1. Basic Principles of various
Dr. Rima Das.
B.A.M.S. (Mum); PGDEMS (Pune); DACLS, DIHM, DDM (Pune);
FPC (M.U.H.S; Nashik).
Consulting Preventive Cardiologist.
2. Basic Principles of various pathies
I. Homeopathy Medicine:
Homeopathy is based on three principles –
1.The Law of Similars
- It states that a remedy can cure a disease if it produces in a healthy person symptom similar to
those of the disease.
- Example: A person develops a fever with flushed face, dilated pupils, rapid heartbeat, and a
feeling of restlessness. The homeopathic physician studies these symptoms, then searches for
a remedy that produce all these symptoms in a healthy person.
3. 2. The Law of Proving
- This principle refers to the method of testing a substance to determine its medical
effect. To prove a remedy, a group of healthy people are given a dose of the substance daily,
and each person carefully records the symptoms experienced.
- When the proving is completed, all the symptoms that the people consistently
experience are recorded and listed in the Materia Medica, a prescriber’s reference.
3.The law of Potentization
- This refers to the preparation of a homeopathic remedy. These medications are
prepared by successive diluting and shaking to the point where the resulting medicine
contains no molecules of the origin substance. These small doses are called potencies. As
strange as it may seem, the higher the dilution, the greater the potency of the medicine.
-A potentized remedy does not contain sufficient matter to act directly on the tissues, which
means that homeopathic medicine is nontoxic and cannot cause side effects.
4. II. Unani Medicine
Unani system of medicine has its origin in Greece, It is believed to have been established by the
great physician and philosopher – Hippocrates.
It is based on the concept of balancing body humors. They either fell out of balance, which
might yield diseases or were restored to balance to heal diseases. The system involved four
elements, thus differing from the Ayurvedic system of three doshas.
Principles of unani system – The medicine is divided into two parts –
a. Elements (arkan): Fire (aag), Air (hawa), Water (pani), Earth (mitti)
b.Temperatures (mizaj): hot, cold, dry, wet, hot and dry, hot and wet, cold and dry, cold and
c. Humors (akhlat): Blood (dam), phlegm (balgham), yellow bile (safra), black bile (sauda)
d.Organs (aza): brain, heart, liver, two testicles (in the female, the two ovaries)
e.Forces (arwah): Natural, vital, psychic
f. Actions (afa’al): Simple and compound
g. Spirits (quva): Natural, vital, psychic
6. III. Siddha medicine
a. The siddha medicine is one of the oldest medical system known to mankind. Siddha means
achievements. “Agasthya” is the father of Siddha medicinal system.
b.The basic concepts of siddha medicine as almost similar to Ayurveda. The only difference appears
to be that the Siddha medicine recognizes predominance of vatta, pitta and kapha in childhood,
adulthood and old age respectively; whereas, in Ayurveda it is totally reversed: kapha is dominant
in childhood, vata in old age and pitta in adults.
c. According to Siddha medicine, various psychological functions of the body are attributed to the
combination of seven elements. They are –
• Saram (Plasma)
• Chenner (Blood)
• Ooun (Muscle)
• Kollzuppu (Fatty tissue)
• Elumbu (Bone)
• Mooli (Brain)
• Sukila (Semen)
7. d. The therapies of Siddha for proper treatment are –
• Purgative therapy
• Emetic therapy
• Fasting therapy
• Steam therapy
• Oleation therapy
e. In diagnosis, examination of eight items is required which are commonly known as “Enn
Vakaith Thervu”. These are –
• Na (Tongue)
• Varna (Colour)
• Savra (Voice)
• Kan (Eyes)
• Sarisam (Touch)
• Mala (Stool)
• Neer (Urine)
• Nadi (Pulse)
8. f. The treatment in Siddha is classified into these –
• Devine method
• Rational method
• Surgical method.
9. IV. Tibetan medicine
The Tibetan medical system is one if the world’s oldest known medical traditions. It continues to be
practiced in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Ladakh, Siberia, China and Mongolia, in some parts of India and
parts of Europe and North America.
It embraces the traditional Buddhist belief that all illness ultimately results from the three poisons:
The Tibetan medical heritage is based on the book of the Four Tantras, which remains the
fundamental medical text even today.
The three bodily humors (wind, bile, phlegm) are produced by the three mental poisons
• Desire gives rise to wind
• Hatred to bile and
• Stupidity to phlegm
10. To keep the three bodily humors in balance there are four tantras. The basis of the Four Tantras
• Root Tantra – It discusses the humors in the body and their imbalances and their link to
• Exegetical Tantra – This section discusses the general theory on subjects such as anatomy,
physiology, embryology and treatment.
• Instructional Tantra - The longest of the tantras is mainly a practical application of
• Subsequent Tantra – Discusses about diagnosis and therapies, including the preparation of
Methods of treatment – There are four methods of treatment
• Through diet
• Through behavior modification
• Through medicine
• Through physical therapy
11. V. Yoga Therapy
The word “yoga” comes from the Sanskrit root yuj, which means “to join” or “to yoke”. Yoga is a
physical, mental and spiritual practice or disciple which originated in India.
Yoga therapy is the process of empowering individuals to progress toward improved health and
well being through the application of the philosophy and practice of yoga.
The basic principle of yoga therapy is “unlocking the hidden vitality” from the Chakras.
- First/ Root chakra (Muladhara): Survival
- Second/ Sacral (Swadhisthana): Sexuality
- Third/ Solar plexus (Manipura): Power
- Fourth/ Heart (Anahata): Love
- Fifth/ Throat (Vishuddha): Communication
- Sixth/ Third eye (Ajna): Nutrition
- Seventh/ Crown (Sahasrara): Spirituality
12. Yoga therapy is well established as a treatment for –
-Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
-Children with Autism and special needs
-Physical health issues: back pain, heart condition, fatigue, hypertension, asthma.
Yoga therapy sessions include the following components –
-Breathing exercises (Pranayama)
-Physical postures (Asana)
13. VI. Naturopathy Therapy
Naturopathy is a distinct system of primary health care, an art, science, philosophy and practice
of diagnosing, treating and preventing disease. Naturopathy is defined by principles rather than
by methods or modalities.
The following principles are the foundation for naturopathy practice –
- Body heals itself
- Main cause of disease is enervation
- Deposit of metabolic end-products in the body is disease
- Acute disease is a remedial process, it is itself a cure
- Food is a building material, does not increase vitality
- Fasting provides an opportunity to the body to heal itself
- Germs do not cause the disease but are found in the disease conditions
- Exercise or physical activity keeps the balance between nutrition and drainage
- External treatments whether natural, allopathic, ayurvedic or homeopathic – give only relief,
do not cure
- Patient’s own will to get well, determination and faith are necessary things for nature cure
14. Naturopathy cures with the help of –
- Juice diet
- Clay therapy
- Sun bath
- Air bath
- Magneto therapy
- Colour therapy Hasta mudra
Naturopathy as a therapy –
-Based on panchmahabhutas
-Prithvi: from feet to thighs
-Apa: from thighs to abdomen
-Tej: from abdomen to chest
-Vayu: in the chest
-Akash: in the face region
-No side effects
-Focus on cleansing
-Also a psychology
15. VII. Modern Medicine
• The Harrison’s Principle of Medicine states “Tact, sympathy and understanding are
expected of the physician, for the patient is no more collection of symptoms, signs,
disordered functions, damaged organs and distributed emotions. He is human, fearful, and
hopeful seeking relief, help and reassurance.”
• Medicine is both a science as well as an art –
- Technology based on science is the foundation for solution to clinical problems
- Advances in biochemical methodology and in biophysical techniques
- Innovations in therapeutic maneuvers
- Ability to extract contradictory physical signs
- Ability to discern and interpret laboratory data
- To know whether to treat or watch
- To determine when to pursue a clinical clue or when to dismiss
- To decide which is of greater risk: treatment or disease
This combination of medical knowledge, intuition and judgement is the art of medicine.
Primary objective is to discover the root of a patient’s concern and do something about it.