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Module 4 - Academic Writing: Orienting the Reader

In this module we cover important ways we can start the reader (and reviewer!) on the right foot.

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Module 4 - Academic Writing: Orienting the Reader

  1. 1. Academic Writing: Orienting the Reader Dr. Ron Martinez UFPR, UC Berkeley
  2. 2. Do you have a particular reader in mind when you write?
  3. 3. In part 1... ● IMRaD in abstracts ● A reminder about the “naysayer”
  4. 4. "They Say, I Say" • "(A) writer needs to indicate not only what his or her thesis is, but also what larger conversation that thesis is responding to." (p. 20) • "(W)hen it comes to constructing an argument […], remember that you are entering a conversation and therefore need to start with 'what others are saying'…" (p. 20)
  5. 5. A good example (from "Josephine") "Epilepsy affects cognition and many studies show that one of its most affected functions is memory. However, little is said about the executive functions, which are essential for carrying out activities of daily living and problem solving. The present study aims to describe executive functions in adults with refractory epilepsy, comprehending the components of inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. "
  6. 6. "Epilepsy affects cognition and many studies show that one of its most affected functions is memory. However, little is said about the executive functions, which are essential for carrying out activities of daily living and problem solving. The present study aims to describe executive functions in adults with refractory epilepsy, comprehending the components of inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. "
  7. 7. "Epilepsy affects cognition and many studies show that one of its most affected functions is memory. However, little is said about the executive functions, which are essential for carrying out activities of daily living and problem solving. The present study aims to describe executive functions in adults with refractory epilepsy, comprehending the components of inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. "
  8. 8. "Epilepsy affects cognition and many studies show that one of its most affected functions is memory. However, little is said about the executive functions, which are essential for carrying out activities of daily living and problem solving. The present study aims to describe executive functions in adults with refractory epilepsy, comprehending the components of inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. " 1
  9. 9. "Epilepsy affects cognition and many studies show that one of its most affected functions is memory. However, little is said about the executive functions, which are essential for carrying out activities of daily living and problem solving. The present study aims to describe executive functions in adults with refractory epilepsy, comprehending the components of inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. " 1 2
  10. 10. The Naysayer
  11. 11. "Epilepsy affects cognition and many studies show that one of its most affected functions is memory. However, little is said about the executive functions, which are essential for carrying out activities of daily living and problem solving. The present study aims to describe executive functions in adults with refractory epilepsy, comprehending the components of inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. "
  12. 12. What issues might a naysayer raise? "They might question the instruments we used for the neuropsychological evaluation. As this research is self- funded, we had to choose from instruments that were publicly available. However, one could argue that other instruments were better suited for our purpose."
  13. 13. What issues might a naysayer raise? "They might question the instruments we used for the neuropsychological evaluation. As this research is self- funded, we had to choose from instruments that were publicly available. However, one could argue that other instruments were better suited for our purpose."
  14. 14. What issues might a naysayer raise? "They might question the instruments we used for the neuropsychological evaluation. As this research is self- funded, we had to choose from instruments that were publicly available. However, one could argue that other instruments were better suited for our purpose."
  15. 15. What issues might a naysayer raise? "They might question the instruments we used for the neuropsychological evaluation. As this research is self- funded, we had to choose from instruments that were publicly available. However, one could argue that other instruments were better suited for our purpose."
  16. 16. What issues might a naysayer raise? "They might question the instruments we used for the neuropsychological evaluation. As this research is self- funded, we had to choose from instruments that were publicly available. However, one could argue that other instruments were better suited for our purpose." DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S
  17. 17. What issues might a naysayer raise? "They might question the instruments we used for the neuropsychological evaluation. As this research is self- funded, we had to choose from instruments that were publicly available. However, one could argue that other instruments were better suited for our purpose." DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S
  18. 18. Can you hear the Naysayer? 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” 2. “The importance of this subject has already been well established.” 3. “The results of this research conclusively prove that the participants improved.”
  19. 19. Can you hear the Naysayer? 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” 2. “The importance of this subject has already been well established.” 3. “The results of this research conclusively prove that the participants improved.”
  20. 20. Can you hear the Naysayer? 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” 2. “The importance of this subject has already been well established.” 3. “The results of this research conclusively prove that the participants improved.”
  21. 21. Can you hear the Naysayer? 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” 2. “The importance of this subject has already been well established.” 3. “The results of this research conclusively prove that the participants improved.”
  22. 22. C.A.R.S. (Swales, 1990) • Create • A • Research • Space INTRODUCTION
  23. 23. C.A.R.S. (Swales, 1990) • Create • A • Research • Space ABSTRACT & INTRODUCTION
  24. 24. C.A.R.S. (Swales, 1990) • Create • A • Research • Space ABSTRACT & INTRODUCTION
  25. 25. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  26. 26. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  27. 27. C.A.R.S. and IMRaD in Abstracts Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  28. 28. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  29. 29. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  30. 30. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  31. 31. I Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  32. 32. I M Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  33. 33. I M R Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  34. 34. I M R D Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  35. 35. "C.A.R.S." framework • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be (or was) filled. 1 2 3
  36. 36. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep
  37. 37. Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults
  38. 38. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults
  39. 39. Brazilian journal analyzed
  40. 40. Common problem: No “Space” created • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be (or was) filled. 1 2 3
  41. 41. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults
  42. 42. Common problem: No “Space” created • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be (or was) filled. 1 2 3
  43. 43. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults
  44. 44. Next... The importance of considering your Title carefully
  45. 45. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  46. 46. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  47. 47. 1998
  48. 48. ZEUM
  49. 49. 2011
  50. 50. “Zeum” press release: "Although the name Zeum sounded fun, it didn't provide parents with any clues about what they and their children would experience.”
  51. 51. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  52. 52. Abstract There is a popular belief that alcohol consumption can help someone speak a foreign language more fluently. However, there is no evidence in the current literature to support this idea. This study aimed to investigate the effect of drinking alcoholic beverages on how adult learners of English perceive themselves (self-ratings), and how they are perceived by others (peer-ratings). Results of show that consuming alcohol drinks positively affected perception of fluency.
  53. 53. Which title do you like most? A. Can drinking alcohol make you speak a foreign language more fluently? Evidence from a quasi-experimental study B. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol C2H5OH) consumption by human adults in distilled form: effects on neuromuscular verbal articulation in a foreign language C. Drinking alcohol positively affects fluency in a foreign language D. The effects of consuming alcoholic beverages on foreign language fluency
  54. 54. Abstract There is a popular belief that alcohol consumption can help someone speak a foreign language more fluently. However, there is no evidence in the current literature to support this idea. This study aimed to investigate the effect of drinking alcoholic beverages on how adult learners of English perceive themselves (self-ratings), and how they are perceived by others (peer-ratings). Results of show that consuming alcohol drinks positively affected perception of fluency.
  55. 55. Different types of titles 1. Transparent 2. Finding 3. Implication/Application 4. Method-focused 5. Question 6. Effect 7. Elaboration 8. Quote
  56. 56. 1. Transparent
  57. 57. Transparent
  58. 58. Transparent
  59. 59. 2. Finding
  60. 60. Finding
  61. 61. Finding
  62. 62. 3. Implication/Application
  63. 63. Implication/Application
  64. 64. 4. Method-focused
  65. 65. Method-focused
  66. 66. Method-focused
  67. 67. Method-focused
  68. 68. 5. Question
  69. 69. Question
  70. 70. Question
  71. 71. 6. Effect
  72. 72. Effect
  73. 73. Effect
  74. 74. 7. Elaboration
  75. 75. Elaboration
  76. 76. Elaboration
  77. 77. 8. Quote
  78. 78. Quote
  79. 79. Quote
  80. 80. Quote
  81. 81. Mixed/Hybrid
  82. 82. Don't make your title too long!
  83. 83. One way to help you choose your title What is your claim? What is your evidence for this claim?
  84. 84. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  85. 85. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  86. 86. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  87. 87. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  88. 88. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR CLAIM
  89. 89. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR CLAIM EVIDENCE
  90. 90. CLAIM
  91. 91. CLAIM EVIDENCE?
  92. 92. BUILDING AN ARGUMENT
  93. 93. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  94. 94. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE EVIDENCE
  95. 95. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE EVIDENCE CLAIM
  96. 96. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE EVIDENCE CLAIM EVIDENCE CLAIM
  97. 97. Next... ● The importance of language choice in orienting the reader ● How to improve your own language choices
  98. 98. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE EVIDENCE CLAIM EVIDENCE CLAIM
  99. 99. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  100. 100. A linguistic inside look •Analyze the grammar used in each “move” •Analyze vocabulary and phrases used •Note and copy!
  101. 101. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  102. 102. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  103. 103. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  104. 104. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  105. 105. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  106. 106. 2 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3 CLAIM EVIDENCE CLAIM
  107. 107. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  108. 108. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  109. 109. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  110. 110. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  111. 111. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  112. 112. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  113. 113. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  114. 114. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  115. 115. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  116. 116. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  117. 117. Every area has its SPECIFICITIES!
  118. 118. Choose a mentor text!
  119. 119. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  120. 120. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  121. 121. But I have no data! • Try to get some! • Think of the article you produce for this class as a “template.” • Best option: use your partial data. • Good option: use unused data (adviser, lab, classmate...). • Another option: Build on what you did before (e.g. master’s work) • Worst case scenario: Consider a review (e.g. scoping review) article. • You have no topic yet? Create one! (Use your adviser.)
  122. 122. ARTICLE INTRODUCTION • Don’t just copy from your dissertation/thesis
  123. 123. ARTICLE INTRODUCTION • Rewrite that story!
  124. 124. YOU
  125. 125. YOU LIT REVIEW
  126. 126. YOU LIT REVIEW ARTICLE
  127. 127. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  128. 128. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  129. 129. The Introduction
  130. 130. What tools do you have in your toolbox?
  131. 131. Focus on what you know... • You are familiar with the typical Introduction structure (e.g. CARS). • You are aware concepts “They say”, “Naysayer”, and “Claiming.” • You know what you should and (should not) try to “copy.” • You can be a "linguistic detective" using tools like Google Scholar, Google Translate, Grammarly, SKELL, AntConc, and a mentor text.
  132. 132. What’s left (perhaps)... •Create a title. •Find "mentor articles" (perhaps with your adviser) and analyze the Introduction, "plagiarizing" useful linguistic features. • Start writing your Introduction!
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In this module we cover important ways we can start the reader (and reviewer!) on the right foot.

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