It is the phase where teacher action takes
It is one of the most crucial processes in
curriculum development although many
education planners would say :
“A Good plan is work half done ’’.
Curriculum implementation means putting
into practice the written curriculum that has
been designed in syllabi, course of study,
curricular guides and subjects.
It is a process wherein the learners acquire
the planned or intended knowledge, skills,
attitudes that are aimed at enabling the
same learners to function effectively in the
Ornstein and Hunkins (1998)
As the interaction between the
curriculum that has been written and
planned and the person who are in
charged to deliver it. To them,
curriculum implementation implies
the following :
•Shift from what is the current to a new
or enhanced curriculum.
•Change in knowledge, actions,
attitudes of the person involved.
•Change in behavior using new
strategies and resources.
•Change which requires efforts hence
goals should be achievable.
Loucks and Lieberman (1983)
• The trying out of a new practice and
what it looks like when actually
used in a school system.
In the classroom context
•Implementing means using the plan as a
guide to engage with the learners in the
teaching learning process with the end in
view that learning has occurred and
learning outcomes have been achieved.
•It involves the different strategies of
teaching with the support instructional
materials to go with the strategy.
In the larger scale
• Putting the curriculum into
operation with the different
• Curriculum implementation takes
place in a class, a school, a district,
a division, or the whole higher
In higher education
• happens for the course, a degree
program, the institution or the
whole higher education system. It
requires time, money, personal
interaction, personal contacts and
Kurt Levin’s Force Field Theory
Kurt Levin (1951)
• As the father of social psychology
explains the process of change, the
model can be used to explain
curriculum change and implementation.
In the educational landscape
•There are always two forces that
oppose each other. These are the
driving force and the restraining
Driving Force E
Fear of the
Society’s Values Negative Attitude
Based on Kevin’s Force Field Model
1. Substitution – The current curriculum will
be replaced or substituted by a new one.
Sometimes, we call this a complete
2. Alteration – there is a minor change to the
current or existing curriculum.
McNeil in 1990 categorized
curriculum change as follows:
4. Perturbations – these are changes
that are disruptive, but teachers have to
adjust to them within a fairly short time.
3. Restructuring – building a new
structure would mean major change or
modification in the school system,
degree program or educational system.
5. Value orientation – To McNeil, this
is a type of curriculum change. Perhaps
this classification will respond to shift
in the emphasis that the teacher
provides which are not within the
mission or vision of the school or vice
Developmental - should develop multi
perspective and make learning
There should be teacher support in
trying new task, reflection on the new
experiences and challenge.
Participatory - for curriculum
implementation to succeed. Because
other stakeholder like peers, school
leader, parents and curriculum
Supportive - curriculum implementation
is required in the process of change.
Material support like supplies,
equipment, conductive learning
environment like classroom, laboratory
should made available.
Time is an important commodity for a
successful change process. And
Support from peers, principal
,external stakeholder will add to the
success of implementation.