IMPACT OF CORONA
• The word ‘Demography’ is a combination of two Greek words, ‘Demos’
meaning ‘people’ and ‘Graphy’ meaning ‘science’. Thus demography is the
science of people.
• In the middle of the nineteenth century in 1855, the word ‘Demography’
was first used by a French writer Achille Guillard.
• Birth, Mortality, Fertility are the three major components of Demography.
• The study of demography encompasses of size and shape of population,
aspects related to birth rate and death rate, composition and density of
population, socio-economic problems, quantitative and qualitative aspects
and population policy.
COVID-19 & DEMOGRAPHY
• Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly
• There are probably many risk factors associated with the coronavirus, and
it feels like we learn something new and different every day about it.
• Demography can help us understand how this pandemic has spread and
had a disproportionate effect on certain age groups, as well as why its
spread affects everyone.
• Covid-19 has spread around the planet, sending billions of people into
lockdown as health services struggle to cope.
• Since first being recorded late last year in China, the Covid-19 coronavirus
has spread around the world, and been declared a pandemic by the World
COVID 19: POPULATION
• The new coronavirus will infect half of the global population.
• The Economic Intelligence Unit (EIU) analyzed that “virus will infect around
50% of the world population; 20% of the cases will be severe, and 1-3% will
result in deaths.”
• The countries which are majorly affected by the virus are: United States,
Spain, Brazil, China, Italy, South Korea, Germany, United Kingdom.
COVID 19: GENDER LENS
• Pandemics outbreaks affect women and men differently.
• In a striking contrast with many countries, men in India more than women appear
disproportionately likely to test positive for COVID-19.
• Many countries — including the United Kingdom and the United States shows that
the gender-split in all countries is roughly 50-50, barring two exceptions: India and
• 76% of the confirmed cases in India and 72% in Pakistan are men.
• India’s wide disparity was more likely due to sociological factors. Secondly, it’s
possibly more reflective of employment trends in India. Women are much less likely
to be travelling for work internationally from India.”
• Men are more likely to be harboring additional ailments: cardiovascular disease,
diabetes and more likely to smoke, making them even more vulnerable to a severe —
potentially fatal — infection.
COVID 19: AGE STRUCTURE
• Millennials are not invincible. As the severity of this outbreak increases in
different countries, it has nothing to do with the age of the person. However, the
pandemic is affecting the different age groups in different ways.
• People with acute existing pre-condition are likely to be affected by the virus.
• The U.S. has one-fifth of infected people aged 20-44 who are been hospitalized,
including 2%-4% who required treatment in an intensive care unit. Still, the most
severe cases, are among the elderly. 31% of cases were in the age group of 65
years and above.
• In Italy where 25.7% of the infected population is in the 19-50 years age bracket
• In France, where 30% of the infected population is in the 15-44 years age group.
• The age-group analysis of Covid-19 patients in India shows that the maximum
42% are of 21-40 years, 33% of 41-60 years, 17% are above 60 years and 9% are
of 0-20 years.
COVID 19: MORTALITY
• Mortality and fertility are the major components of demography. These
components are majorly affected by the Pandemic around the globe.
• MORTALITY- There is an age trajectory of morbidity and mortality that’s
very striking. The older individuals seem to be at greater risk.
In elderly populations, the body's ability to produce white blood cells
(WBCs) reduces. A WHO report found highest mortality among people over
80 years of age.
• The Union Health Ministry said that those above 60 years of age account
for 60% of Covid-19 deaths in India. Older people and people with pre-
existing medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease)
appear to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the coronavirus
and dying from it.
• A WHO-China joint report on Covid-19 had found that in cases of novel
coronavirus mortality increases with age.
• Mortality rate as per age and pre- existing illness in China.
AGE DEATH RATE
80+ years old 14.8%
70-79 years old 8.0%
60-69 years old 3.6%
50-59 years old 1.3%
40-49 years old 0.4%
30-39 years old 0.2%
20-29 years old 0.2%
10-19 years old 0.2%
0-9 years old no fatalities
Cardiovascular disease 10.5%
Italy has one of the oldest populations
in the world. It has been struggling
under the pressure of coronavirus. The
Italian national health institute (ISS) said
the average age of those who died of
coronavirus in Italy was 78.5 years, with
the youngest victim aged 31 and the
In South Korea, which had an early
surge of cases, the death rate in Covid-
19 patients ages 80 and over was
10.4%, compared to 5.35% in 70-
somethings, 1.51% in patients 60 to 69,
0.37% in 50-somethings. Even lower
rates were seen in younger people,
dropping to zero in those 29 and
• Fertility- A study of 9 pregnant women in China who contracted
coronavirus—and their 9 subsequent healthy live births—
demonstrated that they did not pass the virus along to their babies in utero
or via breast milk. However, there have been two reports of newborns with
COVID-19 infections shortly after birth, so the possibility of “vertical
transmission" of the virus from mother to baby cannot be excluded.
COVID 19 & RACISM
• Black Americans face alarming rates of coronavirus infection in some states of USA.
• African-Americans account for more than half of those who have tested positive and 72
percent of virus-related fatalities in Chicago, even though they make up a little less than
a third of the population.
• In Illinois, 43 percent of people who have died from the disease and 28 percent of those
who have tested positive are African-Americans, a group that makes up just 15 percent
of the state’s population.
• Black Americans disproportionately belong to part of the work force that does not have
the luxury of working from home that places them at high risk for contracting the highly
infectious disease in transit or at work.
• Longstanding inequalities also make African-Americans less likely to be insured, and
more likely to have existing health conditions and face racial bias that prevents them
from getting proper treatment.
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