What is the infinitive?
The functions of the infinitive in a sentence
Forms of the infinitive
The to-infinitive and bare infinitive
The cases when we use the infinitive
The infinitive – is the base form of a verb.
There can be the to-infinitive and the bare
infinitive (the infinitive without the particle to).
We usually use the infinitives (to + verb) and the
negative infinitives (not to + verb) after verbs,
adjectives or nouns.
We can also use them after the indefinite
pronouns and wh-words (question words).
We can use the infinitives in clauses with
objects, prepositional phrases and adverbs.
We don’t usually put adverbs between to
and the verb (‘a split infinitive’) unless it is
We‟re planning to take the children to the
We usually leave out the second to when we
join two infinitives with and, or with or. We
can use to or not to alone instead of repeating
a verb or clause.
Brian just wants to sit and watch videos all
Do they intend to buy a flat or rent one?
The infinitive can be used in different
syntactic functions. A single infinitive occurs
but seldom: in most cases we find an
infinitive phrase, that is an infinitive with one
or several accompanying words.
The functions of the infinitive
in the sentence
The infinitive as a subject.
Even to think of it gave him unspeakable torture.
Though the infinitive as the subject sometimes
precedes the predicate, cases when it follows the
predicate are far more common: with the infinitive
in the latter position, the sentence opens with
the introductory it. The introductory it is not
translated into Ukrainian.
It is useless to discuss the question.
The infinitive as a predicative.
My intention is to get into parliament.
The infinitive can also be used as a part of
The house of Jane was not easy to find.
The infinitive as a part of a compound verbal
a) with modal verbs, modal expressions, and
verbs expressing modality
The train was to leave at midnight.
b) with verbs denoting the beginning, duration,
or end of an action
Clare continued to observe the building.
The infinitive as an object.
Jane had learned to dance at school.
After the verbs to allow, to order, to ask,
to beg, to request, to implore, to teach,
to instruct we often find two objects, one of
which is expressed by the infinitive.
He asked me to come in.
The infinitive used as an object can be
preceded by the introductory object it.
The introductory object is not translated
He found it utterly impossible to leave the
The infinitive as part of a complex
I never saw you act this way before.
The infinitive as an attribute.
I have nobody to say a kind word to me.
The infinitive used as an attribute often has a
modal significance – it expresses an action
thought of as obligatory or possible.
There must be a lot of things in this world to make
you very happy.
Sometimes the infinitive used an attribute implies
a more or less prominent idea of purpose.
Here is a nice book to read before going to bed.
The infinitive as an adverbial modifier.
a) The infinitive can be an adverbial modifier
Laws were not made to be broken, laws were
made to stay within.
The infinitive as an adverbial modifier of
purpose can be introduced by in order and
Jimmy put on his coat so as not to be cold.
b) The infinitive can be used as an adverbial
modifier of result. This mainly occurs after
adjectives modified by the adverbs enough
I was too busy to see anyone.
c) The infinitive can be an adverbial modifier
of comparison (manner).
She made a movement as if to run away.
d) The infinitive can be used as an adverbial
modifier of attendant circumstances.
She was driven away, never to revisit this
The infinitive has the
Indefinite to write to be written
Continuous to be writing –
Perfect to have written to have been
Perfect to have been –
The Indefinite Infinitive
The Indefinite Infinitive expresses an
action simultaneous with the action
expressed by the verb, so it may refer to the
present, past or future.
I‟m glad to meet you.
I was glad to see Mr. Paul.
My mother will be very glad to see you.
The Continuous Infinitive
To be + present participle
The Continuous Infinitive also denotes an
action simultaneous with that expressed by
the verb, but it is an action in progress.
The continuous infinitive also expresses the
manner in which the action is presented.
They happened, at the moment, to be standing
near a small conservatory at the end of the
The Perfect Infinitive
To have + past participle
The Perfect Infinitive is used when we want
to be clear that we’re talking about an earlier
time or a completed action.
“I‟m glad to have seen you,” he said.
After such verbs as to mean, to expect,
to intend, to hope used in the Past Indefinite,
the Perfect Infinitive shows that the hope or
intention was not carried out.
I meant to have gone there.
The same meaning can be conveyed by
the Past Perfect of the verb followed by
the Indefinite Infinitive.
I had meant to go there.
He had meant to marry me.
We can use the perfect infinitive after
would plus like, hate, love or prefer when
we talk about earlier events.
I would like to have been there.
You would hate to have seen all the
The Perfect Continuous
The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an
action which lasted a certain time before the
action of the verb.
For about ten days we seemed to have been
living on nothing but cold meat, cake and bread
The passive infinitive
To be + past participle
We can use the passive infinitive for present or
future actions happening to the subject.
My computer is supposed to be repaired today.
The workers want to be paid in cash.
We can use the perfect passive infinitive (to have
been + past participle) for earlier actions.
It was supposed to have been repaired last week.
They were hoping to have been paid already.
We use a to-infinitive:
After an adjective.
It‟s nice to have a place of your own.
After a noun.
I must take a book to read. ( = a book that I can
We‟ve got a few jobs to do. ( = jobs that we must
With able to, be about to, be allowed to,
be going to, have to, ought to and
We aren’t allowed to park here.
The game is about to start.
We’re going to buy a computer.
You have to fill in a form.
After some verbs, e.g. decide, hope,
Tom decided to leave early.
I hope to see you soon.
Did you manage to sort out the problem?
Henry offered to pay for the meal.
After some verbs + object
Laura persuaded Trevor to put up some shelves.
I want you to do something for me.
After for + object
We‟ve arranged for you to visit our head
It is important for students to register with a
After a question word
We don‟t know where to leave our coats.
This book tells you how to train race
To say why
Mark went out to play golf.
I need the money to pay the phone bill.
The bare infinitive
The bare infinitive is used:
After auxiliary verbs.
I don‟t understand the meaning of this
After modal verbs except the verb
If you cannot have what you love, you must
love what you have.
We may go by train.
Can I park here?
After verbs denoting sense perception,
such as to hear, to see, to feel etc.
I felt my heart jump.
Notice that! An infinitive after help can be
with or without to.
Can I help (to) get the tea?
Vicky helped me (to) choose a present.
After the verb to make in the meaning
‘to force’ and the verb to have in the
meaning of ‘to force, to allow, to order’.
Make + someone + infinitive
The film made me cry. ( = It caused me to
The verb to have in the meaning of ‘to allow’
is chiefly used after the modal verbs will and
would in negative sentences.
I would not have you think that I am selfish.
We can use let + someone + infinitive in
the meaning ‘to allow’.
She let me stay. (= She allowed me to stay)
After the verb to know when its
meaning approaches that of to see,
to observe (the verb to know never has this
meaning in the Present Indefinite).
I have so often known a change of medicine
After the verb to bid
I bowed and waited, thinking she would bid
me take a seat.
After the expressions had better, would
rather, would sooner, cannot but,
nothing but, cannot choose but.
You had better to go bed and leave the
patient to me.
I would rather not speak upon the subject.
In sentences of a special type (infinitive
sentences) beginning with why.
Why not come and talk to her yourself?
The particle to is often used without the
infinitive if it is easily understood from the
I could not defend Kate even if I wanted to.
Verb + to-infinitive
If the verbs are followed by another verb, the
structure is usually verb + to-infinitive.
As it was late, we decided to take a taxi home.
We can put not before the to-infinitive.
We decided not to go out because of the
With other important verbs you cannot use the
infinitive. For example think and suggest.
Are you thinking of buying a car? (NOT
’thinking to buy’)
Tom suggested going to the cinema. (NOT
‘suggested to go’)
There is a continuous infinitive (to be
doing) and a perfect infinitive (to have
done). We use these especially after seem,
appear and pretend.
I pretended to be reading. (= I pretended
that I was reading)
After dare you can use the infinitive with
or without to.
I wouldn‟t dare to ask him.
I wouldn‟t dare ask him.
But after daren’t you must use the infinitive
I daren’t tell him what happened. (NOT ‘daren’t to
We use tend to for things usually happen.
We tend to get up later at weekends. (= We
usually get up later at weekends)
We use manage to for being able to do
Luckily I managed to find my way here all
right. (= I was able to find my way)
We use fail to for things that don’t happen.
David failed to pay his electricity bill.
(= David didn’t pay his electricity bill)
If you can’t wait to do something, you are
eager to do it.
I can’t wait to see the photos you took.
(= I am eager/ impatient to see the photos)
Happen, turn out and prove
We use prove to or turn out to when
experience shows what something is like.
In the end our forecast proved to be correct.
Note the meaning of happen to.
I happened to see Sarah in town. (= I saw
Sarah by chance in town)
These verbs are followed by a to-infinitive
offer decide appear forget
refuse attempt plan seem learn (how)
advise choose help tell want
aim ask beg wait claim
demand desire guarantee happen prepare
prove turn out undertake wish try
expect invite teach would like dare
promise manage arrange pretend tend
threaten fail hope afford agree
After the following verbs you can use a
(what/where/how etc.) + to+ infinitive
ask decide know remember forget
We asked how to get to the station.
Have you decided where to go for your
Tom explained (to me) how to change the
wheel of the car.
I don‟t know whether to go to the party or
Also: show/tell/ask someone
what/how/where to do something.
- Carl, show me how to change the film in
- Ask Jack. He‟ll tell you what to do.
He promised to go, his promise to go
Some nouns can come before a to-infinitive.
Verb + to-infinitive
Mark promised to go shopping.
But then he arranged to play golf.
Noun + to-infinitive
Mark forgot about his promise to go
Sarah found out about his arrangement to
Here are some nouns we can use:
arrangement agreement decision demand
desire failure offer plan promise refusal
Verb + Object + to-infinitive
want ask expect help mean (=intend)
would like would prefer would hate would love
There are two possible structures after these verbs:
Verb + to-infinitive
I asked to see the manager.
We expected to be late.
He would like to come.
Verb + object + to-infinitive
I asked Tom to help me.
We expected him to be late.
He would like me to come.
After help you can use the infinitive with or
Can somebody help me (to) move this table?
Be especially careful with want.
Do not say ‘want that…’
Everyone wanted him to win the race. (NOT
‘wanted that he won’)
tell remind force enable persuade
order warn invite teach (how)
These verbs have the structure
verb + object + to-infinitive
Remind me to phone Ann tomorrow.
Who taught you to drive?
He wanted me not to touch anything.
This structure is also used in the passive.
I was warned not to touch anything.
BUT you cannot use suggest in the passive.
Tom suggested that I bought a car. (NOT
‘Tom suggested me to buy’)
advise recommend encourage allow
There are two possible structures after these
verb + -ing (without an object)
He doesn‟t allow smoking in his house.
I wouldn‟t recommend staying at that hotel.
verb + object + to-infinitive
He doesn‟t allow anyone to smoke in his
I wouldn‟t recommend you to stay at that
Make and let
These verbs have the structure
verb + object + infinitive (without to)
Hot weather makes me feel uncomfortable.
(= causes me to feel)
She wouldn‟t let me read the letter. (= allow
me to read)
Remember that make and let have the
infinitive without to.
They made me do it. (NOT ‘they made me
to do it’)
Tom let me drive his car yesterday. (NOT
‘Tom let me to drive’)
BUT in the passive make has the infinitive
I only did it because I was made to do it.
Infinitive or –ing? – like, would like
like hate enjoy can’t bear dislike love
mind can’t stand
These verbs and expressions are often
followed by –ing, however after love and
can’t bear, you can use to-infinitive.
I love meeting people.
I love to meet people.
She can’t bear being alone.
She can’t bear to be alone.
We usually say ‘I like doing’ when ‘like’
Do you like cooking? (= do you enjoy it?)
When ‘like’ does not mean ‘enjoy’, we use ‘I
like to do’.
I like to do something = I find it is good or
right to do something.
I like to wash my hair twice a week. (This
doesn’t mean that I enjoy it)
Would like is followed by to-infinitive.
I would like to come to the party.
Notice the difference in meaning between I like
and I would like. I would like is a polite way of
saying I want.
I like playing tennis. (= I enjoy it in general)
I would like to play tennis today. (= I want to
We also use to-infinitive after
Would you prefer to have dinner now or later?
You can also say ‘I would like to have
done something’ (= I reger that I didn’t or
couldn’t do something).
It’s a pity we didn‟t visit Tom. I would like to
have seen him again.
The same structure is possible after
I‟d love to have gone to the party but it
Infinitive or –ing? – begin, start, intend,
continue, remember, try
begin start intend continue
These verbs can usually be followed by
–ing or to-infinitive.
The baby began crying.
The baby began to cry.
John intends buying a house.
John intends to buy a house.
Remember to do and remember doing
You remember to do something before you
do it. Remember to do something is the
opposite of ‘forget to do something’
I clearly remember locking the door before I
left. (= I locked it and now I clearly remember
You remember doing something after you
do it. I remember doing something = I did
something and now I remember it.
I clearly remember locking the door before I
left. (= I locked it and now I clearly remember
Try to do and try doing
Try to do = attempt to do, make an effort to
I was very tired. I tried to keep my eyes
open but I couldn‟t.
Try also means ‘do something as an experiment or
We tried every hotel in the town but they were all full.
(= we went to every hotel to see if they had a room)
If try (with this meaning) is followed by a verb, we
say try + -ing.
I‟ve got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin
but it didn‟t help. (= I took an aspirin to see if it would
stop my headache)
+ ing +full infinitive
remember have a memory in do something you are/were
your mind planning to
Do you remember Did you remember to say
seeing that comedy? sorry to James?
forget not be able to not do something you
remember a past are/were planning to do
event Oh, no! I forgot to invite
I‟d forgotten hearing Shelly!
stop stop an action interrupt an action to do
Stop crying – it‟s not something else
that bad. I was on my way to see
Maria and I stopped to get
her some flowers.
try do something to try make an effort to do
and solve a problem something
Have you tried talking I‟m trying to say I‟m sorry,
to her? but you won‟t listen!
+ ing +full infinitive
regret Regret doing something means Regret to do something means to
to be sorry because of something be sorry for something you are doing,
that happened in the past. e.g. giving bad news.
I regret spending all that money. We regret to inform you that we are
I‟ve got none left. not taking on any new staff at
mean Means doing something Mean to do something is the same
expresses the idea of one thing as to intend to do it.
resulting in another. I think Nick meant to break that
I‟m applying for a visa. It means glass. It didn‟t look like an accident.
filling in this form.
go on Go on doing something means Go on to do something means to
to continue doing it. do something else, to do the next
The teacher told everyone to be thing.
quiet, but they just went on The teacher introduced herself and
talking. went on to explain about the
need My shoes need cleaning. I need to clean my shoes.
This means that my shoes need This means that I must clean my
to be cleaned. shoes, I have to clean them.
Infinitive or –ing? – be afraid,
Be afraid to do and be afraid of –ing
I am afraid to do something = I don’t want
to do something because it is dangerous or
the result could be unpleasant.
The streets in the city are not safe at night.
Many people are afraid to go out alone.
(= they don’t want to go out alone because it
I am afraid of something happening = there is a
possibility that something bad will happen.
I don‟t like dogs. I‟m always afraid of being bitten.
(NOT ‘afraid to be bitten’)
So, you are afraid to do something because you
are afraid of something happening as a result.
Need to do and need –ing
I need to do something = it is necessary for
me to do something.
I need to take more exercise.
Need -ing = need to be done (so the
meaning is passive).
This jacket is rather dirty. It needs cleaning.
(= needs to be cleaned)
I tried to be serious but I couldn’t help
Help is followed by the infinitive with or
without to (bare infinitive).
Can somebody help me (to) move this
But there is also an expression ‘can’t help
doing something’. I can’t help doing
something = I can’t stop myself from doing
To apologize for something we are doing,
we use a to-infinitive.
I‟m sorry to tell you this, but your test score
is rather low.
To express regret, we also use a to-infinitive.
I was sorry to hear that Mike‟s uncle had
To apologize for something we did, we can
use about + -ing-form
I‟m sorry about making all that noise last
night. (OR I‟m sorry I made all that noise last
Infinitive of purpose
We use to + infinitive to talk about the
purpose of doing something (= why
someone does something).
She telephoned me to invite me to party.
We also use to + infinitive to talk about the
purpose of something, or why someone
The minister has two bodyguards to
You can also use in order to + infinitive.
We shouted in order to warn everyone of the
Do NOT use for in these sentences.
I‟m going to Spain to learn Spanish.
(NOT ‘for learning/for to learn’)
We also use to-infinitive to say what can
be done or must be done with something.
It‟s usually difficult to find a place to park in
the city centre.
We also say time/money/energy to do
They gave me some money to buy some
food. (NOT ‘for buying’)
Sometimes you have to use so that
(NOT to + infinitive) to talk about the purpose
of doing something. We use so that:
a)when the purpose is negative (so that …
I hurried so that I wouldn’t be late.
(= because I didn’t want to be late)
b) with can and could (so that…
He‟s learning English so that he can study in
the United States.
c) when one person does something so that
another person does something else.
I gave him my address so that he could
Prefer and would rather
Prefer to do and prefer doing
You can use ‘prefer to do’ or ‘prefer doing’
to say what you prefer in general.
‘Prefer to do’ is more usual.
I don‟t like cities. I prefer to live (OR prefer
living) in the country.
I prefer (doing) something to (doing)
BUT: I prefer to do something rather than
(do) something else.
Tom prefers to drive rather than travel by
I prefer to live in the country rather than
(live) in a city.
Would prefer (to do)
Use ‘would prefer to do’ to say what
someone wants to do in a particular situation
(not in general).
- „Shall we go by train?‟ „Well, I’d prefer to
go by car.‟ (NOT „going‟)
Would rather (do) = would prefer to do.
After would rather we use the infinitive
without to (bare infinitive).
I‟m tired. I‟d rather not go out this evening, if
you don‟t mind.
Note the structure: I’d rather do something
than (do) something else.
I‟d rather stay at home than go to the
Would rather someone did something
When you want someone else to do
something, you can say I’d rather you did…
OR I’d rather he did… etc. We use the past
in this structure but the meaning is present or
future, not past.
I‟d rather cook the dinner now.
I‟d rather you cooked the dinner now.
(NOT „I‟d rather you cook‟)
I’d rather you didn’t tell anyone what I said.
„Shall I stay here?‟ „Well, I‟d rather you came
Had better do something it’s time
someone did something
Had better do something
The meaning of had better (I’d better) is
similar to should. ‘I’d better do something’ = I
should do something or it is advisable for me to
do something; if I don’t do this, something bad
I have to meet Tom in ten minutes. I‟d better
go now or I‟ll be late.
„Shall I take an umbrella?‟ „Yes, you’d better. It
The negative form is had better not (‘d better
You don‟t look very well. You‟d better not go to
The form is always ‘had better’ (usually
’d better in spoken English). We say had but
the meaning is present or future, not past.
I‟d better go to the bank this afternoon.
Remember that had better is followed by the
infinitive without to.
It might rain. We’d better take an umbrella.
(NOT „better to take‟)
You can say ‘it’s time (for someone) to do
It‟s time to go home.
It‟s time for us to go home.
There is another structure: It’s time someone
It‟s nearly midnight. It’s time we went home.
We use the past (went) after It’s time someone…,
but the meaning is present or future, not past.
Why are you still in bed? It’s time you got up.
(NOT „time you get up‟)
We use the structure It’s time someone did
something especially when we are complaining
or criticizing or when we think someone should
have already done something.
It’s time the children were in bed. It‟s long after
You‟ve been wearing the same clothes for ages.
Isn’t it time you bought some new ones?
We also say:
‘It’s high time
someone did something’.
‘It’s about time
This makes the complaint or criticism stronger.
You‟re very selfish. It’s high time you realized
that you‟re not the most important person in the
See someone do and see someone
Tom got into the car and drove away. You saw this. You can say.
I saw Tom get into his car and drive away.
In this structure we use the infinitive (get, drive, etc.)
Someone did something
I saw someone do something
I saw this
Remember that we use the infinitive without to.
I saw her go out. (NOT ‘to go out’)
But after a passive (‘he was seen’ etc.) we use to-infinitive.
She was seen to go out.
Yesterday you saw Ann. She was waiting
for a bus. You can say.
I saw Ann waiting for a bus.
In this structure we use –ing (waiting).
Someone was doing something
I saw someone doing something
I saw this
‘I saw him do something’ = he did something
(past simple) and I saw this. I saw the complete
action from beginning till the end.
The accident happened. We saw this.
We saw the accident happen.
„I saw him doing something‟ = he did
something (past continuous) and I saw this. I
saw him when he was in the middle of doing
something. This does not mean that I saw the
He was walking along the street. I saw this
when I drove past in my car.
I saw him walking along the street.
The difference is not always important.
Sometimes you can use either form:
I‟ve never seen Tom dance.
I‟ve never seen Tom dancing.
We use these structures especially with
see and hear, and also with watch, listen to,
feel and notice.
I didn‟t hear you come in.
I could hear it raining.
Did you notice anyone go out?
Listen to the birds singing!
After smell and find you can use the –ing
Can you smell something burning?
She found him reading her letters.
Chance and opportunity
Chance to do something
We use ‘chance to do something’ when
chance = time or opportunity to do something
(‘Chance of –ing’ is less with this meaning)
We didn‟t have much chance to talk to each
other when we last met. (= we didn’t have
much time/ opportunity to talk)
We normally say ‘opportunity to do
something’ (opportunity of –ing is also
I have the opportunity to study in the
United States for a year. Do you think I
should go? (= the chance to study)
You can also say any/ no/ little/ much/
plenty of/ more opportunity.
We live near the mountains, so we have
plenty of opportunity to go skiing.
Do NOT say ‘possibility to do something’.
I had the opportunity to study in Canada.
(NOT ‘possibly to study’)
Question word + to + infinitive
Structures with what to do, where to go,etc.
Before the question word we can use a verb
ask decide discover discuss explain find out
forget know learn remember say think
It was a real problem. I couldn‟t think what to do.
We were wondering where to park the car.
Sometimes there is the verb + object before
the question word.
In this structure we can use advice, ask,show,
teach and tell.
Tom showed me how to change a wheel.
The guide didn‟t tell the tourists when to be
back at the coach.
Before the question word we can also use
the adjectives clear, obvious and sure and
the expressions have an idea and make up
Claire doesn‟t have much idea how to cook.
A preposition can come before the question
You need to be informed about what to do in an
Why, what, whose, which and whether
We cannot use why before a to-infinitive.
No one could explain why we had to wait.
(NOT ‘No one could explain why to wait’)
After what, which, whose, how many and
how much, we can use a noun.
We wondered whose story to believe –both
drivers said it wasn‟t their fault.
It‟s difficult to know how much luggage to
take with you.
We can use whether but not if.
We‟ll have to decide whether to go ahead
with the project. (NOT ‘We’ll have to decide if
to go ahead’)
Adjective + to-infinitive
It is easy to drive the car
An adjective + to-infinitive often comes in
this structure with it + be.
It‟s important to look in the mirror.
It‟s lovely to see you.
The subject can also be a person.
I‟m delighted to see you.
We‟re ready to start now.
The car is easy to drive
It is easy to drive the car.
The car is easy to drive.
We do not use it in the second sentence.
(NOT ‘The car is easy to drive it’ and
NOT ‘The car it is easy to drive’)
The ladder is quite safe to use.
Your writing is difficult to read.
We can use this structure with adjectives
meaning ‘good’ or ‘bad’, e.g. awful, bad,
exciting, fascinating, good, marvellous,
We can also use it with these adjectives:
cheap, convenient, dangerous, difficult,
easy, expensive, impossible, safe, simple.
Certain, sure and likely
We can use a to-infinitive after certain, sure,
likely and unlikely.
United are certain/ sure to win. (= They will
Sarah is likely to be at work. (= She is
probably at work)
For and of
After some adjectives we can use
for + object + to-infinitive.
It‟s important for drivers to take care.
It isn‟t safe for children to play on ladders.
After an adjective describing how someone
behaves (e.g. polite, silly), we can use of.
It was polite of Emma to write and thank us.
(Emma was polite)
It was silly of me to forget the tickets.
(I was silly)
For with the to-infinitive
For expressing purpose
We can use this structure to say why
something is done (to express purpose).
Mark photocopied the figures for the Sales
Manager to have a look at.
(= He photocopied the figures so that the
Sales Manager could have a look at them).
Too and enough
We can use too and enough with this structure.
The road is too busy for the children to cross
Unfortunately the table was too small for all of
us to sit round.
For and of
We often use After an adjective saying how
for + object + to-infinitive after someone behaves, we use
an adjective. of + object + to-infinitive.
Would it be possible for you to It‟s kind of Melanie to put you up
move your car, please? for the night. (Melanie is kind.)
Compare these two sentences.
It was good for you to come It was good of you to come jogging
jogging. with me. (= It was a kind action by
(= It was good for your health) you)
Some of the adjectives we can use Some of the adjectives can be
with for: used with of:
anxious, awful, cheap, brave, careless, clever,
convenient, dangerous, foolish, generous, good,
difficult, eager, easy, helpful, honest, intelligent,
exciting, expensive, friendly, kind, mean, nice, polite,
good, happy, horrible, sensible, silly, stupid, wrong
necessary, nice, normal,
polite, possible, ready, safe,
sensible, silly, stupid,
terrible, useful, willing,
Used to do and be used doing
Used to do
Used + to-infinitive means that something
happened regularly or went on for a time in the
I used travel means that in the past I regularly
travelled, BUT I no longer do so.
We used to play this game when we were
I used to like fish, but I never eat it now.
We cannot use this structure in the present
Claire travels a lot.
‘Claire uses to travel a lot.’
We normally use didn’t use to in negatives
and did … use to in questions.
We didn’t use to have computers.
We never used to have computers.
Where did people use to buy their food
before the supermarket was built?
Be used to doing
Be used to + -ing form means that something
is familiar and is no longer strange. I’m used
to travelling means that travelling is no
longer strange or difficult because I have done
it for so long.
We‟re used to getting up early. We do it
every day. NOT „We‟re used to get up early.‟
We can also say get used to talk about
things becoming more familiar.
It was difficult at first, but Mike soon got
used to working at night.