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Effective speech and oral communication

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Effective speech and oral communication

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Effective speech and oral communication

  1. 1. PART I
  2. 2. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION  Communication is the blood-line of society.  Communication is basic to success.  Communication is important.
  3. 3. COMMUNICATION DEFINED  A process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding.  This process requires a vast repertoire of skills: a. intrapersonal and interpersonal processing b. listening c. observing d. speaking e. questioning f. analyzing g. evaluating
  4. 4. COMMUNICATION DEFINED  It can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules. 1. Syntactic 2. Pragmatic 3. Semantic  It is therefore a social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules.
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION DEFINED
  6. 6. COMMUNICATION PROCESS
  7. 7. PART 2
  8. 8. EFFECTIVE LISTENING  Expressing our wants, feelings, thoughts and opinions clearly and effectively is only half of the communication process needed for interpersonal effectiveness.  The other half is listening and understanding.  There is a real distinction between merely hearing the words and really listening to the message.
  9. 9. SOUND  The impact of vibrations make on the human ear – the reception of sound waves (Psychologist and speech teachers)  Sound is characterized by three features: pitch, loudness, and quality  Human speech adds a fourth feature – rate or timing.
  10. 10. RECEIVING SOUNDS Sound (Vibration)
  11. 11. THREE BASIC LISTENING MODES  Competitive or Combative Listening —Interested in promoting own stance than understanding someone else’s.  Passive or Attentive Listening —Interested in hearing and understanding others’ stance .  Active or Reflective Listening —Active in checking understanding before responding with message.
  12. 12. SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY BY THE SPEAKER 1. Voice volume is too low to be heard. 2. Message is too complex. 3. Speaker is getting lost. 4. Body language or nonverbal elements are contradicting or interfering with the verbal message. 5. Paying too much attention on how the other person is taking the message. 6. Using a very unique code or unconventional method for delivering message.
  13. 13. SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY BY THE LISTENER 1. Listener is preoccupied. 2. More interested in what he has to say that he listens mainly to find an opening to get the floor. 3. He is formulating and listening to his own rebuttal than to what the speaker is saying. 4. He is listening to his own personal beliefs about what is being said. 5. He is evaluating and making judgment about the speaker or the message. 6. He is not asking for clarification when he knows that he does not understand.
  14. 14. LISTENING TIPS  Usually, it is important to paraphrase and use your own words in verbalizing your understanding of the message.  Depending on the purpose of interaction and your understanding of what is relevant, you could reflect on the other person’s: a. account of the facts b. thoughts and beliefs c. feelings and emotions d. wants, needs or motivation e. hopes and expectations
  15. 15. LISTENING TIPS  Don’t respond to just the meaning of the words; look for feelings or intent beyond the words.  Inhibit from immediately answering questions.  Know when to quit using active listening.  If you are confused and know that you do not understand , ask the speaker to say it another way.  When the speaker is emotionally disturbed, use active listening as a response to him.  Use eye contact and listening body language.  Be emphatic and not judgmental.  Become a more effective listener.
  16. 16. PART 3
  17. 17. LANGUAGE  Instrument of communication —Oral or written —Verbal and Non-verbal  Organized system of signals —Sounds —Intonation —Gesture —Written symbols  A system of symbols (lexemes) and rules (grammar)
  18. 18. LANGUAGE  Oral Communication —Spoken language —Production of sound representation of language —Voice is the primary tool
  19. 19. VOICE  Voice and Speech —Voice is the production of sound —Speech is the combination of sounds  Becomes symbols that represent meanings  Has elements which reflect mood —Quality —Pitch —Force —Rate
  20. 20. VOICE QUALITY Quality Description Purpose Normal voice Speaker speaks naturally Normal Conversation Breathy voice Aspirate quality Whispering Full voice Deep quality of voice Orotund Speaking in Formal and Dignified Occasion Chesty voice Deep hollow voice Give Horror Effect Thin voice High-pitched Falsetto Extreme Fatigue and Excitement
  21. 21. VOICE LEVELS  Pitch shows emotion —High (e.g. angry lose control of their emotion) —Medium (unemotional) —Low (sadness, contempt, indifference or disappointment )
  22. 22. VOICE INTENSITY  It refers to the effect of a sound on the ear. —Its loudness or softness  The force when one speaks varies in degree and form. —Degree refers to the amount of force applied —High degree (e.g. shouting) —Low degree (e.g. whispering)
  23. 23. RATE OF SPEECH  It refers to the variations of speed. —Slow speech projects calmness, acceptance, and formality. —Too slow depicts dullness, listlessness, apathy, laziness, and lack of intelligence. —Rapid speech shows animation, enthusiasm, excitement, and informality. —Too fast suggests nervousness, tension, and anxiety.
  24. 24. THE SPEECH MECHANISM
  25. 25. THE SPEECH MECHANISM  Motor
  26. 26. THE SPEECH MECHANISM  Vibrator
  27. 27. THE SPEECH MECHANISM  Resonators
  28. 28. THE SPEECH MECHANISM  Articulators
  29. 29. CLASSIFICATION OF PARTS OF SPEECH MECHANISM  Motor —Respiratory muscles which are responsible for the regulation, expulsion and control of air  Vibrator —Vocal bands or cords to produce sound waves through vibration of the air  Resonators —Nose, mouth, and throat. Modulate sound waves  Articulators —Lips, teeth, tongue, upper gums, lower jaw, hard palate, and ovula. Give definite shape and character of sounds as air passes through the mouth or nose.
  30. 30. BREATHING AND FLEXIBILITY  Inhale deeply but relax.  Maintain a steady pressure of air as you speak.  Maintain an adequate breath reserve.
  31. 31. THE SPEECH SOUND
  32. 32. CONSONANTS  The sounds of all languages fall into two classes: consonants and vowels.  Consonants are produced with some restriction or closure in the vocal tract that impedes the flow of air from the lungs.  In phonetics, the terms consonant and vowel refer to types of sounds, not to the letters that represent them.  We classify consonants according to where in the vocal tract the airflow restriction occurs, called the place of articulation.
  33. 33. PLACE OF ARTICULATION
  34. 34. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Bilabials [p] [b] [m] bringing both lips together Labiodentals [f] [v] touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth Interdentals [θ] [ð] think [θɪŋk] these [ðiz] inserting the tip of the tongue between the teeth
  35. 35. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Alveolars [t] [d] [n] [s] [z] [l] [r] tongue raised in various ways to the alveolar ridge [t,d,n] the tongue tip is raised and touches the ridge, or slightly in front of it [s,z] the sides of the front of the tongue are raised, but the tip is lowered so that air escapes over it
  36. 36. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Alveolars [l] the tongue tip is raised while the rest of the tongue remains down, permitting air to escape over its sides [r] speakers either curl the tip of the tongue back behind the alveolar ridge, or bunch up the top of the tongue behind the ridge
  37. 37. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Palatals [ʃ] [ʒ] [tʃ] [dʒ] [j] mission [mɪʃən] measure [mɛʒər] cheap [tʃip] judge [dʒʌdʒ] yoyo [jojo] the constriction occurs by raising the front part of the tongue to the palate Velars [k] [g] [ŋ] kick [kɪk] gig [gɪg] back [bӕk] bag [bӕg] bang [bӕŋ] raising the back of the tongue to the soft palate or velum
  38. 38. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Uvulars [ʀ] [q] [ɢ] raising the back of the tongue to the uvula, the fleshy protuberance that hangs down in the back of our throats The r in French is often a uvular trill symbolized by [ʀ]. The uvular sounds [q] and [ɢ] occur in Arabic. These sounds do not ordinarily occur in English.
  39. 39. PLACE OF ARTICULATION Articulation Examples Production Glottals [h] [ʔ] The sound of [h] is from the flow of air through the open glottis, and past the tongue and lips as they prepare to pronounce a vowel sound, which always follows [h]. uh-oh [ʔʌʔo] If the air is stopped completely at the glottis by tightly closed vocal cords, the sound upon release of the cords is a glottal stop [ʔ]
  40. 40. PLACE OF ARTICULATION
  41. 41. MANNER OF ARTICULATION  Speech sounds also vary in the way the airstream is affected as it flows from the lungs up and out of the mouth and nose.  It may be blocked or partially blocked; the vocal cords may vibrate or not vibrate.  We refer to this as the manner of articulation.
  42. 42. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS  Sounds are voiceless when the vocal cords are apart so that air flows freely through the glottis into the oral cavity. [p] and [s] in super [supər] are two of the several voiceless sounds of English.  If the vocal cords are together, the airstream forces its way through and causes them to vibrate. Such sounds are voiced. [b] and [z] in buzz [bʌz] are two of the many voiced sounds of English.
  43. 43. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS Voiceless Voiced rope [rop] robe [rob] fate [fet] fade [fed] rack [ræk] rag [ræg] wreath [riθ] wreathe [rið]
  44. 44. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS Voiceless Voiced fine [faɪn] vine [vaɪn] seal [sil] zeal [zil] choke [tʃok] joke [dʒok] peat [pit] beat [bit] tote [tot] dote [dot] kale [kel] gale [gel]
  45. 45. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS Voiceless aspirated Voiceless unaspirated pool [pʰul] spool [spul] tale [tʰel] stale [stel] kale [kʰel] scale [skel]
  46. 46. VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS
  47. 47. NASAL AND ORAL SOUNDS
  48. 48. NASAL AND ORAL SOUNDS
  49. 49. STOPS Stops Examples Production bilabial stops [p], [b], [m] airstream stopped at the mouth by the complete closure of the lips alveolar stops [t], [d], [n] the airstream is stopped by the tongue, making a complete closure at the alveolar ridge velar stops [k], [g], [ŋ] with the complete closure at the velum palatal affricates [tʃ], [dʒ] with complete stop closures glottal stop [ʔ] the air is completely stopped at the glottis
  50. 50. FRICATIVES  Fricatives  [f] [v] [θ] [ð] [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [x] [ɣ] [h]  In the production of some continuants, the airflow is so severely obstructed that it causes friction, and the sounds are therefore called fricatives.
  51. 51. FRICATIVES Fricatives Examples Production labiodental fricatives [f], [v] the friction is created at the lips and teeth, where a narrow passage permits the air to escape interdental fricatives [θ], [ð] the friction occurs at the opening between the tongue and teeth alveolar fricatives [s], [z] the friction created at the alveolar ridge
  52. 52. FRICATIVES Fricatives Examples Production palatal fricatives [ʃ], [ʒ] mission [mɪʃən] measure [mԑʒər] friction created as the air passes between the tongue and the part of the palate behind the alveolar ridge In English, the voiced palatal fricative never begins words except for foreign words such as genre. The voiceless palatal fricative begins the words shoe [ʃu] and sure [ʃur] and ends the words rush [rʌʃ] and push [pʊʃ]. glottal fricative [h] its relatively weak sound comes from air passing through the open glottis and pharynx
  53. 53. AFFRICATES  [tʃ] [dʒ]  These sounds are produced by a stop closure followed immediately by a gradual release of the closure that produces an effect characteristic of a fricative.  The palatal sounds that begin and end the words church and judge are voiceless and voiced affricates, respectively.  Affricates are not continuants because of the initial stop closure.
  54. 54. GLIDES  [j] [w]  The sounds [j] and [w], the initial sounds of you [ju] and we [wi], are produced with little obstruction of the airstream.  They are always followed directly by a vowel and do not occur at the end of words.  After articulating [j] or [w], the tongue glides quickly into place for pronouncing the next vowel, hence the term glide.
  55. 55. VOWELS  Vowels are produced with little restriction of the airflow from the lungs out the mouth and/or the nose.  Vowel sounds carry pitch and loudness.  We classify vowels according to three questions: 1. How high or low in the mouth is the tongue? 2. How forward or backward in the mouth is the tongue? 3. Are the lips rounded (pursed) or spread?
  56. 56. TONGUE POSITION
  57. 57. TONGUE POSITION Types of Vowels Examples Production high front vowels [i] he [hi] the tongue is high in the mouth and the front part is raised high back vowel [u] who [hu] the tongue is high in the mouth and back part of the tongue is raised low back vowel [a] hah [ha] the back of the tongue is low in the mouth [ɪ] and [ʊ] hit [hɪt], heat [hit] put [pʰʊt], hoot [hut] slightly lowered tongue positions
  58. 58. TONGUE POSITION Types of Vowels Examples Production low front vowel [æ] hack [hæk] produced with the front part of the tongue low in the mouth, similar to the low vowel [a], but with the front rather than the back part of the tongue lowered front mid vowels [e] and [ɛ] bait [bet] bet [bɛt] raising the front of the tongue to a position midway between the high and low vowels back mid vowels [o] and [ɔ] boat [bot] bore [bɔr] raising back of the tongue to a position midway between the high and low vowels
  59. 59. TONGUE POSITION Types of Vowels Examples Production lower mid central vowel [ʌ] butt [bʌt] the tongue is not strictly high nor low, front nor back schwa vowel [ə] about [əbaʊt] sofa [sofə] articulated with the tongue in a more or less neutral position between the extremes of high/low, front/back the schwa is used mostly to represent unstressed vowels
  60. 60. LIP ROUNDING Types of Vowels Examples Production rounded vowels [u] boot [ʊ] put [o] boat [ɔ] bore produced with pursed or rounded lips Unrounded vowel [i] cheese [a] bar, bah, aha with the lips in the shape of a smile
  61. 61. LIP ROUNDING
  62. 62. DIPHTHONGS  A diphthong is a sequence of two vowel sounds.  Diphthongs are present in the phonetic inventory of many languages, including English.  The vowels we have studied so far are simple vowels, called monophthongs.
  63. 63. DIPHTHONGS Diphthongs Sound Sequence Examples [aɪ] [a] father followed rapidly by the [ɪ] sound of fit bite [baɪt] [aʊ] [a] followed by the [ʊ] sound of put bout [baʊt] [ɔɪ] [ɔ] of bore followed by [ɪ] boy [bɔɪ]
  64. 64. NASALIZATION OF VOWELS  Vowels can be produced with a raised velum that prevents the air from escaping through the nose, or with a lowered velum that permits air to pass through the nasal passage.  Nasal vowels occur for the most part before nasal consonants in the same syllable, and oral vowels occur in all other places.  The words bean, bone, bingo, boom, bam, and bang are examples of words that contain nasalized vowels.  To show the nasalization of a vowel in a narrow phonetic transcription, an extra mark called a diacritic—the symbol ~ (tilde) placed over the vowel, as in bean [bĩn] and bone [bõn].
  65. 65. TENSE AND LAX VOWELS
  66. 66. PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND SPELLING CORRESPONDENCES
  67. 67. PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND SPELLING CORRESPONDENCES
  68. 68. PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND SPELLING CORRESPONDENCES
  69. 69. RULES ON WORD STRESS  1. Two-Syllable nouns and adjectives  In most two syllable nouns and adjectives, the first syllable takes on the stress.  Examples: SAM-ples CAR-ton Col-or-ful RAI-ny  2. Two-Syllable verbs and prepositions  In most two syllable verbs and prepositions, the stress is on the second syllable.  Examples: re-LAX, re-CEIVE, di-RECT, a-MONG  Verbs and prepositions usually get stress placed on the second syllable, but there are exceptions to this too.  a-SIDE  be-TWEEN
  70. 70. RULES ON WORD STRESS  3. Three-Syllable words  For three syllable words, look at the word ending (the suffix), using the following as your guide.  4. Words ending in er, or, ly  For words ending with the suffixes er, or, or ly, the stress is placed on the first syllable.  Examples: DI-Rect/DI-rec-tor, OR-der/OR-der-ly, MA-nage/MA-nag-er
  71. 71. RULES ON WORD STRESS  5. Words ending in consonants and in y  If there is a word that ends in a consonant or in a y, then the first syllable gets the stress.  Examples: RA-ri-ty  OP-ti-mal  GRA-di-ent  CON-tain-er
  72. 72. RULES ON WORD STRESS  6. Words with various endings  Take a good look at the list of suffixes below (suffixes are word endings). Your stress is going to come on the syllable right before the suffix. This applies to words of all syllable lengths.  able: ADDable, ARable, DURable  ary: PRIMary, DIary, liBRary  cial: juDIcial, nonSOcial  cian: muSIcian, phySIcian, cliNICian  ery: BAkery, SCENery  graphy: calLIgraphy, bibliOgraphy, stenOgraphy
  73. 73. RULES ON WORD STRESS  ial: celesTIal, iniTIal, juDICial  ian: coMEdian, ciVILian, techNIcian  ible: viSIble, terRIble, reSIstible  ic: arCHAic, plaTOnic, synTHEtic  ical: MAgical, LOgical, CRItical  ics: diaBEtics, paediAtrics
  74. 74. RULES ON WORD STRESS  ion: classifiCAtion, repoSItion, vegeTAtion  ity: imMUnity, GRAvity, VAnity  ium: HElium, ALUminum, PREmium  imum: MInimum, MAXimum, OPtimum  logy: BIology, CARdiology, RAdiology  tal: caPItal, biCOAstal, reCItal
  75. 75. RULES ON WORD STRESS  7. Words ending in ee, ese, ique, ette  Words that use the suffix ee, ese, eer, ique or ette, have the primary stress actually placed on the suffix. This applies to words of all syllable lengths.  Examples: ee: agrEE, jamborEE, guarantEE  eer: sightsEER, puppetEER  ese: SiamESE, JapanESE, cheESE  ette: cassETTE, CorvETTE, towelETTE  ique: unIQUE, physIQUE
  76. 76. RULES ON WORD STRESS  8. Prefixes  Usually, prefixes do not take the stress of a word. There are a few exceptions to this rule, however, like: un, in, pre, ex and mis, which are all stressed in their prefix.  Examples: ex: e-XAM-ple, ex-pla-NAtion, e-XAM-ine  in: IN-side, IN-efficient, IN-terest  mis: MIS-spoke, MI-stake, MIS-spelled  pre: PRE-cede, PRE-ar-range, PRE-li-min-ary
  77. 77. RULES ON WORD STRESS  9. Stress on the second from the end syllable  You put stress on the second syllable from the end of the word, with words ending in ic, sion and tion.  Examples: i-CON-ic  Hy-per-TEN-sion  Nu-TRI-tion
  78. 78. RULES ON WORD STRESS  10. Stress on the third from end syllable  You put stress on the third from end syllable with words that end in cy, ty, phy, gy and al.  Examples: de-mo-CRA-cy  TREA-ty  Ge-O-graphy  AL-ler-gy  NAU-ti-cal
  79. 79. RULES ON WORD STRESS  C. Compound verbs  A compound verb is when a subject has two or more verbs. The stress is on the second or on the last part.  Examples: Matilda loves bread but de-TESTS butter.  Sarah baked cookies and ATE them up.  Dogs love to eat bones and love DRIN-king water.  D. Noun + compound nouns  Noun + compound Nouns are two word compound nouns. In noun + compound noun, the stress is on the first word.  Examples: AIR-plane mechanic  PRO-ject manager  BOARD-room member
  80. 80. RULES ON WORD STRESS  B. Compound adjectives  A compound adjective is an adjective composed of at least two words. Often, hyphens are used in compound adjectives. In compound adjectives, the stress is placed within the second word.  Examples: ten-ME-ter  rock-SO-lid  Fif-teen-MI-nute
  81. 81. RULES ON WORD STRESS  11. Word stress for compound words  A. Compound noun  A compound noun is a noun made out of two nouns in order to form one word. In a compound noun, the first word usually takes on the stress.  Examples: SEA-food  ICE-land  TOOTH-paste
  82. 82. RULES ON WORD STRESS  12. Phrasal verbs  Phrasal verbs are words made from a verb and preposition.  In phrasal verbs, the second word gets the stress (the preposition).  Examples: Black OUT  break DOWN  look OUT  13. Proper nouns  Proper nouns are specific names of people, places or things. For example: Jeniffer, Spain, Google.  The second word is always the one that takes the stress  Examples: North DAKOTA  Mr. SMITH  Apple INCORPORATED
  83. 83. RULES ON WORD STRESS  14. Reflexive pronouns  Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. For example: I hit myself. The second syllable usually takes the stress.  Examples: my-SELF  Them-SELVES  Our-SELVES  15. Numbers  If the number is a multiple of ten, the stress is placed on the first syllable.  Examples: TEN  FIF-ty  ONE-hundred
  84. 84. INTONATION
  85. 85. INTONATION  The falling tone
  86. 86. INTONATION  The low rising tone
  87. 87. INTONATION  The high rising tone
  88. 88. INTONATION  The fall-rise tone
  89. 89. PART 4
  90. 90. INTRODUCTION  Humans’ ability to communicate using formalized systems of language sets us apart from other living creatures on the Earth.  The ironic feature of public speaking is that while we recognize that it is an important skill to have, many of us do not like or want to give speeches.  Anyone can learn to give effective presentations.
  91. 91. BENEFITS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Public Professional Personal • allow you to participate in democracy at its most basic level • is required at any professions • enhances chance of securing employment and advancing in career • fulfills essential roles in family and community • builds self-confidence
  92. 92. MODELS OF COMMUNICATION
  93. 93. MODELS OF COMMUNICATION
  94. 94. THREE TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING  1. Speeches that inform  Explain  Report  Describe  Clarify  Define
  95. 95. THREE TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING  2. Speeches that persuade  Designed to convince or influence beliefs or attitudes  3. Speeches that entertain  Use humor to influence an audience  Goal: to warm audience up
  96. 96. SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  A special occasion speech includes one of several kinds that celebrate an occasion.  More specifically, it might introduce a speaker, entertain an audience, or inspire people.  Another term for special occasion speech is ceremonial speech.
  97. 97. PURPOSE OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Magnification  It means giving benefit to the audience, amplifying emotion, and exceeding expectations.  Identification  It involves creating familiarity and closeness.
  98. 98. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Speech of Introduction  Toast and Roast  Speech to Present an Award  Acceptance Speech  Keynote Address  Commencement Speech  Commemorative Speeches and Tributes  After-Dinner Speech
  99. 99. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Speech of Introduction  A speech of introduction is a brief presentation used to introduce the main speaker of an event and to inspire the audience to listen to that speaker.  The introductory speech usually has three components: 1. provide a brief backdrop or background of the main speaker 2. introduce the speaker’s topic 3. an invitation from the audience to warmly welcome the speaker
  100. 100. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Toast  A toast is a brief tribute to a person or event.  Roast  A roast is a variation of the toast in which the speaker pays tribute to a person by poking fun at her or him in a friendly way.
  101. 101. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Presentational Speech  Also called a speech to present an award, the presentational speech serves to highlight the merits of the award recipient and to point out the purpose and significance of the award being given.  Acceptance Speech  Also called the speech to accept an award, the acceptance speech gives the recipient an opportunity to express appreciation for the award as well as humility and grace.
  102. 102. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Keynote Address  The keynote address represents the keynote of a larger idea taking place at a conference or exposition usually organized around a central theme.
  103. 103. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Commencement Speech  The commencement speech is given by a well-known person of local, national, or international acclaim to mark a university or secondary school graduation ceremony.
  104. 104. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  Commemorative or Tribute Speech  A commemorative or tribute speech is one that pays special accolades to an occasion, extraordinary person, event, idea, or monument.  Such a speech is intended to reflect the emotions of the audience.
  105. 105. TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES  After-dinner Speech  During the after-dinner speech, audiences expect to be entertained by a speech that informs them about a particular issue.  This speech sometimes uses humor to make a serious point.
  106. 106. IDENTIFYING YOUR SPEAKING STYLE  Cool presenter  Hot presenter  Dull presenter
  107. 107. SPEAKING COMPETENCIES  Useful Topic  Engaging Introduction  Clear Organization  Well-Supported Ideas  Closure in Conclusion  Clear and Vivid Language  Suitable Vocal Expression  Corresponding Nonverbals  Adapted to the Audience  Adept Use of Visual Aids  Convincing Persuasion
  108. 108. DELIVERING YOUR PRESENTATION  Methods of Speech Delivery  Effective Verbal Delivery  Effective Nonverbal Delivery  Final Tips for Rehearsing and Delivering
  109. 109. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY  Manuscript Speaking  Rarely done well enough to be interesting  Guidelines 1. Type your manuscript in short, easy-to- scan phrases 2. Use appropriate nonverbal messages 3. Do not read the speech too quickly 4. Vary the rhythm, inflections, and pace of your delivery 5. Use gestures and movement to add nonverbal interest
  110. 110. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY  Memorized Speaking  Guidelines 1. Do not deliver your memorized speech too rapidly 2. Avoid patterns of vocal inflection that make the presentation sound recited 3. Use gestures and movement to add interest and emphasis to your message
  111. 111. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY  Impromptu Speaking  “off the cuff”  Guidelines 1. Consider your audience 2. Be brief 3. Organize 4. Draw upon your personal experience and knowledge 5. Use gestures and movement that arise naturally from what you are saying 6. Be aware of the potential impact of your communication
  112. 112. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY  Extemporaneous Speaking  Method of delivery preferred by most audiences  Guidelines 1. Use a full-content preparation outline when you begin to rehearse your presentation 2. Prepare an abbreviated delivery outline and speaking notes 3. Do not try to memorize your message word for word 4. As you deliver your presentation, adapt it to your audience
  113. 113. METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY RECAP Methods of Delivery Manuscript Reading a speech from written text Memorized Giving a speech word for word from memory without using notes Impromptu Delivering a presentation without advance preparation Extemporaneous Speaking from a written or memorized outline without having memorized the exact wording of the presentation
  114. 114. KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE  Make up of Audience  Superiors  Peers  Team members  Special interest groups  Mixed groups
  115. 115. TIME TO OUTLINE  Gather materials  Examples  Statistics  Testimony
  116. 116. PREPARING THE OUTLINE I. Introduction II. Body A. Main point B. Main point 1. Sub-point 2. Sub-point a. Sub sub-point b. Sub sub-point III. Conclusion
  117. 117. BUILDING THE BODY  Begin developing your speech by working on the middle first, or the body.  The body covers everything you want to say during your speech.  The body should have three to five main points for a 20 minute to half hour presentation.  And if you want your audience to remember those points, the most effective approach is point development.  Once your speech is over, the audience is going to remember main points only.
  118. 118. MAKING AN EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION  Get the attention of the audience.  You can get attention and interest by relating the topic to the audience. People pay attention to things that affect them directly.  Startle the audience with an arresting or intriguing statement.  “Almost one year ago today, a perfect stranger saved my best friend’s life.”  Arouse Curiosity.  Give an arresting synopsis of what you will explore. Or you may question your audience. This draws the audience in immediately.
  119. 119. PREPARING THE CONCLUSION  Two Purposes 1. Let the audience know you are ending 2. Reinforce central idea
  120. 120. EFFECTIVE VERBAL DELIVERY • Using words well • Crafting memorable word structure
  121. 121. USING WORDS WELL • Specific, Concrete Words – Refers to an object or action in the most specific way possible • Unbiased Words – Do not offend any sexual, racial, cultural, or religious group • Vivid Words – Add color and interest to your language • Simple Words – Immediately understandable • Correct Words – Grammatical and usage errors communicate a lack of preparation
  122. 122. CRAFTING MEMORABLE WORD STRUCTURES • Figurative Language – Metaphors (implied comparisons) – Similes (over comparisons) – Personification (attribution of human qualities to non-human things or ideas)
  123. 123. CRAFTING MEMORABLE WORD STRUCTURES • Drama –Omission (strip a phrase or sentence of nonessential words that the audience expects) • Do you believe that he can cope …? –Inversion (invert the usual subject-verb- object sentence pattern) • Him the crowd adores. –Suspension (saving a key word or phrase for the end of a sentence) • They tried, they fought, they did their best.
  124. 124. CRAFTING MEMORABLE WORD STRUCTURES • Cadence – Parallelism (two or more clauses have the same grammatical pattern) – Antithesis (the two structures contrast) • From rags to riches, from beans to beef, from water to wine. – Repetition (repeat key word or phrase) • The game was lost. The game was finished before it began. The game was a farce of sportsmanship. – Alliteration (repetition of an initial consonant sound several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence) • They have bribed us with promise, blackmailed us with threats, and bled us with
  125. 125. EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY • Eye contact • Physical delivery – Gestures – Movement – Posture • Facial expression
  126. 126. EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY • Vocal Delivery –Volume –Pitch –Rate –Articulation • Appearance
  127. 127. EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY RECAP Characteristics of Nonverbal Delivery Gestures should be relaxed, definite, varied, and appropriate. Movement should be purposeful Posture should feel natural and be appropriate to your topic, audience, and occasion Eye Contact should be established before you say anything and sustained throughout your presentation Facial Expression should be alert, friendly, and appropriate Volume should be loud enough to be heard and varied Pitch should be varied to sustain audience interest Rate should be neither too fast or too slow Articulation should be clear and distinct Appearance should conform to what the audience expects
  128. 128. FINAL TIPS FOR DELIVERING YOUR PRESENTATION  Finish your full-content outline several days before you must deliver the presentation  Practice, Practice, Practice  Practice good delivery skills while rehearsing  If possible, practice your presentation for someone else  Tape record or videotape your presentation
  129. 129. FINAL TIPS FOR DELIVERING YOUR PRESENTATION  Re-create the speaking situation in your final rehearsals  Get plenty of rest the night before you speak  Arrive early  After you have delivered your presentation, seek feedback from members of your audience.

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