Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx

'32 years and Healing'
Mr. Rishikesh Singh
Environmental Manager
On this day, a number of special events such as talks and seminars are held in
Canadian city of Montreal and almost all countries regarding ozone.
This day is mainly intended to spread awareness of the depletion of the ozone
layer and search for the solution to preserve it.
People from all over the world are expected to gather in Montreal on
September, 16 to join the talk and seminars.
This year’s theme (Montreal Protocol: Healing the Ozone Layer and
Combating Climate Change) celebrates three decades of remarkable international
cooperation to protect the Ozone Layer and the climate under Montreal Protocol .
 This year's theme (Montreal Protocol: Healing the Ozone Layer and Combating
Climate Change) celebrates three decades of remarkable international cooperation to
protect the Ozone Layer and the climate under the Montreal Protocol.
 It also reminds the people to keep up the momentum to ensure healthy people and a
healthy planet. In 2018, the latest Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion was
completed.
 This assessment shows that the parts of the Ozone Layer have recovered at a rate of
1-3% per decade since 2000.
 Even at the protected rates, Northern hemisphere and mid-latitude ozone will heal
completely by the 2030s.
 The Southern Hemisphere will follow in the 2050s and Polar Regions by 2060. No
doubt Ozone Layer protection efforts also contribute in fighting with the climate
change.
Healing the Ozone Layer and Combating
Climate Change
Location of ozone layer
• Stratosphere: The stratosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere that is stratified
in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.
• Ozone Layer: The layer with the highest concentration of ozone molecules, is
found in the stratosphere. The ozone layer filters much out of the sun's
ultraviolet radiation that would be harmful to most forms of life.
• Troposphere: The troposphere is the lowermost portion of the Earth's
atmosphere and the one in which most weather and the "greenhouse" effect
occurs.
Importance of Ozone Layer
• Ozone Layer acts as a shield to protect the short wave,
more powerful and harmful radiations such as X-rays,
Gamma, Beta and UV radiations (280–315 nm) from
sun.
• Without the Ozone Layer the risk of many factors
increase considerably.
Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx
How ozone is
formed?
 In the stratosphere ozone molecule is dissociated into
molecular oxygen and oxygen molecules when absorbs a
photon from ultraviolet radiation (>240 nm). These singlet
oxygen atoms combines with a oxygen molecule forms a
ozone molecule.
O2
+ O →O3
O3
UV radiation → O2
+ O
(photon molecule)
 This is a continuous process that take place in the ozone layer.
 The overall amount of ozone in the stratosphere is determined
by a balance between photochemical production and
recombination.
Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx
Ozone-Depleting Substances Sources
Chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs)
Refrigerators, air-conditioners, solvents,
dry-cleaning agents, etc.
Halons Fire-extinguishers
Carbon tetrachloride Fire extinguishers, solvents
Methyl chloroform Adhesives, aerosols
Hydrofluorocarbons
fire extinguishers, air-conditioners,
solvents
Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
“Ozone-depleting substances are the substances such as chlorofluorocarbons, halons, carbon tetrachloride,
hydrofluorocarbons, etc. that are responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer.”
 Chlorofluorocarbons
Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs are the main cause of ozone layer
depletion. These are released by solvents, spray aerosols,
refrigerators, air-conditioners, etc.
The molecules of chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere are
broken down by ultraviolet radiations and release chlorine
atoms. These atoms react with ozone and destroy it.
Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion
 Unregulated Rocket Launches
Researches say that the unregulated launching of rockets
results in much more depletion of the ozone layer than the
CFCs do. If not controlled, this might result in a huge loss of
the ozone layer by the year 2050.
Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx
Ozone hole formation
• The ozone hole occurs mostly during
spring season in Antarctic region (from
September to early December) as
strong westerly winds circulate around
the continent and create an
atmospheric container.
• During this period there will not be
sunlight for three months and
temperature is -80 degrees. This leads
to formation of Polar Stratospheric
clouds (PSC).
• The PSC provide a platform for
chemical reactions whose products will
lead to ozone destruction.
• Within this polar vortex, over 50% of
the lower stratospheric ozone is
destroyed.
• A major hole is now over Antarctica, where
there are ice sheets. If these Ice sheets melt, it
could increase coastal flooding causing a violent
shift in climate.
YEAR WISE OZONE HOLE FORMATION
Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
 Squamous cell carcinomas and Malignant melanoma (less frequent
but more lethal) are two type of cancers caused by UVB radiation.
These cancers are relatively mild and rarely fatal.
 Absorption of UVB radiation causes the pyrimidine bases in the
DNA molecule to form dimers, resulting in transcription errors
when the DNA replicates.
 Cortical cataracts
 The risks are particularly high for young children, the elderly, and
those with asthma or other respiratory difficulties.
 whales off the coast of California have shown a sharp rise in sun
damage.
Human and Animal Health:
Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx
Aquatic Ecosystems:
Damage to phytoplankton, fish larvae, shrimp, crabs
reproduction.
Affects marine food chain, resulting in decreased
fish production.
Materials:
Paints, rubber, wood and plastic are degraded faster,
especially in tropical regions
Such damages accounts to billions of dollars
annually.
 Effects on the Environment
Strong ultraviolet rays may lead to minimal growth,
flowering and photosynthesis in plants. the forests
also have to bear the harmful effects of the
ultraviolet rays.
 Limit private vehicle driving- A very easy way to control
ozone depletion would be to limit or reduce the amount of
driving as vehicular emissions eventually result in smog
which is a culprit in the deterioration of the ozone layer.
 Reduce the source of Nitrous oxide and CFC.
 Minimize high altitude aircraft flights
 Minimize rocket flights
 Encourage growth of plants that produce oxygen.
 Eliminate production and release of ozone depleting chemicals
(such as CFCs and BFCs).
Check your fire extinguishers to find
active ingredients
Researches If halogenated
hydrocarbon is the main ingredient,
find a hazardous waste center at
which to recycle it or call your local
fire department for instructions on
how to dispose it. Replace it with a
model without this harmful ozone-
depleting chemicals.
Don’t buy aerosol products with
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)
Although CFCs have been banned or
reduced in many applications, the
only way to be sure is to check the
label on all your hairspray,
deodorants and house hold
chemicals.
Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx
Drive Less
Although Nitrous oxide is now
the largest ozone –depleting
substance released by human
activities (as well as potent
greenhouse gas) and it is
produced in the internal
combustion that power most cars.
To reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide your car produces,
consider:
 Car pooling
 Public transport
 Walking
 Biking
 Driving a hybrid or electrical car
 Neutralizing your vehicle’s greenhouse gas emission with a
Carbon offset
Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx
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Preservation of Ozone Layer.pptx

  • 1. '32 years and Healing' Mr. Rishikesh Singh Environmental Manager
  • 2. On this day, a number of special events such as talks and seminars are held in Canadian city of Montreal and almost all countries regarding ozone. This day is mainly intended to spread awareness of the depletion of the ozone layer and search for the solution to preserve it. People from all over the world are expected to gather in Montreal on September, 16 to join the talk and seminars. This year’s theme (Montreal Protocol: Healing the Ozone Layer and Combating Climate Change) celebrates three decades of remarkable international cooperation to protect the Ozone Layer and the climate under Montreal Protocol .
  • 3.  This year's theme (Montreal Protocol: Healing the Ozone Layer and Combating Climate Change) celebrates three decades of remarkable international cooperation to protect the Ozone Layer and the climate under the Montreal Protocol.  It also reminds the people to keep up the momentum to ensure healthy people and a healthy planet. In 2018, the latest Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion was completed.  This assessment shows that the parts of the Ozone Layer have recovered at a rate of 1-3% per decade since 2000.  Even at the protected rates, Northern hemisphere and mid-latitude ozone will heal completely by the 2030s.  The Southern Hemisphere will follow in the 2050s and Polar Regions by 2060. No doubt Ozone Layer protection efforts also contribute in fighting with the climate change. Healing the Ozone Layer and Combating Climate Change
  • 4. Location of ozone layer • Stratosphere: The stratosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere that is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down. • Ozone Layer: The layer with the highest concentration of ozone molecules, is found in the stratosphere. The ozone layer filters much out of the sun's ultraviolet radiation that would be harmful to most forms of life. • Troposphere: The troposphere is the lowermost portion of the Earth's atmosphere and the one in which most weather and the "greenhouse" effect occurs.
  • 5. Importance of Ozone Layer • Ozone Layer acts as a shield to protect the short wave, more powerful and harmful radiations such as X-rays, Gamma, Beta and UV radiations (280–315 nm) from sun. • Without the Ozone Layer the risk of many factors increase considerably.
  • 7. How ozone is formed?  In the stratosphere ozone molecule is dissociated into molecular oxygen and oxygen molecules when absorbs a photon from ultraviolet radiation (>240 nm). These singlet oxygen atoms combines with a oxygen molecule forms a ozone molecule. O2 + O →O3 O3 UV radiation → O2 + O (photon molecule)  This is a continuous process that take place in the ozone layer.  The overall amount of ozone in the stratosphere is determined by a balance between photochemical production and recombination.
  • 9. Ozone-Depleting Substances Sources Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Refrigerators, air-conditioners, solvents, dry-cleaning agents, etc. Halons Fire-extinguishers Carbon tetrachloride Fire extinguishers, solvents Methyl chloroform Adhesives, aerosols Hydrofluorocarbons fire extinguishers, air-conditioners, solvents Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) “Ozone-depleting substances are the substances such as chlorofluorocarbons, halons, carbon tetrachloride, hydrofluorocarbons, etc. that are responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer.”
  • 10.  Chlorofluorocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs are the main cause of ozone layer depletion. These are released by solvents, spray aerosols, refrigerators, air-conditioners, etc. The molecules of chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere are broken down by ultraviolet radiations and release chlorine atoms. These atoms react with ozone and destroy it. Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion  Unregulated Rocket Launches Researches say that the unregulated launching of rockets results in much more depletion of the ozone layer than the CFCs do. If not controlled, this might result in a huge loss of the ozone layer by the year 2050.
  • 12. Ozone hole formation • The ozone hole occurs mostly during spring season in Antarctic region (from September to early December) as strong westerly winds circulate around the continent and create an atmospheric container. • During this period there will not be sunlight for three months and temperature is -80 degrees. This leads to formation of Polar Stratospheric clouds (PSC). • The PSC provide a platform for chemical reactions whose products will lead to ozone destruction. • Within this polar vortex, over 50% of the lower stratospheric ozone is destroyed.
  • 13. • A major hole is now over Antarctica, where there are ice sheets. If these Ice sheets melt, it could increase coastal flooding causing a violent shift in climate.
  • 14. YEAR WISE OZONE HOLE FORMATION
  • 15. Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
  • 16.  Squamous cell carcinomas and Malignant melanoma (less frequent but more lethal) are two type of cancers caused by UVB radiation. These cancers are relatively mild and rarely fatal.  Absorption of UVB radiation causes the pyrimidine bases in the DNA molecule to form dimers, resulting in transcription errors when the DNA replicates.  Cortical cataracts  The risks are particularly high for young children, the elderly, and those with asthma or other respiratory difficulties.  whales off the coast of California have shown a sharp rise in sun damage. Human and Animal Health:
  • 18. Aquatic Ecosystems: Damage to phytoplankton, fish larvae, shrimp, crabs reproduction. Affects marine food chain, resulting in decreased fish production. Materials: Paints, rubber, wood and plastic are degraded faster, especially in tropical regions Such damages accounts to billions of dollars annually.  Effects on the Environment Strong ultraviolet rays may lead to minimal growth, flowering and photosynthesis in plants. the forests also have to bear the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays.
  • 19.  Limit private vehicle driving- A very easy way to control ozone depletion would be to limit or reduce the amount of driving as vehicular emissions eventually result in smog which is a culprit in the deterioration of the ozone layer.  Reduce the source of Nitrous oxide and CFC.  Minimize high altitude aircraft flights  Minimize rocket flights  Encourage growth of plants that produce oxygen.  Eliminate production and release of ozone depleting chemicals (such as CFCs and BFCs).
  • 20. Check your fire extinguishers to find active ingredients Researches If halogenated hydrocarbon is the main ingredient, find a hazardous waste center at which to recycle it or call your local fire department for instructions on how to dispose it. Replace it with a model without this harmful ozone- depleting chemicals. Don’t buy aerosol products with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Although CFCs have been banned or reduced in many applications, the only way to be sure is to check the label on all your hairspray, deodorants and house hold chemicals.
  • 22. Drive Less Although Nitrous oxide is now the largest ozone –depleting substance released by human activities (as well as potent greenhouse gas) and it is produced in the internal combustion that power most cars. To reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide your car produces, consider:  Car pooling  Public transport  Walking  Biking  Driving a hybrid or electrical car  Neutralizing your vehicle’s greenhouse gas emission with a Carbon offset