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Gkn Driveline

  1. 1. STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE FOR BELL, TULIP AND LEAN MANUFACTURING (5S) By Mayank Upadhyay 10-ME-062 Rohit Verma 10-ME-105 Internship-II Course AT GKN Driveline India Ltd, Faridabad Plant LINGAYA’S UNIVERSITY, FARIDBAD SESSION 2013-2014 1
  3. 3. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project Report title STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE FOR BELL, TULIP AND LEAN MANUFACTURING(5S) (S.O.P.B.T.L.M) submitted by Mayank Upadhyay and Rohit Verma in partial fulfillment of the requirements of (Internship-ll) at GKN Driveline India Ltd, Faridabad Plant as part of the degree of Bachelors of Technology in Mechanical of Lingaya’s University Session 2013-2014 is a record of bonafide work carried out under our supervision and has not been submitted anywhere else for any other purpose. Mr. K.D.Varshney Dr. V.C.Jha Manager, GKN Driveline India Ltd Faculty, Lingayas University Mr. Ashok Gupta Senior Supervisor, GKN Driveline India Ltd 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project involved the collection and analysis of information from a wide variety of sources and the efforts of many people beyond us. Thus it would not have been possible to achieve the results reported in this document without their help, support and encouragement. We will like to express my gratitude to the following people for their help in the work leading to this report  Mr. K.D. Varshney and Mr. Ashok Gupta (Manager) for their cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped us in completing this task through various stages.    We are obliged to staff members of GKN Driveline for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. We are grateful for their cooperation during the period of our internship.    Dr. V.C. Jha for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant  encouragement throughout the course of this internship. .We thank him for his support, cooperation, and motivation provided to me during the training for constant inspiration, presence and blessings. 4
  5. 5. ABSTRACT The purpose of the Project is to explain the process of manufacturing a Drive Shaft in detail, its various parts and their working. It contains all the processes performed during formation of a Drive Shaft. It mainly emphasizes on the Inner Joint i.e. Tulip and its working. The various machining processes performed on Tulip at GKN Driveline India Ltd, Faridabad Plant. The project also explains about Lean that is the set of "tools" that assist in the identification and steady elimination of waste (muda). As waste is eliminated quality improves while production time and cost are reduced. Examples of such "tools" are Value Stream Mapping, Five S, Kanban (pull systems), and poka-yoke (error- proofing). Lean is a Culture, a Philosophy, a Mindset and a Way of Life. It’s more than just manufacturing. 5
  6. 6. CONTENTS COVER PAGE CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 14-17 1. History 14 2. Product, Research and Development 15 a) CVJ Systems and AWD Systems 16 b) Trans Axle Solutions and eDrive 17 CHAPTER 2: CV JOINTS 18-27 1 . Drive Shaft 18 2 . Automotive Drive Shafts 18 a) Vehicles 18 b) Front-wheel drive 19 3 . Constant Velocity Joint 19 a) History 19 b) The first CV joints 20 c) How a CV Joint Works 26 CHAPTER 3: ELEMENTS OF CV JOINTS 28-34 1 .The Outer Joint 28 2 . The Inner Joint 32 CHAPTER 4: STANDARD OPERATION ON BELL 35-46 1). Raw Material 35 6
  7. 7. 2.) Forging 36 3) Milling 37 CHAPTER 5: STANDARD OPERATION ON TULIP 47-57 1) . Raw Material 47 2) . Sequence of operation 47 3) . Machining processes performed on a tulip 47 a) Rolling Splines 47 b) Grooving 47 c) Induction Hardening 48 d) Marking 49 e) OD Grinding 50 f) Crack Detection 51 CHAPTER 6: LEAN MANUFACTURING (5S) 58-61 1) 5s in Workplace 59 2) Five pillars of visual Worlplace 60 CHAPTER7:REFRENCES 62
  8. 8. LIST OF FIGURES Chapter 1 Fig 1 Input Product to Output Product 15 Fig 2 Sales and Region 17 CHAPTER 2: CV JOINTS Fig 3 CV Joint 20 Fig 4 Over head view illustrating the position of CV Joints 21 Fig 5 Location of the CV shaft 22 Fig 6 Parts of a tripod joint 23 Fig 7 Parts of a Drive Shaft 24 Fig 8 Turning effect of steering 25 Fig 9 Angle variation due to Steering 27 CHAPTER 3: ELEMENTS OF CV JOINTS Fig 10 Showing parts of a cv joint 28 Fig 11 Bell 29 Fig 12 Inner Race 30 Fig 13 Cage 30 Fig 14 Boot 31 Fig 15 Male and Female Tulip 33 Fig 16 Cross-section of Male and Female Tulip 33 Fig 17 Tulip 34 Fig 18 Spider Assembly 34 CHAPTER 4: STANDARD OPERATIONS ON BELL Fig 19 Raw material of Bell 35 Fig 20 Rolling and Thread Spline 36 Fig 21 Washing of Component 37 Fig 22 Induction Hardening 38 Fig 23 Heating and Quenching period 39 8
  9. 9. Fig 24 Marking Machine 41 Fig 25 Tempering 42 Fig 26 OD Turning 43 Fig 27 XLO Hard MT Milling Machine 44 Fig 28 Hard Miller 44 Fig 29 Crank Check 45 Fig 30 Oiling Process 46 Fig 31 Modified Outer Race Profile 47 CHAPTER 5: Manufacturing of Male Tulip Fig 32 Nachi Rolling Machine 48 Fig 33 ACE Grooving Machine 48 Fig 34 Kelleys Washing Machine 49 Fig 35 EFD Induction Hardening Machine 49 Fig 36 New Quench Ring for Induction Hardening 50 Fig 37 Titan Marking Machine 50 Fig 38 Parishudh Grinding Machine 51 Fig 39 Magnaflux Crank Detection Machine 51 Fig 40 Modified Male Tulip Profile 52 Fig 41 Previous Profile of Female Tulip 53 Fig 42 Modified Profile of Female Tulip 53 Fig 43 Previous Length 55 Fig 44 Modified Length 55 Fig 45 Plunge Angle Diagram of LH Side 55 Fig 46 Plunge Angle Diagram of RH Side 55 CHAPTER 6: Lean Manufacturing (5S) Fig 47 Lean & 5S 68 Fig 48 5S 69
  11. 11. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION GKN Driveline GKN Driveline is a multinational automotive components manufacturer specialized in drivelines and a division of GKN plc. It employs around 22,000 people at 57 locations across 23 countries. GKN Driveline is the world's largest producer of constant-velocity joints, which it pioneered for use in automobiles. Its other products include side shafts, power transfer units, prop shafts, couplings, and disconnects, differentials, electric rear axles and electric drive transmissions. 1. History The origin of GKN (Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds) goes back to 1759, and the founding of the Dowlais Ironworks by the industrialists Thomas Lewis and Isaac Wilkinson. It has changed shape and direction many times to hold its place in the engineering industry. The company took part in the railway boom in the early 1800s with its production of iron, then steel in the 1860s and, after the First World War, moved into the 20th century with the great new industry - the automotive industry. It was the start of the company’s globalization. The GKN Group had to expand into the automotive industry not only because of the growth of this business, but also to move with these more sophisticated products in the Commonwealth – mainland Europe and North America. GKN evolved geographically from its British base in the early nineteenth century to the USA and Western Europe. In the 20th century expansion continued to Japan and the rest of Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Maintaining its technology leadership, GKN Driveline produced a new generation of CVJ Systems which were smaller, lighter and more efficient – and globally available. There is widespread recognition that GKN Driveline products are technically superior, manufactured and delivered throughout the world. GKN Driveline was one of the first companies to recognize the importance 14
  12. 12. of the emerging Latin American and Asian markets and to understand that the cornerstone of competitiveness was the relentless, incremental enhancement of products and processes. With the Asian financial crisis GKN Driveline took the opportunity to accelerate its growth in the new rapidly emerging markets. As one of the first foreign owned automotive components company, GKN establish a manufacturing presence in China in 1988. At the same time GKN Driveline was investing in and growing its business in India, Brazil and Mexico. 2. Products, Research and Development Fig 1- Input Product to Output Product a) CVJ Systems and AWD Systems: Constant-Velocity Systems transfer power from the engine to the wheels, allowing articulation and movement from steering and suspension. The three major elements are: Inboard Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ) including lubrication and sealing systems, Interconnecting shafts and Outboard Constant Velocity Joint (CVJ) including lubrication and sealing system. The Inboard Joint is a plunging joint that allows the effective length of the side shaft to adjust due to suspension movement. The Outboard Joint needs to transfer power effectively through a wide range of angles (up to 53 degrees). 15
  13. 13. All Wheel Drive Systems are for all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicles. GKN Driveline has unique developments for partial or full AWD vehicles. As a solutions provider with advanced technology, innovation and a depth of understanding in AWD Systems, GKN Driveline is a key partner for the world’s vehicle manufacturers. Within AWD Systems, GKN Driveline offers one, two or three-piece high speed prop shafts made from steel, aluminum or composite tubes. b) Trans Axle Solutions and eDrive They cover an extensive range of Open Differentials, Limited Slip and Locking Differentials, and advanced products like electronic torque vectoring.[6] The wide range of differentials available is used in passenger cars, Sports car (SUVs) and Light truck. Limited Slip and Locking Differentials are designed to improve vehicle traction and handling performance on all surfaces and under all driving conditions. They ensure driving and breaking power is effectively distributed across the axle to the wheels, therefore providing unsurpassed levels of stability, handling, traction and overall vehicle control. eDrive Systems are the solutions from Driveline, which include advanced technology centered on continuous improvement and innovation in the application of alternative power and sustainable energy in systems that deliver performance. Major success is the developing families of eAxles and eTransmissions across multiple customer programmes. EAxles support the electrification of a vehicle as secondary driven axle while the primary engine is still a combustion engine and therefore can be disconnected. ETransmissions on the contrary manage the torque on the primary axle of fully electrified vehicles. The eAxle drive module is a compact, lightweight Gear with an actively controlled clutch for electric motor assisted AWD. The eAxle unit for axle split Hybrid electric vehicle incorporates a proprietary disconnect clutch technology, which facilitates on-demand all-wheel- drive (AWD) use and contributes to the overall all-terrain functionality and fuel efficiency. Electric drive transmissions can transmit up to 300 kW of power; they are available with ratios up to 14 and can be matched with E-motors from various suppliers to allow flexible application. 16
  14. 14. Through the global research and new product development located in Asia, Europe and the Americas, GKN Driveline develops solutions to improve driving dynamics for the future. Fig 2- Sales and Region 17
  15. 15. CHAPTER 2: CV JOINTS 1. Drive shaft A driveshaft or a driving shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. Drive shafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts frequently incorporate one or more universal joints, jaw couplings, or rag joints, and sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint. 2. Automotive drive shafts a) Vehicles An automobile may use a longitudinal shaft to deliver power from an engine/transmission to the other end of the vehicle before it goes to the wheels. A pair of short drive shafts is used to send power from central differential, transmission, or transaxle to the wheels. b) Front-wheel drive In British English, the term "drive shaft" is restricted to a transverse shaft that transmits power to the wheels, especially the front wheels. A drive shaft connecting the gearbox to a rear differential is called a propeller shaft, or prop-shaft. A prop- 18
  16. 16. shaft assembly consists of a propeller shaft, a slip joint and one or more universal joints. Where the engine and axles are separated from each other, as on four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive vehicles, it is the propeller shaft that serves to transmit the drive force generated by the engine to the axles. A drive shaft connecting a rear differential to a rear wheel may be called a half shaft. The name derives from the fact that two such shafts are required to form one rear axle. Several different types of drive shaft are used in the automotive industry:  One-piece drive shaft    Two-piece drive shaft    Slip-in-tube drive shaft  The slip-in-tube drive shaft is a new type that also helps in crash energy management. It can be compressed in the event of a crash, so is also known as a collapsible drive shaft. 3. Constant-velocity joint a) History: Early front wheel drive systems such as those used on the Citroën Traction Avant and the front axles of Land Rover and similar four wheel drive vehicles used universal joints, where a cross-shaped metal pivot sits between two forked carriers. These are not CV joints as, except for specific configurations, they result in a variation of the angular velocity. They are simple to make and can be tremendously strong, and are still used to provide a flexible coupling in some prop shafts, where there is not very much movement. However, they become "notchy" and difficult to turn when operated at extreme angles, and need regular maintenance.[citation needed] They also need more complicated support bearings when used in drive axles, and could only be used in rigid axle designs. 19
  17. 17. b) The first CV joints : As front wheel drive systems became more popular, with cars such as the BMC Mini using compact tr ansverse engine layouts, the shortcomings of universal joints in front axles became m ore and more apparent. Based on a desig n by Alfred H. Rzeppa which was filed for patent in 1927[1] (a CV joint, the Tracta joint, designed by Pierre Fenaille at Jean-Alber t Grégoire's Tracta company was filed fo r patent in 1926[2]), constant velocity joints solved many of these problems. The y allowed a smooth transfer of power des pite the wide range of angles through whic h they were bent. Fig 3- CV Joint Universal joint, or U-joint, is t he general name for a mechanism that transmits torque from one shaft to another when the shafts meet at a point but m ay be at a considerable angle with one another. If the angle is constant, bevel gear s satisfy the requirement very well, but ca nnot be used when the angle varies in service. A simple U-joint for small shafts can b e a length of rubber tubing slipped over the ends of the shafts. Clearly, this cannot b e used for serious machinery. The most fa miliar U-joint is the Hooke, Cardan or Hardy-Spicer joint. The ends of the shafts are fo rked in a U- shape, and joined by a cross- shaped piece with four bearings, two in each fork. This works very well when the an gle between the shafts is small, and its f unctioning is easy to understand. U joints of this kind are used in the Hotchkiss rear-wheel drive 20
  18. 18. for cars, with one at each end of the propeller shaft. The drive flexibility accommodates the springing of the rear wheels. All front-wheel drive cars have Constant Velocity joints or CV joints on both ends of the drive shafts (half shafts). Inner CV joints connect the drive shafts to the transmission; while the outer CV joints connect the drive shafts to the drive wheels (see the picture). Many rear- and four-wheel drive cars and trucks also have CV joints. Fig 4- Over head view illustrating the position of CV Joints The CV joints are needed to transfer the torque from the transmission to the drive wheels at a constant speed, while accommodating the up-and-down motion of the suspension. In front-wheel drive cars, the CV joints also have to be able to deliver the torque to the front wheels during turns. There are two most commonly used types of CV joints: a ball-type and a tripod-type. Ball-type CV joints are commonly used on the outer side of the drive shafts, while the tripod-type CV joints mostly used on the inner side of the drive shafts in front-wheel drivecars. A CV joint is packed with grease and sealed tight by the rubber or plastic boot. A CV joint doesn't need any maintenance and can last very long, as long as the protective CV joint boot is not damaged. A most common problem with the CV joints is when 21
  19. 19. the protective boot gets damaged. Once this happens, the grease comes out and the moisture and dirt come in, causing the CV joint to wear faster and eventually fail due to lack of lubrication and corrosion. Usually the outer CV joint boot breaks first, as it has to endure more movement than the inner one. One of the early signs of a broken CV joint boot is dark grease splattered on the inner side of the rims and around the inside of a drive wheel; around the area where the CV joint is located. If you take your car for maintenance to a repair shop regularly, your mechanic can spot the problem early and let you know. Sometimes you can see the cracks and signs of wear on the boots before they break. Fig 5- Location of the CV shaft If a damaged CV joint boot caught early, simply replacing the boot and repacking the CV joint with fresh grease is all that is usually needed to fix the problem. If the car is 22
  20. 20. continued to be driven with a damaged CV joint boot, the CV joint will eventually fail. A most common symptom of a badly-worn CV joint is a clicking or popping noise when turning. Usually the noise gets louder when accelerating in turns. In worst cases, a badly-worn CV joint can even disintegrate while driving causing the vehicle to stop; I've seen this happening few times. A damaged CV joint is not repairable. It will have to be replaced with a new or a reconditioned part. Sometimes, the CV joint does not come separately. In this case, the whole drive shaft will usually need to be replaced. CV joints must transfer power efficiently; otherwise, energy would be lost and gas mileage would plummet. Efficiency is created through a number of designs employing precision-made components. CV joints are needed for steering and usually last a long time; however, if the rubber boot surrounding the CV joint should get damaged, the joint probably won't last much longer. Dirt and debris from the road get into the joint and begin scraping the bearings. Next, the bearings lose their shape, further damaging the joint. Finally, the telltale clicking sounds come with each turn. This joint is compact and as it can operate efficiently at high speed, it is more common in vehicles. The joint provides good resistance to high-speed centrifugal effects. The design of this joint, and manufacturing with the reduced working clearances provide a transmission drive line with good noise-vibration harshness (NVH) performance. Fig 6- Parts of a tripod joint 23
  21. 21. The construction illustrated in Fig incorporates three armed support (tripod) carrying the spherically shaped rollers, fixed to the outer housing. On both sides of each driving fork, which also has three arms, grooves are cut to form a bearing track for the rollers. The force exerted by the side of the driving fork on the rollers produces the drive through the joint. This force is transmitted to the tripod and joint housing. Changes in the drive angle causes the roller to move backwards and forwards along the grooved track as the joint rotates through one revolution. A small clearance is given between the roller and track to permit this movement. The tripod joint provides constant velocity motion because of the path taken by the rollers with respect to the contact point on the track. This type of fixed joint can work occasionally up to a drive angle of about 45 degrees. Fig 7- Parts of a Drive Shaft 24
  22. 22. The CV joint allows the driving wheel to steer whilst maintaining constant velocity from the transmission box. The driveshaft has an outboard CV joint (OJ), an inboard CV joint (IJ), and the two are connected by the bar- the joints are each protected by a neoprene bellowed boot. Each CV joint needs to operate in a fairly luxurious bath of lubricant (grease) intended especially for the CV operation. The special lube is retained by the boot, which is secured to thehousing of the joint with a large metal band, and to the bar with a small metal band. On front wheel drive vehicles the outboard CV joint being connected to the steered wheel has to have a much wider operating angle in comparison to the inboard CV joint, which is connected to the gearbox. Fig 8- Turning effect of steering It is simply because the outer joint may have to turn up to 50 degrees off centre when the front wheels are steered, whilst the inboard CV joint, by comparison, rarely sees an operating angle of more than about 20 degrees. Just imagine your lower arm being the bar, your elbow as the inner CV joint, and your wrist as the outer CV joint: the operating angle of the elbow is rather restricted compared to the wrist. Consequently, different types of CV joint designs may be used for the inner and outer CV joints. 25
  23. 23. c) How a CV Joint Works: "CV joint" is short for constant-velocity joint, an example of a type of mechanisms that connects two intersecting rotating shafts making an angle with one another, especially when this angle varies in service. CV joints are now very widely used in front-wheel drive cars at the connection of a half-axle with a wheel. They transmit torque evenly when the wheel moves in steering or suspension. For a brief description of a typical CV joint, see the link to the Wikipedia article given in the References. Neither this article, nor those I searched for on Google, actually explained how the CV joint worked. This article presents my best understanding at the moment, which is certainly not complete. Nearly parallel shafts may be joined with flexible couplings, which provide a small amount of angular, torsional and longitudinal flexibility to ease alignment difficulties. There are many types of flexible couplings, such as Thomas or Oldham couplings. The Thomas coupling uses a flexible laminated steel ring, the Oldham a cross- keyed steel slider. Such couplings do not provide sufficient angular flexibility for automotive applications, but are widely used in machinery. The difficulty with the Cardan joint is that the output angular velocity of the driven shaft is not constant when the angle between the shafts is not small, but pulsates twice in every revolution. Generally, Cardan joints are restricted to angles of 15° or less. As a result, the Cardan joint is not satisfactory for transmitting torque to a front wheel, when the wheel may turn at up to 30° or even more on its kingpin, not to mention the angular motion with such a short half-axle when the wheel moves up and down. The solution to this problem is a new kind of joint, invented around 1928 by A. H. Rzeppa at Ford Motors. This is the ball-and-groove CV joint for which input and output angular velocities are equal at all angles of rotation. A similar joint is the Bendix-Weiss joint. The Rzeppa joint consists of a spherical ball and socket connected by six steel balls that run in longitudinal grooves in the ball and socket, and which are held in a cage between the ball and socket. One shaft is connected with the socket, the other with 26
  24. 24. the ball, usually by a splined shaft allowing some longitudinal motion. The cage always assumes a position making equal angles with the input and output shafts. This is probably the result of the shape of the grooves in which the balls move (as in the Bendix-Weiss joint, which uses four balls and a central ball to handle the thrust), but I do not know the reason for this exactly in the Rzeppa joint. As the joint rotates, the individual balls move backwards and forwards along the grooves, with greater amplitudes for greater angles. The position of the balls is indicated in the fig on the right. The input shaft rotates the balls, which drive the output shaft. Since the relation of the balls to the shafts is the same for input and output, they must revolve at the same rate. When the angle between the shafts is zero, the balls are in the equatorial plane and only rotate about the axis, not moving backwards and forwards in the grooves. Centrifugal force would keep the balls in the desired location, but I am not sure if it can be relied upon to do this. CV joints are usually lubricated with MoS2 grease, and give remarkably little trouble. Front wheel drive cars utilize front drive axles with CV (constant velocity) joints. A CV joint utilizes a grease boot that supplies grease for lubrication for the joint. When this boot fails it can fling grease to the inner fender well and the back side of the tire. 27 Fig 9- Angle v ariation due toSteering
  25. 25. CHAPTER 3: ELEMENTS OF CV JOINTS 1. The Outer Joint (OJ) The most common type of outer CV joint is the “Rzeppa” style, also known as Cardan joint. A Dana engineer named Alfred H. Rzeppa invented this type of joint in 1920. Rzeppa designed a joint in which the input speed and output speed are delivered by a single universal joint1 in which all rotational velocities are the same, hence the term constant velocity. The French introduced the use of the bear-claw housing, which has a fixed tripod with three longer arms. The bear-claw is friction welded / fused to the bar, which is a far stronger method than surface welding. With this design the drive bar and housing of the outer CV joint are integrated. Both the race and the housing have a set of six tracks for the ball bearings. The balls are held in position by the small windows of the cage, which is a floating component located between the inner race and the outer race. Fig 10- Showing parts of a CV joint 28
  26. 26. The CV Joint is designed to allow power to be transmitted through six spherical balls (ball bearings) located between the race (inner race) and the housing (outer race). The cage, race and ball bearings are cased in the housing. The race has a set of internal splines, which fit the mating splines of the drive bar and is retained with a snapring or circlip – depending on the groove location (clip location). a). Bell: Fig 11- Bell This part of the driveshaft is assembled at the wheel end of the driveshaft also known as the CV Joint. The inside of the bell is machined for maximum travel and precise fit for the ball bearings. This travel optimizes the angle at which the joint can operate. These tracks are cut at an angle that allows the joint to travel through the entire range of motion without binding. For strength, the bell is heat treated after it is completely machined. 29
  27. 27. b). Inner Race: Fig 12- Inner Race The main processes performed on the Inner Race are OD grinding and Track Grinding. c). Cage: An internal component of ball type CV joints. The cage is an open metal framework with "windows" that position the balls and maintain their alignment inside the joint. The balls should fit snugly in the cage windows, and if they do not they will usually make a "clinking" noise when turning. Fig 13- Cage 30
  28. 28. Applied to the CV joint, CV Joint Cage props and enables smooth rotation of the ball bearings. The CV joint cage is spherical but with ends open, and typically has six openings around the perimeter. CV Joint cage is a key components of CV Joint, as it is easily breakable. CV joint cage is usually made of alloys with high intensity and carburized heat treated to enhance the durability. d). Circlip: A small wire ring on the end of the half shaft that helps retain the CV joint on the shaft. The circlip provides a "snap fit when the joint is installed. It should always be replaced when the joint is serviced. A circlip (a portmanteau of 'circle' and 'clip'), also known as a C-Clip, snap ring or Jesus clip,[1] is a type of fastener consisting of a semi-flexible metal ring with open ends which can be snapped into place, into a machined groove on a dowel pin or other part to permit rotation but to prevent lateral movement. There are two basic types: internal and external, referring to whether they are fitted into a bore or over a shaft. Circlips are often used to secure pinned connections. e). Boot: Definition: Also called bellows, these are the protective rubber (synthetic or natural) or hard plastic (usually Hytrel) covers that surround CV joints. The boot's job is to keep grease in and dirt and water out. Split, torn or otherwise damaged boots should be replaced immediately. Old boots should never be reused when servicing a joint. Always install new boots. It is secured with stainless steel clamps called cv boot clamp. Fig 14- Boot 31
  29. 29. The purpose of CV boot is to protect the internal components of the CV joint by retaining the lubricant, and also acting as a dust shied. CV boots have different shapes and sizes. The bellows on the boot determine the amount of movement the boot tolerates. The type of boot to be used depends on the CV joint type; boots either have locking lips or they are plain on the retaining profile. Most problems with CV joint is due to the CV boot getting broken, and the lubricant leaking out and getting dried, so inspect the cv joint boot and the lubricant periodically. 2. The Inner Joint (IJ) The gearbox side of the driveshaft has the inner CV joint, which is either a six-ball or a roller-pin (Tripod) arrangement. Both joint designs allow the inner race, which is mounted on the end of the shaft, to slide in and out so that the shaft can change length, which is indispensable due to the shaft being usually longer than the control arms on the suspension. The difference in the length would create interference problems every time the suspension moved up and down and the plunging action of these joints compensate for the difference. It enables power transmission even in case of angle shifting. Tripod Joint has needle bearing / barrel-shaped rollers mounted on a three-legged spider / three-pointed yoke, instead of balls bearings. These fit into a cup with three matching grooves, attached to the differential. The rollers are mounted at 120-degrees to one another and slide back and forth in tracks in an outer “tulip” housing. Also called a tripod joint, this is a type of CV joint that uses three roller bearings mounted on the three trunnions of a tripod to carry torque to an outer "tulip" housing (so called because of its lower-like shape). Tripod joints are available in both plunge and fixed versions. 32
  30. 30. Fig 15- Male and Female Tulip Inner joint types:  Six-ball arrangement joints    With male splines    With female splines    Velocity Linear (VL) joint  The design of the inner CV joint is different to the outer CV Joint, as it can have a tripodal or a six-ball arrangement, but the six-ball arrangement comprises of straight ball tracks. Furthermore, the inner CV Joints can have a male or female stub comprising of external or internal splines. Fig 16- Cross-section of Male and Female Tulip 33
  31. 31. Note: these technical drawings show the tripod inside rather than the traditional six-ball arrangement. They are shown here to illustrate the difference between male and female stub of the CV joints. a). Tulip: Tulip is assembles at the differential (engine) end of the driveshaft also known as the Inner Joint. The outer housing on a tripod CV joint. The tulip may be "closed" (encloses the roller bearings) or "open" (the tracks for the roller bearings are cut out of the housing) Fig 17- Tulip b). Spider Assembly: Fig 18- Spider Assembly The tripod CV joint has a three-armed trunnion, which is secured to the bar with a snap ring. Tripod CV joints do not have a six-ball configuration, instead they use needle rollers (roller pins) that run inside the shell bearings, which fit over the trunnions. The three spherical roller bearings are mounted at 120 degrees to one another and slide back and forth in the three tracks of the outer housing. The design itself is well suited to the limited operating angles of the inner CV joint location. 34
  32. 32. CHAPTER 4: Standard Operations on Bell 1.Raw material: This is the most important component for the operation, before come into the inventory. The raw material is going under the process of forging and milling. Forging: Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: "cold", "warm", or "hot" forging. Milling: The process of machining metal via non-abrasive rotary cutting, milling also refers to the process of breaking down, separating, sizing, or classifying aggregate material. For instance rock crushing or grinding to produce uniform aggregate size for construction purposes, or separation of rock, soil or aggregate material for the purposes of structural fill or land reclamation activities. Fig19- Raw material of bell 35
  33. 33. 2. Rolling and Threading(Spline Cutting): There are two types of splines, internal and external. External splines may be broached, shaped(for example on a gear shaping machine), milled, hobbed, rolled, ground or extruded. There are fewer methods available for manufacturing internal splines due to accessibility restrictions. Methods include those listed above with the exception of hobbing (no access). Often, with internal splines, the splined portion of the part may not have a through-hole, which precludes use of a pull / push broach or extrusion-type method. Also, if the part is small it may be difficult to fit a milling or grinding tool into the area where the splines are machined. To prevent stress concentrations the ends of the splines are chamfered (as opposed to an abrupt vertical end). Such stress concentrations are a primary cause of failure in poorly designed splines. TT Fig20- Rollingand Thread Spline 36
  34. 34. 3. Washing: Washing of components is essential to many industrial processes, as a prelude to surface finishing or to protect sensitive components. Electroplating is particularly sensitive to part cleanliness, since molecular layers of oil can prevent adhesion of the coating. ASTM B322 is a standard guide for cleaning metals prior to electroplating. Cleaning processes include solvent cleaning, hot alkaline detergent cleaning, electrocleaning, and acid etch. The most common industrial test for cleanliness is the waterbreak test, in which the surface is thoroughly rinsed and held vertical. Fig21- Washingof component 37
  35. 35. 4. Induction Hardening: Induction hardening involves passing a high-frequency alternating current through a suitably-shaped coil to induce rapid heating of the component surface situated appropriately within its electro-magnetic field. Depth of hardening is controlled by the parameters of the induction heating equipment, time of application and the harden ability of the material. Process: Induction heating is a non contact heating process which utilizes the principle of electromagnetic induction to produce heat inside the surface layer of a work-piece. By placing a conductive material into a strong alternating magnetic field, electrical current can be made to flow in the material thereby creating heat due to the I2R losses in the material. In magnetic materials, further heat is generated below the curie point due to hysteresis losses. The current generated flows predominantly in the surface layer, the depth of this layer being dictated by the frequency of the alternating field, the surface power density, the permeability of the material, the heat time and the diameter of the bar or material thickness. By quenching this heated layer in water, oil or a polymer based quench the surface layer is altered to form a martens tic structure which is harder than the base metal. There are five parameters that play major roles in obtaining the required hardness pattern: frequency, power, cycle time, coil geometry and quenching conditions. Fig22- Induction Hardening 38
  36. 36. The heating process does not affect the core structure. It is possible to heat a material locally where it is functionally desired. Other sectors of the material remain untreated and it is easy to machine them. Main advantages of induction hardening are: • Low distortion • Low risk of scaling • Localized hardening • Good reproducibility of hardening process • Easy integration in production line • Fully automatic process easily attainable • Easy to operate machines • Less harmful to the environment compared to other hardening processes Use of unalloyed steels. Definition: The components are heated by means of an alternating magnetic field to a temperature within or above the transformation range followed by immediate quenching. The core of the component remains unaffected by the treatment and its physical properties are those of the bar from which it was machined, whilst the hardness of the case can be within the range 37/58 HRC. Carbon and alloy steels with an equivalent carbon content in the range 0.40/0.45% are most suitable for this process. Fig 23- Heating and quenching period 39
  37. 37. 5. Marking and Laser Engraving: Laser engraving and marking, is the practice of using lasers to engrave or mark an object. The technique does not involve the use of inks nor does it involve tool bits which contact the engraving surface and wear out. These properties distinguish laser engraving from alternating engraving or making technologies where inks or bit heads have to be replaced regularly. The impact of laser engraving have been more pronounced for specially designed laserable materials. These includes laser sensitive polymers and novel metal alloys. The term laser marking is also used as a generic term covering a broad spectrum of surfacing techniques including printing, hot branding and laser bonding. The machines for laser engraving and laser marking are the same so that the two terms are usually interchangeable. Fig-24- MarkingMachine 40
  38. 38. 6. Tempering: It is a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys. It is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys. Tempering is usually performed after hardening, to reduce some of the excess hardness, and is done by heating the metal to a much lower temperature than was used for hardening. The exact temperature determines the amount of hardness removed, and depends on both the specific composition of the alloy and on the desired properties in the finished product. For instance, very hard tools are often tempered at low temperatures, while springs are tempered to much higher temperatures. In glass, tempering is performed by heating the glass and then quickly cooling the surface, increasing the toughness. Fig25- Tempering 41
  39. 39. 7. OD Turning: Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non- rotary tool bit, describes a helical toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. The tool's axes of movement may be literally a straight line, or they may be along some set of curves or angles, but they are essentially linear (in the nonmathematical sense). Usually the term "turning" is reserved for the generation of external surfaces by this cutting action, whereas this same essential cutting action when applied to internal surfaces (that is, holes, of one kind or another) is called "boring". Thus the phrase "turning and boring" categorizes the larger family of (essentially similar) processes. The cutting of faces on the workpiece (that is, surfaces perpendicular to its rotating axis), whether with a turning or boring tool, is called "facing", and may be lumped into either category as a subset. Fig26- OD Turning 42
  40. 40. 8. TRACK & ID TURNING: Machine used is X.L.O. Hard MT Milling machine. This machine is used to turn the inner diameter and tracks of the bell’s mouth. The inner diameter and track surface of bell is turned to make it shinning and smooth so that it offers less friction with mating part. Fig 27- X.L.O. Hard MT Milling Machine TOOLS USED:-  Tool holder  Orientation Unit  Collets  Rest Pad  ID Turning Inserts  Track Turning Inserts 9. Hard Miller: It is an important process in the operation. This includes mild hardening of the inventory undergoes in the hard miller machine. Fig28- Hard Miller 43
  41. 41. 10. Crack Check: Due to the age and stress of most engines we work on this method is needed to identify cracks in the cylinder heads, engine blocks, connecting rods and crankshafts as well as other pieces of the engine that need to be checked. The process uses an electrical current to produce magnetism in the part being checked, then a solution containing iron powder is sprayed over the part. Since the part is now magnetized the iron powder will get drawn onto the crack where using a black light the crack is plainly shown. Fig29- Crack Check 44
  42. 42. 11. Oiling: Oiling is the process, or technique employed to reduce wear of one or both surfaces in close proximity, and moving relative to each other, by interposing a substance called oiling between the surfaces to carry or to help carry the load (pressure generated) between the opposing surfaces. The interposed lubricant film can be a solid, (e.g. graphite, MoS2)[1] a solid/liquid dispersion, a liquid, a liquid-liquid dispersion (a grease) or, exceptionally, a gas. Fig30- OilingProcess 45
  43. 43. 12. FINISHED PRODUCT: Fig 31- Modified Outer Race Profile Original weight(Kgs) 1.200 Modified Component Weight(Kgs) 1.116 Reduction in Weight(Kgs) 0.084 46
  44. 44. CHAPTER 5: Manufacturing of Male Tulip Manufacturing of Male Tulip:- SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS  ROLLING:- Machine used is Nachi Rolling Machine In this operation, firstly V-block hold the job and then take the job in between a pair of thread rack and spline rack, which is fitted horizontally. Now it presses the job and moves in horizontal way. In this way splines and threads cut on the job. Spacer is very important tool because we make different type of models and every model size and length is different so by using this tool we can maintain length. These tools are also known as forming tool, because it gave shape as it own. These all tools are made up of high carbon steel. Fig.32- Nachi Rolling Machine  GROOVING:- Machine used is ACE Grooving machine In this operation, first the job is clamped in the fixture and the tailstock holds the job and then the insert present in the machine helps to make a groove of required diameter. The job is rotated in the machine after it is clamped in the fixture and speed of rotation of job can be maintained as per feed given to the job. With the help of this operation, Groove of required diameter is made with the help of required insert. Fig.33- ACE Grooving Machine 47
  45. 45.  WASHING:- Washing is used to remove oil and grease. For this purpose de- mineralized water is paid on the job to clean it. This operation is very important because for proper hardness of job i.e. in order to obtain desired hardness or property, it is necessary to remove oil, grease and any other foreign particles from the job before hardening. Fig.34- Kelleys Washing Machine  INDUCTION HARDENING:- Machine used is EFD Induction Hardening. In this hardening operation, the machine lift the job from conveyor belt & drive place it in between the stem & mouth inductor current is induced through the inductor & the temperature of job rises above the critical temperature the job is then suddenly quenched by using a solution of water & aqua quench. This process is done to obtain desired surface hardness of stem and mouth of male tulip. Fig.35- EFD Induction Hardening Machine 48
  46. 46. During Induction Hardening Process, Quench Ring was changed due to reduction in length by 10mm and the chuck was colliding with the ring making the component through hard resulting in rejection of the component. Fig.36- New Quench Ring for Induction Hardening  MARKING: Machine used is Titan Marking Machine. Marking is used to identify the part, which is used to trace out the company name, Heat code, date, shift, and customer name to which it will dispatch & cell information. GDIL QC 26 04 12 A MUL 2 MFG. CODE DATE SHIFT CUSTOMER CELL-2 Fig.37- Titan Marking Machine  GRINDING:- Machine used is Parishudh Grinding Machine. This machine is used to grind the outer surface of the Male Tulip. The outer surface of the male tulip is grinded so as to make it shining and smooth so that it offers minimum friction with the mating part. This operation maintains required dimension and surface finish of the component (Ra 0.8-1.6µm). 49
  47. 47. Fig.38- Parishudh Grinding Machine  CRACK CHECKING & OILING:- Machine used is MagnaFlux Crack Detection and Oiling Machine. Crack check is done to find any crack in the finished job. It is based on the principal of PIEZOELECTRICTY. Firstly the job is magnetized and dipped in the solution of MAGNA FLUX. Then job is passed through the ULTRA VOILET RAYS. This shows the cracks on the job. The job having cracks is rejected. After checking the crack, the Rust preventive oil is used to prevent the rusting. Fig.39- MagnaFlux Crack Detection Machine 50
  48. 48.  FINISHED PRODUCT:- Fig.40- Modified Male Tulip Profile Original weight(Kgs) 1.212 Modified Component Weight(Kgs) 1.136 Reduction in Weight(Kgs) 0.076 51
  49. 49. Weight ReductioninFemale Tulip:- Fig.41- Previous Profile of Female Tulip Fig.42- Modified Profile of Female Tulip 52
  50. 50. Modifications Done:-  The plunging length of the tulip was reduced by 10 mm from 43.63mm to 33.63mm.  The main issues encountered were the Chamfering process which was carried out in the tool room and the Induction hardening process for which the master sample was to be made and whole machine setting was to be done for reduction in length of tulip due to which the tulip might get through hard or there might be issues of low case depth and overheating of the component.  The chamfer was to be made again as it was cut down during Turning process due to reduction in length and hence the whole chamfer design of the tulip was to be studied i.e. the chamfer angle, chamfer length and the radius of the chamfer.  During Manufacturing of the tulip, major problems faced were the Grooving process which was not able to be carried out as the clamping fixture was not holding the job accurately resulting in motion of component while performing the operation which resulted in carrying out the above process in the Tool Room.  The other major problem was the sample approval on the Induction Hardening from the metallurgy lab for studying the internal details i.e. case depth and heat applied to the component.  The major learning I earned from these issues were the deep knowledge of the component and its critical parameters as well as the processes of huge importance like Induction hardening and Grooving. Manufacturing of Female Tulip:- All the manufacturing processes of Female Tulip are same as Male Tulip except Broaching process which is only in Female Tulip and also Rolling and Grooving which is not there in Female Tulip as there are no external splines present in the same. Original weight(Kgs) 1.036 Modified Component Weight(Kgs) 0.960 Reduction in Weight(Kgs) 0.076 53
  51. 51. Increase inWeight of Barshaft:- Fig.43- Previous Length Fig.44- Modified Length Modifications Done:-  Due to modifications done in Tulip and Outer Race, after studying the plunge angle diagram of the barshaft, the length of barshaft was increased from 410mm to 416mm (LH) and 430mm to 436mm (RH). Fig.45- Plunge Angle Diagram of LH Side Fig.46- Plunge Angle Diagram of RH Side 54
  52. 52.  During manufacturing of Barshaft, the major problem was the sample approval on the Induction Hardening from the metallurgy lab for studying the internal details i.e. case depth and heat applied to the component reason being there was variation in case depth after the Induction hardening was completed due to which many samples were rejected.  The major learning I earned from this issue was gaining the deep knowledge of the component and its critical parameters as well as the process of huge importance of Induction hardening about how to set the Case depth by managing the Speed of Quenching fluid and heat flow. Manufacturing of Bar Shaft:- SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS  ROLLING:- Machine used is Nachi Rolling Machine In this operation, firstly tailstock hold the job and then take the job in between a pair of thread rack and spline rack, which is fitted horizontally. Now it presses the job and moves in horizontal way. In this way splines and threads cut on the job. Spacer is very important tool because we make different type of models and every model size and length is different so by using this tool we can maintain length. These tools are also known as forming tool, because it gave shape as it own. These all tools are made up of high carbon steel.  GROOVING:- Machine used is ACE Grooving machine In this operation, first the job is clamped in the fixture and the tailstock holds the job and then the insert present in the machine helps to make a groove of required diameter. The job is rotated in the machine after it is clamped in the fixture and speed of rotation of job can be maintained as per feed given to the job. With the help of this operation, Groove of required diameter is made with the help of required insert.  INDUCTION HARDENING:-Machine used is EFD Induction Hardening. In this hardening operation, the machine lift the job from conveyor belt & drive place it in centre of the bar shaft, inductor current is induced through the inductor & the temperature of job rises above the critical temperature the job is then suddenly quenched by using a solution of water & aqua quench. This process is done to obtain desired surface hardness of Bar Shaft. 55
  53. 53.  STRAIGHTENING:- In this operation, the machine clamps the job in the fixture and the straightness of the shaft is checked by checking any kind of bending failure in the shaft by checking the diameters of shaft at various points and in case any bending failure occurs then the load is applied on the shaft at various sections to overcome the existing failure in the shaft.  CRACK DETECTION:- Machine used is MagnaFlux Crack Detection and Oiling Machine. Crack check is done to find any crack in the finished job. It is based on the principal of PIEZOELECTRICTY. Firstly the job is magnetized and dipped in the solution of MAGNA FLUX. Then job is passed through the ULTRA VOILET RAYS. This shows the cracks on the job. The job having cracks is rejected. Type LH Original weight(Kgs) 1.460 Modified Component Weight(Kgs) 1.473 Increase in Weight(Kgs) 0.013 RH Original weight(Kgs) 1.525 Modified Component Weight(Kgs) 1.538 Increase in Weight(Kgs) 0.013 5.6) WEIGHT REDUCTION (SUMMARY):- D/S Assy. Child Component Joint Size Original Weight (Kg) Modified Component Weight (Kg) Change in Weight (Kg) Modification Done LH Male Tulip GI 3-23 1.212 1.136 0.076(Re d.) Plunge length is reduced by10mm. Outer Race AC 2000i 1.2 1.116 0.084(Re d.) Pocket added and centre height reduced by 4mm. Bar Shaft 1.460 1.473 0.013(Inc. ) Increase in Length by 6mm.
  54. 54. Total Reduction in Weight 0.147(Re d.) RH Female Tulip GI 3-23 1.036 0.960 0.076(Re d.) Plunge length is reduced by10mm. Outer Race AC 2000i 1.2 1.116 0.084(Re d.) Pocket added and centre height reduced by 4mm. Bar Shaft 1.525 1.538 0.013(Inc. ) Increase in Length by 6mm. Total Reduction in Weight 0.147(Re d.) 57
  55. 55. CHAPTER 6: Lean Manufacturing (5S) Fig47- Lean & 5S 58
  56. 56. 1. 5’S In The Workplace: Many manufacturing facilities have opted to follow the path towards a “5S” workplace organizational and housekeeping methodology as part of continuous improvement or lean manufacturing processes. 5S is a system to reduce waste and optimize productivity through maintaining an orderly workplace and using visual cues to achieve more consistent operational results (see chart below). The term refers to five steps – sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain – that are also sometimes known as the 5 pillars of a visual workplace. 5S programs are usually implemented by small teams working together to get materials closer to operations, right at workers’ fingertips and organized and labeled to facilitate operations with the smallest amount of wasted time and materials. The 5S system is a good starting point for all improvement efforts aiming to drive out waste from the manufacturing process, and ultimately improve a company’s bottom line by improving products and services, and lowering costs. Many companies are seeking to making operations more efficient, and the concept is especially attractive to older manufacturing facilities looking to improve the bottom line by reducing their costs. “A place for everything, and everything in its place” is the mantra of the 5S method, and storage and workspace systems such as those provided by Lista International allow improved organization and maximum use of cubic space for the highest density storage. 2. The 5 Pillars of a Visual Workplace: 5S – SORT The first stage of 5S is to organize the work area, leaving only the tools and materials necessary to perform daily activities. When “sorting” is well implemented, communication between workers is improved and product quality and productivity are increased. 59
  57. 57. 5S – SET IN ORDER The second stage of 5S involves the orderly arrangement of needed items so they are easy to use and accessible for “anyone” to find. Orderliness eliminates waste in production and clerical activities. 5S – SHINE The third stage of 5S is keeping everything clean and swept. This maintains a safer work area and problem areas are quickly identified. An important part of “shining” is “Mess Prevention.” In other words, don’t allow litter, scrap, shavings, cuttings, etc., to land on the floor in the first place. Benefits of 5S Shine:  Eliminate spring cleaning.  Incorporate cleaning into daily routine.  Maintain clean and ready-to-use equipment. 5S – STANDARDIZE The fourth stage of 5S involves creating a consistent approach for carrying out tasks and procedures. Orderliness is the core of “standardization” and is maintained by Visual Controls. We will teach the benefits of:  Signboard strategy  Signboard uses  Painting strategy  Colour-coding strategy  Shadow boarding 60
  58. 58. 5S – SUSTAIN This last stage of 5S is the discipline and commitment of all other stages. Without “sustaining”, your workplace can easily revert back to being dirty and chaotic. That is why it is so crucial for your team to be empowered to improve and maintain their workplace. When employees take pride in their work and workplace it can lead to greater job satisfaction and higher productivity. Fig48- 5S 61
  59. 59. References  www.wikipedia.org/wiki/driveshaft  www.engineersgarage.com  www.drivelive.gkn.com  www.gkndriveline.com  www.efdinductionhardening.com 62