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Impact of corona on demography

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Impact of corona on demography

  1. 1. IMPACT OF CORONA ON DEMOGRAPHY Presented By: Riddhi Pasari
  2. 2. DEMOGRAPHY • The word ‘Demography’ is a combination of two Greek words, ‘Demos’ meaning ‘people’ and ‘Graphy’ meaning ‘science’. Thus demography is the science of people. • In the middle of the nineteenth century in 1855, the word ‘Demography’ was first used by a French writer Achille Guillard. • Birth, Mortality, Fertility are the three major components of Demography. • The study of demography encompasses of size and shape of population, aspects related to birth rate and death rate, composition and density of population, socio-economic problems, quantitative and qualitative aspects and population policy.
  3. 3. COVID-19 & DEMOGRAPHY • Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. • There are probably many risk factors associated with the coronavirus, and it feels like we learn something new and different every day about it. • Demography can help us understand how this pandemic has spread and had a disproportionate effect on certain age groups, as well as why its spread affects everyone. • Covid-19 has spread around the planet, sending billions of people into lockdown as health services struggle to cope. • Since first being recorded late last year in China, the Covid-19 coronavirus has spread around the world, and been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization.
  4. 4. COVID 19: POPULATION VIEW • The new coronavirus will infect half of the global population. • The Economic Intelligence Unit (EIU) analyzed that “virus will infect around 50% of the world population; 20% of the cases will be severe, and 1-3% will result in deaths.” • The countries which are majorly affected by the virus are: United States, Spain, Brazil, China, Italy, South Korea, Germany, United Kingdom.
  5. 5. COVID 19: GENDER LENS • Pandemics outbreaks affect women and men differently. • In a striking contrast with many countries, men in India more than women appear disproportionately likely to test positive for COVID-19. • Many countries — including the United Kingdom and the United States shows that the gender-split in all countries is roughly 50-50, barring two exceptions: India and Pakistan. • 76% of the confirmed cases in India and 72% in Pakistan are men. • India’s wide disparity was more likely due to sociological factors. Secondly, it’s possibly more reflective of employment trends in India. Women are much less likely to be travelling for work internationally from India.” • Men are more likely to be harboring additional ailments: cardiovascular disease, diabetes and more likely to smoke, making them even more vulnerable to a severe — potentially fatal — infection.
  6. 6. COVID 19: AGE STRUCTURE • Millennials are not invincible. As the severity of this outbreak increases in different countries, it has nothing to do with the age of the person. However, the pandemic is affecting the different age groups in different ways. • People with acute existing pre-condition are likely to be affected by the virus. • The U.S. has one-fifth of infected people aged 20-44 who are been hospitalized, including 2%-4% who required treatment in an intensive care unit. Still, the most severe cases, are among the elderly. 31% of cases were in the age group of 65 years and above. • In Italy where 25.7% of the infected population is in the 19-50 years age bracket • In France, where 30% of the infected population is in the 15-44 years age group. • The age-group analysis of Covid-19 patients in India shows that the maximum 42% are of 21-40 years, 33% of 41-60 years, 17% are above 60 years and 9% are of 0-20 years.
  7. 7. COVID 19: MORTALITY AND FERTILITY • Mortality and fertility are the major components of demography. These components are majorly affected by the Pandemic around the globe. • MORTALITY- There is an age trajectory of morbidity and mortality that’s very striking. The older individuals seem to be at greater risk. In elderly populations, the body's ability to produce white blood cells (WBCs) reduces. A WHO report found highest mortality among people over 80 years of age. • The Union Health Ministry said that those above 60 years of age account for 60% of Covid-19 deaths in India. Older people and people with pre- existing medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease) appear to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the coronavirus and dying from it.
  8. 8. CONTINUED… • A WHO-China joint report on Covid-19 had found that in cases of novel coronavirus mortality increases with age. • Mortality rate as per age and pre- existing illness in China. AGE DEATH RATE 80+ years old 14.8% 70-79 years old 8.0% 60-69 years old 3.6% 50-59 years old 1.3% 40-49 years old 0.4% 30-39 years old 0.2% 20-29 years old 0.2% 10-19 years old 0.2% 0-9 years old no fatalities PRE-EXISTING CONDITION DEATH RATE Cardiovascular disease 10.5% Diabetes 7.3% Chronic respiratory disease 6.3% Hypertension 6.0% Cancer 5.6% No pre-existing conditions 0.9%
  9. 9. CONTINUED… Italy has one of the oldest populations in the world. It has been struggling under the pressure of coronavirus. The Italian national health institute (ISS) said the average age of those who died of coronavirus in Italy was 78.5 years, with the youngest victim aged 31 and the oldest 103. In South Korea, which had an early surge of cases, the death rate in Covid- 19 patients ages 80 and over was 10.4%, compared to 5.35% in 70- somethings, 1.51% in patients 60 to 69, 0.37% in 50-somethings. Even lower rates were seen in younger people, dropping to zero in those 29 and younger.
  10. 10. CONTINUED… • Fertility- A study of 9 pregnant women in China who contracted coronavirus—and their 9 subsequent healthy live births— demonstrated that they did not pass the virus along to their babies in utero or via breast milk. However, there have been two reports of newborns with COVID-19 infections shortly after birth, so the possibility of “vertical transmission" of the virus from mother to baby cannot be excluded.
  11. 11. COVID 19 & RACISM • Black Americans face alarming rates of coronavirus infection in some states of USA. • African-Americans account for more than half of those who have tested positive and 72 percent of virus-related fatalities in Chicago, even though they make up a little less than a third of the population. • In Illinois, 43 percent of people who have died from the disease and 28 percent of those who have tested positive are African-Americans, a group that makes up just 15 percent of the state’s population. • Black Americans disproportionately belong to part of the work force that does not have the luxury of working from home that places them at high risk for contracting the highly infectious disease in transit or at work. • Longstanding inequalities also make African-Americans less likely to be insured, and more likely to have existing health conditions and face racial bias that prevents them from getting proper treatment.
  12. 12. WORKS CITED • https://www.newyorker.com/news/q-and-a/a-demographers-view-of-the- coronavirus-pandemic • https://population-europe.eu/news/demography-coronavirus • https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/us/coronavirus-race.html

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