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Base is county layer with ACS county layer Total Ancestry reported, Czech only Overlay is places layer with ACS data 2010 first and second ancestry Czech combined First table top 10 states with ACS data 2010 Total Ancestry Reported 2010 American Community Survey: 1-Year Data Second table is top 10 ACS cities with data 2010 first and second ancestry combined.
2000 Ancestry and 1920 population with 100 or more Czechs
2000 Ancestry and 1920 population with 100 or more Czechs
Czechoslovak born population in table
Base map is 1990 county layer with First Czech Ancestry only Overlay is MSA 1990 layer with Czechoslovak born people so is 1st table Table 2 & 3 Czech Ancestry Only 1990
Czech ancestry only. Multiple counts
AAG Presentation on Czech immigration and ancestry
Mapping Czech Ancestry in the United States
Penn State University
AAG Conference, San Francisco
March 31, 2016
Advisor: Deryck Holdsworth
Czechs in Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia was a multinational state of Czechs, Slovaks and
other minorities like Germans, Poles, and Hungarians.
Carpathian Ruthenia ceded to the USSR in 1945. The Czech
Republic was established after the dissolution of
Czechoslovakia in 1993.
What is Czech ancestry? Define scope and geographic extent
First migrants were classified as German, and until 1870
National composition and regional boundaries of Czech lands
Czech-German marriages were common. In 1900, according to
the U.S. Census, there were 14,584 households with a Czech-
German/Austrian wife or husband.
Understanding challenges and limitations
Until 1910, the U.S. census Czech population was recorded
as Bohemians and Moravians. The present administrative
division of the Czech Republic does not follow medieval
boundaries. Only the Catholic Church, to a certain degree,
respects the historical provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, and
ACS 2010 data estimate 1,533,826
individuals with Czech Ancestry and 68,301
born in the Czech Republic or Slovakia.
Total Czech Ancestry Reported in 2010
Locate areas in USA with significant Czech ancestry
Moravian Church and Austrian Immigrants
1850 and earlier:
• First settler arrived in
• Moravians settled in
Colonies around 1730s-
• Mass migration from
Austria started afer
• Prior censuses and
immigration data is
counted as German
• Many Czechs were
attracted to California
due to the Gold Rush
Gather data from oldest possible government sources
Bohemian & Moravian Immigrants in 1850 -1870
Identify first geographic regions with significant Czech population
Chicago emerged as the main hub for
Czech immigrants. Iowa, Wisconsin
and Nebraska were popular for
settlers arriving after the Civil War.
Bohemian & Moravian Immigration in 1870-1900
Czech immigration established present-day ancestry pattern
Immigration increased the Czech
population in Midwest, New York
Bohemian and Moravian Population 1910
By 1900 the majority of Czech
speakers were born in the USA. The
1910 census differentiated Slovaks
from Czech speakers.
Population changed from foreign-born to domestic
1910 Czech Population by Birth and Nativity
Czech rural communities in the Midwest
ceased to attract new arrivals, who settled
in NY, PA, and NJ. Texas emerged as
another state with large Czech
communities having both new immigrants
and 2nd & 3rd generations of Czech
Capture trends and understand geospatial distribution
Czech speaking population in 1930 by county
Czech ancestry resembles the population language pattern established around WWII. While
immigration decreased significantly after 1924, the Czech community had a vibrant social and political
life. There were multiple newspapers, magazines and publishing houses dedicated to the Czech
speaking community. These media helped preserve the Czech heritage and identity it for several
Methodology: Map a population by percentage of the total population
1900-1920 was the peak of Czech immigration, which started to
assimilate in the second and third generation. The Midwest
remains an area with a large percentage of people claiming Czech
ancestry 100 years after settling.
Rural Population in 1920 and 2000 Ancestry
Rural and rural/urban pattern – Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota
First settlers arrived to Texas in 1848, but it took 50 years before Texas emerged as the state with one of the largest Czech population
in the country. This population was predominantly rural and settled by people with second and third generation of Czech-Americans.
Texas communities were small and self-sustaining, where association with the Czech heritage remains strong even after 5-6
Czech Population in Texas 1900 -1930
Rural pattern: - Texas
Chicago had the largest Czech community in the USA with 50,000 people in 1920. This community had numerous social organizations,
schools, and businesses, but began to move to the suburbs by 1930.
Chicago, city with the largest Czech community in U.S.
Czechoslovak Population in Chicago 1910-1930
WWII and the Cold War prevented repopulation of the community, which preferred living in Cicero, IL. The Czechoslovak population
declined by half in 1950 from its peak in 1920, and was mostly gone by 1970.
Population change within metropolitan area - suburbanization
Czechoslovak Population in Chicago 1950-1970
Czech community in Baltimore
Baltimore community assimilated leaving very few traces
behind like the Bohemian cemetery. Washington, DC became a
magnet for Czech and Czechoslovak immigration following
communist takeover in 1948.
Baltimore: urban community that assimilated
Czechoslovak Ancestry Change 1930-1960
While the number or Czechs and
Czechoslovaks born in the
ancestral land decreased, people
of Czech and Czechoslovak
heritage continued to grow in the
middle of the 20th century, by
380,000 since 1910.
Map a population change over time
Czechoslovak Born Population 1940-1970
The Czechoslovak-born population
decreased after 1940 as a result of
limited immigration due to WWII
and the Cold War, which reached
all time low in 1958 with 86 new
Trend Analysis - Assimilation and internal migration
Czechoslovak Ancestry Change 1960-1980
People of Czechoslovak ancestry followed
general trends established after WWII: flight
to suburbs and moving to cities in the Sun
Visualization of the Population Change Between Two Census Counts
Czechoslovak Ancestry in 1980
o Separate census ancestry for Slovaks
o Chicago and New York remained top
cities with Czechoslovak-born
o Immigrants and ancestry have not
shared the same geographic areas
o Immigration increased by 11,000
Methodology: Ancestry versus Czechoslovak immigrants
Change of Ancestry (Single) 1980-2000
The Population with Czech and Czechoslovak
ancestry increased to one million by 1980,
and became much more scattered across the
Anticipated Result: Population migration and urban growth
1990 Census Facts:
o 87,020 Czechoslovaks born
o 1,012,576 Czechs and
Czechoslovaks ancestries reported
o 772,087 Czech ancestry only
o 95.5% Czechs lived in
Czech Ancestry and Czechoslovak Born in 1990
Czech ancestry classified as unique
2000 Census – Czech/Czechoslovak-Born Population and Ancestry
The census of 2000 provided the last
accurate information on distribution of
the Czech and Czechoslovak ancestry.
Immigration increased after the end of
the Cold War with 27,000 new arrivals
Anticipated Result: Urban assimilation versus rural heritage preservation
Timeline of Immigration - Summary
Immigration is affected by events
in both parts of the world. This
correlation was already noticed
in the 19th century.
• Capek, T. (1920). The Cechs (Bohemians) in America. Boston and New York: The
University Press Cambridge.
• Directory and almanac of the Bohemian population of Chicago (1915). Chicago
• Dillingham and Bennet (1911). Reports of the Immigration Commission. Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office.
• Hutton, J. (1922). A History of Moravian Missions. London: Moravian Publication Office.
• Minnesota Population Center. National Historical Geographic Information System: Version
2.0. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota 2011. Retrieved June 8 through July 17
• Neal, C. (n.d.). Guide to the Czech Communities in Texas. Retrieved June 22, 2015 from:
• Pánek, J. (2009). A history of the Czech lands (O. Tuma, Ed.). Prague: Charles University.
• Samanova, G. (2005). Nationality in the census in Czech lands/ Národnost ve sčítání lidu v
českých zemích. Retrieved June 7, 2015 from http://cvvm.soc.cas.cz/2005-1/narodnost-
• U.S. Census Bureau. (1910, April 15). Volume 1: Population: General Report and Analysis.
Retrieved June 22, 2015, from https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html.
• U.S. Department of State. Report of the Visa Office 2013. (n. d.). Immigrant Visas Issued
(by Foreign State of Chargeability or Place of Birth) Fiscal Year 2013. Retrieved June 8,