POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES.pptx PHIL.POLITICS&GOVERNANCE
1. Ideologies are the sets of basic beliefs about
the political, economic, social and cultural
affairs held by the majority of people within as
It is a system of ideas that aspires both to
explain the world and to change it.
Ideology is basically defined as political
statements that aim to call upon massive mass
or government action to achieve a relatively
better political and economic condition
This definition is the product of numerous
views from different political scientist and
philosophers through time from the classical
to the modern period.
2. Ideologies are goal-oriented, meaning, they are
for or against a certain configuration of a political
community. Their applications, however, are
dependent upon the different political attitudes of
the people and institutions.
Federick Watkins (1969) suggested that ideologies
come from the different political extremes such as
the conservatives or the pro- status quo on one
side, and the radicals or the anti-status quo on the
is a more or less coherent set of ideas that
provides the basis for organized political action,
whether this is intended to preserve, modify or
overthrow the existing system of power.
4. Every ideology is a reaction to some existing
An ideology provides a window to see the
Ideology inspires and motivates people.
Ideology provides a justification for an act.
Every ideology has its own Christ and the
An Ideology is averse to change.
Ideology is stated in different forms
a political ideology is a coherent
set of views on politics and the
role of the government.
political ideologies form the basis
of how they view the world around
them and the proper role of
government in the world.
7. Why are ideologies important in the political world?
The goal of every government is to mobilize its
citizens to achieve a common end, that is, the
welfare of the state as a whole. As a guide,
government use ideologies to help them
consolidate the support of their constituents. It is
also through ideology that civil societies go
against oppressive governments.
Ideologies are important because they shape how
we perceive and interact with the world. In politics,
they affect the voting choices we make and the
policies we support.
8. Modern-day political scientist have expanded the
spectrum to include different levels of political
attitudes & the different ways in which each level wants
to preserve or change status quo.
At the extreme right of the spectrum, changing the
status quo is not a primary concern and if ever change
happens, a retrogressive change is taken into
consideration or the return of old status quo. In this
level are the reactionaries & the conservatives.
Sandwiched at the middle are the moderates, who have
a neutral opinion with regard to political matters.
At the left side of the spectrum are the liberals and the
radicals who are by nature anti-status quo. Though the
radicals push for more extreme changes in the political
system, both the radicals and the liberals aim for
progressive change in the state.
Socialism is, broadly speaking,
a political and economic system in which
property and the means of production are
owned in common, typically controlled by
the state or government.
Socialism is based on the idea that common
or public ownership of resources and means
of production leads to a more equal society.
The four factors of production
are labor, entrepreneurship, capital
goods, and natural resources.
Collectivism: Human beings are social by
nature, and society should respect this.
Individualism is poisonous.
Public ownership: Society, not individuals,
should own the property.
Central economic planning: The
government plans the economy;
there is no free market.
Economic equality: All citizens have
roughly the same level of prosperity.
12. Here's a list of countries that are
considered to have a strong socialist
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark: The
state provides health care, education,
But these countries also have
Scandinavian countries were the
happiest countries in the world.
13. This is what Sweden offers their
citizens in benefits:
Education through Ph.D. Level
Child Day Care
Very generous leaves of absence from work with
benefits including: education up to 6 months,
starting your own company up to 6 months off,
parental leave up to 16 months with 80 percent
of your pay during time off
16 public holidays (10 of these holidays are
Christian-based, even though just five percent of
the population are regular church attendees).
16. Characteristics of Liberals:
1- Government guarantor, but not protector
liberals are against the protectionist state. Liberal
thinking stipulates that individuals should enjoy the
same opportunities, but that progress will be made
through the effort and capacity of each individual.
2- Free market
Liberals believe that an economy of free trade
favors the progress of a country.
Free commerce allows the individual to achieve the
personal progress and, at the same time, helps to
develop its counterparts in the economic
17. 3- Separation of powers
Liberals believe in independent institutions. The
intention of this division of powers in terms of the
functions of each one responds to the interest of
the liberals to prevent the formation of a single
state, with sufficient power to act arbitrarily against
Liberals appreciate competitiveness as a way of
putting the qualities of individuals into practice and
Liberal doctrine gives more importance to the
individual over the group. Liberals argue that, from
the recognition of individual freedoms, nations can
18. Countries that are liberal:
New Zealand was ranked the most liberal country
in the world followed by Switzerland.
New Zealand has a good history regarding
fundamental rights and freedom.
People exercise their political opinions through the
electoral process just while the taxation level
among the working class is among the lowest in
In Switzerland, direct democracy has been
decentralized, civil liberties are protected by law,
and the country has a good history regarding
is any political philosophy that
favours tradition (in the sense of
various religious, cultural, or
nationally-defined beliefs and customs)
in the face of external forces for
is a political ideology that values the
creation and maintenance of stable
societies based upon a hierarchy of
power lodged in a traditional class of
leaders and deep respect for traditional
values and institutions.
21. Edmund Burke, through his work
Reflections on the French Revolution,
argued that the institutions evolved over
time to fit the needs of society, thus,
tampering with the tradition is likely to
bring grief rather than improvement.
22. Characteristics of conservatives
1- Adversaries to radical changes
This does not imply that conservatives
deny changes in society, but establish
that there must be a balanced scenario
and that processes of social
transformation must be generated in a
fluid and progressive way, avoiding
2 - Defend private property
Conservatives favor private property.
They consider that it is a basic and
inalienable right that all people have.
Private property gives citizens some
power, gives them their own spaces,
which translates into freedom.
23. 3- Traditional
Conservative thought gives priority to the
status quo; That is, to what is predetermined.
Conservatives argue that by maintaining
traditional state structures, individuals will be
able to control their instincts and be good
citizens, framed in legality.
4- Linked to religion
Conservatives tend to identify with religion.
They believe in an almighty God, and consider
religious belief as an element that unites
citizens and provides the moral basis for good
24. Countries that practice Conservatism:
North Korea, is arguably the most nationalistic and
isolated country on Earth. There are only 28 state-
approved hairstyles. The regime encourages
citizens to see themselves as a superior people
who are envied by the rest of the world.
Bhutan is a strictly Buddhist nation. Bhutan is one
of only a few countries which have never been
colonized. Bhutanese law requires all citizens to
wear the national dress in public as formal wear in
an effort to protect cultural traits and customs.
Yemen has a very strict Islamic culture and is
considered the worst country for gender equality,
according to the Gender Equality Index. Most
women are forbidden to leave the house without
the explicit permission of their husbands.
One should be careful in branding
communism, socialism, or any other similar
ideologies as Marxists because they may not
necessarily reflect the ideas of Karl Marx
although these ideologies might find their
roots in the tenets proposed by Marx.
Based on the writings of 19th-century
German intellectuals Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels, Marxism is an economic and political
doctrine that seeks to resolve the tension
between social classes by controlling the
means of production.
29. Some of the ideological and conceptual bases of Marxism are following:
a. Alienation. the process whereby the worker is made to feel
foreign to the products of his/her own labor. For Marx, alienation in
its basic form is the alienation from one’s labor (or product of one’s
labor), and capitalism is a great factor in the phenomenon.
b. Class Struggle. Karl Marx also noted the struggle between the
bourgeoisie (capitalist or middle class) and the proletariat
The bourgeoisie social class oppresses and exploits the
proletariat not only through unfair compensation of the latter’s
labor but also by setting up laws and standards, and controlling
the system or the state to maintain its social status.
But there will come a time for the need to educate the proletariat
and/or the will eventually be aware of their situation and will
overthrow the bourgeoisie and the systems they created, which
means also overthrowing the state.
30. C. Materialism.
Marxism and the offshoots of this ideology offer a
complex perspective and usage of materialism.
Most social scientists, however, affected by how
For example, the members of the bourgeoisie
might think more of profit and leisure, that life is
good, and that money can do anything. This is
because they live a comfortable life with money
and power in the state. They do not actually do the
hard labor. In fact, their profit might even come in
through passive income.
But the members of the proletariat who work every
day for income might think more of survival, that
life is unfair. They might think that either there is
no good in trying to change their status or they
might be driven to strive for more whatever it
31. D. Revolution. Almost all theories and
ideologies related to Marxism consider
proclaiming revolution as the way to change
By revolution, Marx did not mean peaceful
walkouts but violent one in which the
proletariat will topple down elite class and all
the systems they have made. Even in its
violent nature, Marx considered revolution as
a good and inevitable process that will
eventually lead to a classless ideal society in
the form of communism.
32. Marxism aims to expose the contradictions of capitalism.
Marx and Engels believed that capitalist ideologies were
misleading, meant to keep workers submissive. For example,
the free market was described as a democratic institution, one
of the people, but it's built to benefit individuals above the
Marxism is meant to introduce a pathway for the creation of
a communist society.
A communist society is one in which the means of production
are taken away from individuals and controlled by the collective
(represented by the state). Communism is an alternative to the
free market system, something with which Marx and Engels
could replace capitalism. The two weren't meant to coexist.
Anarchism can be defined as a philosophical,
political and social movement whose primary
objective is to eradicate the State and all
forms of government or authority. Nor is he in
agreement with the social hierarchy or the
control of society over the individual.
For anarchism these forms of domination
are artificial, harmful and unnecessary,
because the human has a natural tendency
that guides him to a just and equanimous
order. Nature that has been corrupted,
according to this current of thought, by
35. Characteristics of anarchism
Despite the differences that anarchists may have, they
are usually governed by three fundamental principles:
Libertarian thinking. In anarchism there is no room
for authority and domination. It is opposed to the State, to any
type of authority, to the different forms of power. He prefers a
spontaneously and naturally self-regulating society.
Dissolution of inequities. Fairness and equality are essential
in anarchism. It does not accept hierarchies, or private property
or any other form of possession.
Solidarity between individuals. Brotherhood between
humans is another ideal of anarchism. In the total absence of
laws, hierarchies and authorities; there should be free
interaction between individuals. This would lead, according to
your thoughts, to cooperation, solidarity and mutualism.
36. While most people are familiar with how anarchy is popularly
used to mean chaos due to the nonexistence of control
mechanisms, the idea behind nit is actually more on peaceful
coexistence and equality. Contrary to the popular depiction of
anarchism in movies, anarchists believe.
That since power corrupts, a better system based on voluntary
cooperation and not on power relations should be established,
and that this system will address the needs of the people more
successfully. It is living a peaceful life without coercion from
Anarchism teaches that we can live in a society where there is
no compulsion of any kind. A life without compulsion naturally
means liberty, it means freedom from being forced or coerced,
chance to lead the life that suits you best.
37. Libertarianism - political philosophy that takes
individual liberty to be the primary political value.
This is another version of anarchism but involves
the government in a minimal role such as ensuring
the safety of everyone and fairness in whatever
contracts or dealings.
A libertarian is committed to the principle that
liberty is the most important political value. Liberty
means being free to make your own choices about
your own life, that what you do with your body and
your property ought to be up to you. Other people
must not forcibly interfere with your liberty, and
you must not forcibly interfere with theirs.
38. Individualism. Libertarians see the individual as the
basic unit of social analysis. Only individuals make
choices and are responsible for their actions.
Libertarian thought emphasizes the dignity of each
individual, which entails both rights and
responsibility. The progressive extension of dignity
to more people — to women, to people of different
religions and different races — is one of the great
libertarian triumphs of the Western world.
Spontaneous Order. A great degree of order in
society is necessary for individuals to survive and
39. The Rule of Law. Libertarianism is not libertinism or hedonism. It is
not a claim that “people can do anything they want to, and nobody
else can say anything.” Rather, libertarianism proposes a society of
liberty under law, in which individuals are free to pursue their own
lives so long as they respect the equal rights of others. The rule of
law means that individuals are governed by generally applicable and
spontaneously developed legal rules, not by arbitrary commands;
and that those rules should protect the freedom of individuals to
pursue happiness in their own ways, not aim at any particular result
Limited Government. To protect rights, individuals form
governments. But government is a dangerous institution.
Libertarians have a great antipathy to concentrated power, for as
Lord Acton said, “Power tends to corrupt and absolute power
corrupts absolutely.” Thus they want to divide and limit power, and
that means especially to limit government, generally through
a written constitution enumerating and limiting the powers that the
people delegate to government.
40. Free Markets. To survive and to flourish,
individuals need to engage in economic activity.
The right to property entails the right to exchange
property by mutual agreement. Free markets are
the economic system of free individuals, and they
are necessary to create wealth. Libertarians believe
that people will be both freer and more prosperous
if government intervention in people’s economic
choices is minimized.
Libertarians think that we ought to hold ourselves,
and our governments, to a higher standard—that
a freer society is possible and desirable. When
people cooperate with one another peacefully, with
respect for each other’s rights and liberties, we are
capable of incredible things.
41. Independent Activity 1: React with Me
Directions: Read the quotation carefully
and give your reaction about it. Write
your answer in a 1 whole sheet of
“A state is better governed which has
but few laws, and those laws strictly
42. watch the movie :The Purge Anarchy
reflect on the story & meaning of the
create a reaction paper relating the
movie to the different political ideologies
write a conclusion of how the society &
the world would look like if we adapt to a
certain political ideology.