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asian regionalism 4.pptx

  1. 1. Asian Regionalism
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES Objectives: ➢ Differentiate between regionalization and globalization ➢ Identify the factors leading to a greater integration of the Asian region; and ➢ Analyze how different Asian states confront the challenges of globalization, regionalization, and COVID 19. 2
  3. 3. What are regions? ➢ (1) Regions are a group of countries located in the same geographically specified area; ➢ (2) Regions can be a combination of two regions; ➢ (3) Regions can be a combination of more than two regions organized to regulate and oversee flows and policy choices. 3
  4. 4. 4 defined as a political ideology that favors a specific region over a greater area. It usuallyresults due to political separations, religions geography,cultural boundaries,linguistic regions, and managerial divisions. Product of economic interaction between Asian countries.
  5. 5. What is regionalization? ➢ The process of dividing an area into smaller segments called regions. ➢ Division of a nation into states or provinces. ➢ In the economic context, regionalization is a management tool 5
  6. 6. What is regionalism? ➢ Regionalism is created as a sort of counter-globalization ➢ Regional organizations will always prefer regional partners over the rest of the world. 6
  7. 7. What is globalization? ➢ The expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across world-space and world-time. 7
  8. 8. The differences between regionalization and globalization
  9. 9. 9 Globalization Regionalization NATURE Promotes integration of economies across state borders all around the world Divides an area into smaller segments
  10. 10. 10 MARKET Allows many corporations to trade on international level; it allows free market Monopolies are more likely to develop. Monopoly means one producer controls supply of a good or service, and where the entry of new producers is prevented or highly restricted. Globalization Regionalization
  11. 11. 11 CULTURAL & SOCIETAL RELATIONS Acceleration to multiculturalism through free and inexpensive movement of people Does not support multiculturalism Globalization Regionalization
  12. 12. 12 AID Globalized international communities are more willing to aid countries stricken by disasters A regionalized area does not get involved in the affairs of other areas Globalization Regionalization
  13. 13. 13 TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES Globalization has driven great advances in technology Advanced technology is rarely available in one country or region. Globalization Regionalization
  14. 14. Regional integration is the process by which two or more nation-states agree to co-operate and work closely together to achieve peace, stability and wealth. 14
  15. 15. The entire world is moving towards integration, it is inevitable. In Asia, the Southeast Asian countries have already formed ASEAN (ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS. This regional power block appears to work fine, the member states fit very well together because of the following factors: 15
  16. 16. Why do countries form regional associations? Military Defense the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to protect Europe from the threat of the Soviet Union; and as a response, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact. 16
  17. 17. Why do countries form regional associations? Economic Crisis The ASEAN countries along with China, Japan, and South Korea established an emergency fund that stabilized Asian economies after the rippling effect of the Thai economy’s collapse. 17
  18. 18. Why do countries form regional associations? Resources Countries need to pool their resources together to make themselves more powerful. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) rose in power when they took over domestic production and controlled crude oil prices across the globe. 18
  19. 19. Why do countries form regional associations? Protection of Independence The countries under the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) refused to side with the capitalists (Western Europe & North America) or the communists (Eastern Europe). 19
  20. 20. There are many factors that are leading the Asian Region into greater integration 20
  21. 21. ➢ First, integration has been market-driven. Within Asia, there are a variety of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations, and infrastructures that are put in a place for countries to engage in exchange. ➢ 21
  22. 22. ➢ Second, formal institutions such as the Asian Development Bank (ADB) were established. Conceived in 1960s, ADB promotes social and economic development in Asia. 22
  23. 23. ➢ Third, economic grants and overseas development assistance are made available by better Asian economies. For example, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) aims to work on human security and quality growth. 23
  24. 24. ➢ Fourth, production networks have expanded. Economies are mainly on comparative advantage through regional division of labor. 24
  25. 25. Fifth, cooperation among the ASEAN and East Asian countries ensued the ASEAN + 3 Financial Minister’s Process that established two economic structures – the Chiang Mai Initiative and the Asian Bond Markets Initiative. The process aims to strengthen policy dialogue, coordination, and collaboration on common financial, monetary, and fiscal issues. 25
  26. 26. Challenges to Regionalism 26
  27. 27. ➢ Resurgence of militant nationalism and populism- this involves the conflict between the NATO, the United States, and Vladimir Putin’s Anti-NATO movement. 27
  28. 28. ➢ Continuing financial crisis. The continuing crisis in the European Region continues to lead the United Kingdom into exiting the European Union. 28
  29. 29. ➢ Conflict between sovereignty and regional stability. The Philippines had a difficulty in letting some countries support its condemnation of China’s occupation of the West Philippine Sea because China had given great investments and economic aid to these countries. 29
  30. 30. ➢ Differing visions of regionalism. Developed countries like the US may only see regionalism as a tool for political democratization, but developing countries see regionalism as an obstacle to economic globalization because public inquiry slows down its implementations. 30
  31. 31. How do different Asian states confront the challenges of globalization, regionalization, and COVID 19? 31
  32. 32. 32 ASEAN  founded on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines  promoted economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the Southeast Asian region through multilateral cooperation.
  33. 33. ➢ “We the nations and peoples of Southeast Asia must get together and form by ourselves a new perspective and a new framework for our region. It is important that individually and jointly we should create a deep awareness that we cannot survive for long as independent but isolated peoples unless we also think and act together and unless we prove by deeds that we belong to a family of Southeast Asian nations bound together by ties of friendship and goodwill and imbued with our own ideals and aspirations and determined to shape our own destiny”. He added that, “with the establishment of ASEAN, we have taken a firm and a bold step on that road”- Tun Abdul Razak 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. ➢ Energy and environmental concerns- Rapid economic growth for Asia has led to reliance on economic imports, increasing the importance of sea lanes and transformational routes. ➢ Asian states need to empower Science and technology so that its citizens can eventually discover or create sustainable energy sources. 35
  36. 36. ➢ Migration- The combination of rapidly growing populations in much of the developing world, increasingly porous national boarders, and disparities in economic growth rates have sparked a dramatic increase in international migration. ➢ Like Malaysia, other Asian countries need to deploy troops and naval vessels to limit the arrival of migrants. 36
  37. 37. ➢ Organized crime and threats from “non-state” actors- Through the increasing ease of communication and transportation flows, and growing permeability of national borders, organized crime networks, terrorism drugs and weapon traffickers, and even human smugglers face fewer constraints on their activity. ➢ Asian states must enable stricter laws on national security. 37
  38. 38. ➢ Weakening regional institutions because of rifts between authoritarian members of ASEAN- “Flexible engagement” allows for countries to comment on each other’s internal policy matters; these counties can monitor economic indicators for signs of impending crisis. ➢ Asian countries need to preserve their sovereignty, meaning they should not allow other states to exert influence on their political decisions. 38
  39. 39. ➢ Shifts in balance of power- Deepening economic integration gives rise to regional economic blocks that competes for power and influence. ➢ Asian countries need to work together as one region instead of competing for power, and rise against Western economic dominance. 39
  40. 40. ➢ Expanding Roles of the Military- With lingering traditional threats, the prospect of increased internal tensions in Asian countries, and the emergence of new security challenges will place high demand on regional militaries. Increasing demand for military will likely coincide with a perio of declining resources. ➢ So as to avoid the declining of resources, countries can adopt conscription methods similar to that of South Korea wherein men are required to do compulsory military conscription for a few years and go back to their lives eventually. 40
  41. 41. ➢ Globalization and Democracy- Authoritarian regimes suffer more from the effect of globalization than states that embrace transparency, accountability and the rule of law because these are norms that are the backbone of democratic and free-market societies. ➢ Asian countries may have to adopt democracy in order to have an efficient economic system that is well-criticized and is therefore well-reviewed by the mass. This way, the processes become more efficient. 41
  42. 42. 42 COVID 19 An infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Its outbreak is having a severe impact on Asian economies and hence on Asian households.  Some Asian countries like South Korea acted swiftly to ramp up health systems, in some instances before even a single COVID-19 case had been confirmed within borders.
  43. 43. “ THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!! 43