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Mapping Czech Ancestry in the United States
Richard Boruta
Penn State University
AAG Conference, San Francisco
March 31, 2...
Czechs in Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia was a multinational state of Czechs, Slovaks and
other minorit...
National composition and regional boundaries of Czech lands
Czech-German marriages were common. In 1900, according to
the ...
ACS 2010 data estimate 1,533,826
individuals with Czech Ancestry and 68,301
born in the Czech Republic or Slovakia.
Total ...
Moravian Church and Austrian Immigrants
1850 and earlier:
• First settler arrived in
1633
• Moravians settled in
Colonies ...
Bohemian & Moravian Immigrants in 1850 -1870
Identify first geographic regions with significant Czech population
6
Chicago...
Bohemian & Moravian Immigration in 1870-1900
Czech immigration established present-day ancestry pattern
7
Immigration incr...
Bohemian and Moravian Population 1910
By 1900 the majority of Czech
speakers were born in the USA. The
1910 census differe...
1910 Czech Population by Birth and Nativity
Czech rural communities in the Midwest
ceased to attract new arrivals, who set...
Czech speaking population in 1930 by county
Czech ancestry resembles the population language pattern established around WW...
1900-1920 was the peak of Czech immigration, which started to
assimilate in the second and third generation. The Midwest
r...
First settlers arrived to Texas in 1848, but it took 50 years before Texas emerged as the state with one of the largest Cz...
Chicago had the largest Czech community in the USA with 50,000 people in 1920. This community had numerous social organiza...
WWII and the Cold War prevented repopulation of the community, which preferred living in Cicero, IL. The Czechoslovak popu...
Czech community in Baltimore
Baltimore community assimilated leaving very few traces
behind like the Bohemian cemetery. Wa...
Czechoslovak Ancestry Change 1930-1960
While the number or Czechs and
Czechoslovaks born in the
ancestral land decreased, ...
Czechoslovak Born Population 1940-1970
The Czechoslovak-born population
decreased after 1940 as a result of
limited immigr...
Czechoslovak Ancestry Change 1960-1980
People of Czechoslovak ancestry followed
general trends established after WWII: fli...
Czechoslovak Ancestry in 1980
1980 Facts:
o Separate census ancestry for Slovaks
o Chicago and New York remained top
citie...
Change of Ancestry (Single) 1980-2000
The Population with Czech and Czechoslovak
ancestry increased to one million by 1980...
1990 Census Facts:
o 87,020 Czechoslovaks born
o 1,012,576 Czechs and
Czechoslovaks ancestries reported
o 772,087 Czech an...
2000 Census – Czech/Czechoslovak-Born Population and Ancestry
The census of 2000 provided the last
accurate information on...
Timeline of Immigration - Summary
Immigration is affected by events
in both parts of the world. This
correlation was alrea...
ReferencesQuestions?
• Capek, T. (1920). The Cechs (Bohemians) in America. Boston and New York: The
University Press Cambr...
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AAG Presentation on Czech immigration and ancestry

Thesis research presentation on Czech immigration and Czech ancestry in USA from 1850 to 2010.

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AAG Presentation on Czech immigration and ancestry

  1. 1. Mapping Czech Ancestry in the United States Richard Boruta Penn State University AAG Conference, San Francisco March 31, 2016 Advisor: Deryck Holdsworth
  2. 2. Czechs in Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia was a multinational state of Czechs, Slovaks and other minorities like Germans, Poles, and Hungarians. Carpathian Ruthenia ceded to the USSR in 1945. The Czech Republic was established after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993. What is Czech ancestry? Define scope and geographic extent 2 First migrants were classified as German, and until 1870 as Austrian.
  3. 3. National composition and regional boundaries of Czech lands Czech-German marriages were common. In 1900, according to the U.S. Census, there were 14,584 households with a Czech- German/Austrian wife or husband. Understanding challenges and limitations 3 Until 1910, the U.S. census Czech population was recorded as Bohemians and Moravians. The present administrative division of the Czech Republic does not follow medieval boundaries. Only the Catholic Church, to a certain degree, respects the historical provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia.
  4. 4. ACS 2010 data estimate 1,533,826 individuals with Czech Ancestry and 68,301 born in the Czech Republic or Slovakia. Total Czech Ancestry Reported in 2010 Locate areas in USA with significant Czech ancestry 4
  5. 5. Moravian Church and Austrian Immigrants 1850 and earlier: • First settler arrived in 1633 • Moravians settled in Colonies around 1730s- 40s. • Mass migration from Austria started afer the1848 Revolution • Prior censuses and immigration data is counted as German • Many Czechs were attracted to California due to the Gold Rush Gather data from oldest possible government sources 5
  6. 6. Bohemian & Moravian Immigrants in 1850 -1870 Identify first geographic regions with significant Czech population 6 Chicago emerged as the main hub for Czech immigrants. Iowa, Wisconsin and Nebraska were popular for settlers arriving after the Civil War.
  7. 7. Bohemian & Moravian Immigration in 1870-1900 Czech immigration established present-day ancestry pattern 7 Immigration increased the Czech population in Midwest, New York and Ohio 1870 19001890 1880
  8. 8. Bohemian and Moravian Population 1910 By 1900 the majority of Czech speakers were born in the USA. The 1910 census differentiated Slovaks from Czech speakers. Population changed from foreign-born to domestic 8
  9. 9. 1910 Czech Population by Birth and Nativity Czech rural communities in the Midwest ceased to attract new arrivals, who settled in NY, PA, and NJ. Texas emerged as another state with large Czech communities having both new immigrants and 2nd & 3rd generations of Czech speakers. Capture trends and understand geospatial distribution 9
  10. 10. Czech speaking population in 1930 by county Czech ancestry resembles the population language pattern established around WWII. While immigration decreased significantly after 1924, the Czech community had a vibrant social and political life. There were multiple newspapers, magazines and publishing houses dedicated to the Czech speaking community. These media helped preserve the Czech heritage and identity it for several decades. Methodology: Map a population by percentage of the total population 10
  11. 11. 1900-1920 was the peak of Czech immigration, which started to assimilate in the second and third generation. The Midwest remains an area with a large percentage of people claiming Czech ancestry 100 years after settling. Rural Population in 1920 and 2000 Ancestry Rural and rural/urban pattern – Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota 11
  12. 12. First settlers arrived to Texas in 1848, but it took 50 years before Texas emerged as the state with one of the largest Czech population in the country. This population was predominantly rural and settled by people with second and third generation of Czech-Americans. Texas communities were small and self-sustaining, where association with the Czech heritage remains strong even after 5-6 generations. Czech Population in Texas 1900 -1930 Rural pattern: - Texas 12 1900 1930
  13. 13. Chicago had the largest Czech community in the USA with 50,000 people in 1920. This community had numerous social organizations, schools, and businesses, but began to move to the suburbs by 1930. Chicago, city with the largest Czech community in U.S. Czechoslovak Population in Chicago 1910-1930 13
  14. 14. WWII and the Cold War prevented repopulation of the community, which preferred living in Cicero, IL. The Czechoslovak population declined by half in 1950 from its peak in 1920, and was mostly gone by 1970. Population change within metropolitan area - suburbanization Czechoslovak Population in Chicago 1950-1970 14
  15. 15. Czech community in Baltimore Baltimore community assimilated leaving very few traces behind like the Bohemian cemetery. Washington, DC became a magnet for Czech and Czechoslovak immigration following communist takeover in 1948. Baltimore: urban community that assimilated 15 1900 1960
  16. 16. Czechoslovak Ancestry Change 1930-1960 While the number or Czechs and Czechoslovaks born in the ancestral land decreased, people of Czech and Czechoslovak heritage continued to grow in the middle of the 20th century, by 380,000 since 1910. Map a population change over time 16
  17. 17. Czechoslovak Born Population 1940-1970 The Czechoslovak-born population decreased after 1940 as a result of limited immigration due to WWII and the Cold War, which reached all time low in 1958 with 86 new arrivals. Trend Analysis - Assimilation and internal migration 17
  18. 18. Czechoslovak Ancestry Change 1960-1980 People of Czechoslovak ancestry followed general trends established after WWII: flight to suburbs and moving to cities in the Sun Belt. Visualization of the Population Change Between Two Census Counts 18
  19. 19. Czechoslovak Ancestry in 1980 1980 Facts: o Separate census ancestry for Slovaks o Chicago and New York remained top cities with Czechoslovak-born population o Immigrants and ancestry have not shared the same geographic areas o Immigration increased by 11,000 between 1970-1990 Methodology: Ancestry versus Czechoslovak immigrants 19
  20. 20. Change of Ancestry (Single) 1980-2000 The Population with Czech and Czechoslovak ancestry increased to one million by 1980, and became much more scattered across the USA. Anticipated Result: Population migration and urban growth 20
  21. 21. 1990 Census Facts: o 87,020 Czechoslovaks born o 1,012,576 Czechs and Czechoslovaks ancestries reported o 772,087 Czech ancestry only o 95.5% Czechs lived in metropolitan area Czech Ancestry and Czechoslovak Born in 1990 Czech ancestry classified as unique 21
  22. 22. 2000 Census – Czech/Czechoslovak-Born Population and Ancestry The census of 2000 provided the last accurate information on distribution of the Czech and Czechoslovak ancestry. Immigration increased after the end of the Cold War with 27,000 new arrivals since 1990. Anticipated Result: Urban assimilation versus rural heritage preservation 22
  23. 23. Timeline of Immigration - Summary Immigration is affected by events in both parts of the world. This correlation was already noticed in the 19th century. Conclusion 23
  24. 24. ReferencesQuestions? • Capek, T. (1920). The Cechs (Bohemians) in America. Boston and New York: The University Press Cambridge. • Directory and almanac of the Bohemian population of Chicago (1915). Chicago • Dillingham and Bennet (1911). Reports of the Immigration Commission. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. • Hutton, J. (1922). A History of Moravian Missions. London: Moravian Publication Office. • Minnesota Population Center. National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 2.0. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota 2011. Retrieved June 8 through July 17 from http://www.nhgis.org • Neal, C. (n.d.). Guide to the Czech Communities in Texas. Retrieved June 22, 2015 from: http://www.czechheritage.org/communities.html • Pánek, J. (2009). A history of the Czech lands (O. Tuma, Ed.). Prague: Charles University. • Samanova, G. (2005). Nationality in the census in Czech lands/ Národnost ve sčítání lidu v českých zemích. Retrieved June 7, 2015 from http://cvvm.soc.cas.cz/2005-1/narodnost- ve-scitani-lidu-v-ceskych-zemich. • U.S. Census Bureau. (1910, April 15). Volume 1: Population: General Report and Analysis. Retrieved June 22, 2015, from https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html. • U.S. Department of State. Report of the Visa Office 2013. (n. d.). Immigrant Visas Issued (by Foreign State of Chargeability or Place of Birth) Fiscal Year 2013. Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://travel.state.gov/content/dam/visas/Statistics/AnnualReports/FY2013AnnualReport/ FY13AnnualReport-TableIII.pdf. 24

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