Certification Agency notified under section 8 of the Indian Seeds Act (1966) or by any 4/24/2020 22 Seeds Act (1966) or by any other foreign certification agency provided the concerned agency is recognized by the Government of India through notification in the Official Gazette.
  • 23. CERTIFIED SEED • Generally, it is known as the progeny of foundation seed and its production is so handled as to maintain specified 4/24/2020 23 as to maintain specified genetic identity and purity standards as prescribed for the crop being certified.
  • 24. Types of Certified Seed Certified Seed Certified Foundation Stage I & II Certified Seed Stage I & II
  • 25. Seed multiplication system • A. Three - Generation model Breeder seed - Foundation seed - Certified seed • B. Four - Generation model Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I) FoundationBreeder seed - Foundation seed (I) Foundation seed (II) - Certified seed • C. Five - Generation model Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I)- Foundation seed (II) -Certified seed (I) - Certified seed (II)
  • 26. Colour of certification tags for different classes of seeds 1.Basic or Nucleus seed: Tag is not used Certificate given by breeder 2.Breeder seed: Golden brown 4/24/2020 26 2.Breeder seed: Golden brown
  • 28. 4.Certified seed:Blue [shade ISI No.104 Azure blue]
  • 29. Importance of Seed Production • Multiplication of superior varieties. • Availability of superior varieties to masses • Maintenance of genetic purity. • Supply of high quality seeds with excellent quality.excellent quality. • Seeds have high germination status. • Seeds have high vigour and viability status. • Seeds have high physical purity. • It maintains the excellent health status of seed