Más contenido relacionado


PLATO ppt educ 200.pptx

  2. PLATO
  3. BIOGRAPHY Plato was a classical Greek philosopher. He was born in Athens, between 427-347 B.C.E Plato’s birth name was Aristocles ( not to be confused with Aristotle) and he gained the nickname “ Platon” because of his broad build.  He is student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE), teacher of Aristotle (384–322 BCE), and founder of the Academy, best known as the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence. He is the son of Ariston (his father) and Perictione (his mother), Plato was born in the year after the death of the great Athenian statesman Pericles.
  4. PLATO’S METHOD OF TEACHING Plato divided his scheme of education into two parts I.E Elementary and Higher Education. It is so because according to Plato there are some certain aspects which are to be developed at a certain age. The highest goal of education, Plato believed, is the knowledge of good: to nurture a man to a better human being it is not merely an awareness of particular benefits and pleasures.
  5. • “ Do not then train youths by force and hardness but direct them to it by what amuses their minds so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each”- Plato • Plato write in his Republic “ Bodily exercise, when compulsory, does no harm to the body; but knowledge which is acquired under compulsion obtains no hold on the mind”. PLATO’S METHOD OF TEACHING
  6. Plato wants a place where children love to go and stay there, and they play with things which enhance their education by playing. • Plato gives importance to nursery education, he thinks nursery education plays a vital role in the education of man, it help to build his moral character and state of mind.
  7. • Plato believed in the Dialect method of teaching. In this method the student is dependent on the teacher for knowledge and learning and the teacher has all the pressure. • This can also be seen in his theory of Allegory of cave.
  8. • Plato think it will be hard to discover a better method of education that that which the experiences of so many ages has already discovered, and this may be summed up as consisting in gymnastics for the body. • According to Plato learning is a lifelong process. Learning is not only done at any educational institution, but it starts from the surroundings and ends with the death of person.
  9. PLATO’S AIMS OF EDUCATION A) To develop leader among the future rulers B) To develop hard and competent workers C) To produce leaders with military skill among the warriors D) To produce future civil servants of the state.
  11. Relevance of his philosophy in today’s education system
  12. Plato regards education to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when everyone develops his or her ability to the fullest. In this sense, justice means excellence. For the Greeks and Plato, excellence is virtue.
  13. Do not train children to learn by force and harshness, but direct them to it by what amuses their mind, so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each. Freedom for Children
  14. • It is compulsory, state regulated and meant for both sexes • It ensures both physical and mental development • The most important part of education is proper training in nursery Freedom for Children
  15. It improves morality Elements of justice occupies great position It is an ideal philosophi cal plan
  16. 1. State controlled system of compulsory education- He does not favor the idea of leaving education in the parents. He considered education as positive means by which the ruler could mold the character of the people and promote spirit of unselfish devotion towards their duties. 2. Favor education, both for men and women- He was in favor women holding public office like men. It is for this step of his, that he is regarded as a revolutionary.
  17. 3. Aimed at moral as well as physical development of the child- He held that a healthy mind could reside only in a healthy body and it was essential that education should develop both these faculties. 4. Produce philosopher king- It was the chief objective of his scheme of education. The philosophers were expected to govern the masses only through rigorous program of education.
  19. Only 3 subjects Math, Literature, and Philosophy in fourth stage 20-30 years And too late to develop reasoning as the mental attributes would have passed right age to study science It focuses too much on the group and not enough on the individuals
  20. His training or education plan was rigorous and many would say it was impossible to meet such standards Plato system is impractical and theoretical Education extending to 35 will be expensive and will also kill initiative in men at the age.
  21. “Bodily exercise, when compulsory, done no harm to the body, but knowledge which is acquired under compulsion obtains no hold on the mind” -Plato-
  22. It is primarily meant for the ruling class only and ignores the lower classes, which represents the over- whelming majority of population. Its censorship means that there should be no freedom of speech and expression of opinion other than what the stage suggests and allows, which is unacceptable in modern times. In curriculum, Plato does not propose for the future legislators any study of finance, law and military tactics but only of abstract mathematics
  23. • It is more theoretical and less practical. • It is too expensive to be afforded. • Very little mention of the education of any classes except the guardians. • His classification ( The Producer, The Auxiliaries and the Guardians) of the ancient Greek citizen is quite outdated in our present context but his position can be considered at his time his proposition is also defective, his classification was base on class but how a children’s future can be predicted was not clear in his writings.
  24. • He criticizes the individual schools of education because he thought that could misdirect the student and can be separated from the ideology of the state on the other hand his own thought can be defined as individual thought of state and education then he falls in his own fallacy. • His theory can be questioned, moreover it is evident that diversity and individual enterprise brought the most fruitful time. • In the third stage , Plato reserved the whole space for gymnastics and military training where there must be some intellectual training too.
  25. Fourth Stage: Stage to get higher education at the age after thirty is quite difficult because it will kill the initiative in man at that age. Fifth Stage: Education shall be quite hectic for the learners at the age of fifty.
  27. WHAT IS AN ALLEGORY? The Allegory of the Cave is a theory put forward by Plato, concerning human perceptions. Plato claimed that knowledge gained through the sense is no more than opinion and that, in order to have real knowledge, we must gain it through philosophical reasoning.
  28. PURSPOSES OF THE ALLEGORY 1. Distinguish appearance from reality- it is possible to have the wrong understanding of the things we see, hear, feel etc. 2. Explain the enlightenment a. Moving from shadow to the real b. Involved pain and confusion c. Makes you an outcast is a one-way trip d. Improves you, but makes you a nerd e. Makes you mentally clumsy f. Cannot be taught, you must see for yourself
  29. 3. Introduce the theory of forms a. The allegory provides for an analogy b. Two realm- Physical and Spiritual What is Form? Abstract, perfect, unchanging concept exist in the forms. More real
  30. The Allegory of the cave by Plato should not be taken at face value. In essays and exams, whoever is marking it expects you to have a deeper understanding of the meaning of the theory. You can then use these to think about criticisms and then to form your own opinion. The Cave •In Plato’s theory, the cave represents people who believe that knowledge comes from what we see and hear in the world – empirical evidence. The cave shows that believers of empirical knowledge are trapped in a ‘cave’ of misunderstanding. The Shadows •The Shadows represent the perceptions of those who believe empirical evidence ensures knowledge. If you believe that what you see should be taken as truth, then you are merely seeing a shadow of the truth. In Plato’s opinion you are a ‘pleb’ if you believe this (their insult for those who are not Philosophers)!
  31. The Game •The Game represents how people believe that one person can be a ‘master’ knowledge of the empirical world. Plato is demonstrating that this master truth, and suggesting that it is ridiculous to admire someone like this. The Escape •The escaped prisoner represents the Philosopher, who seeks knowledge outside of the senses. •The Sun represents philosophical truth and knowledge •His intellectual journey represents a philosophers journey when finding The Return •The other prisoners reaction to the escapee returning represents that philosophical truths and do not trust philosophers.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Like this quotes there are many other thoughts and views that are quite contradictory with his own thoughts in this quote, Plato stand against compulsory education by force by in his own opinion he wanted to enforce compulsory education to the children even by separating them from their parents, which is questionable indeed.
  2. Imagine a cave in which prisoners are chained and seated so that they all face one way, towards the wall.
  3. Behind the prisoners is a fire, which they cannot see, that casts the shadow on the wall before them.
  4. Between the fire and the prisoners is a parapet, or walkway, where people are crossing back and forth with strange objects held above their heads.
  5. Everything the prisoner see or hear is bounced off the wall. They therefore think of that as the true reality.