2. INTRODUCTION :Smart locks, smart cars — you’ve probably heard some of these terms
lately, and you’re going to hear them even more as the year goes on. But what are these things
exactly — and what makes them so smart?
These devices are all part of an emerging category called the Internet of Things, or IoT for
Internet of things refers to a concept
that internet is no longer just a global
network for people to communicate
with one another using computers,
but it is a platform for devices to
communicate electronically with the
world around them.
It includes objects ranging from
computers to washing machines and
laptops to microwaves. It is based on
a rule that “everything that can be
connected should be connected”.
3. The Internet Of Things
The term ‘Internet of things’ was first used by
Kevin Ashton in 1999.
IoT refers to the connection of everyday objects to
the Internet and to one another, with the goal being
to provide users with smarter, more efficient
4. CHARACTERISTICS OF IOT
1) Interconnectivity: With regards to the IOT, all kinds
of objects or devices can be interconnected so that they
can share information globally.
2)Intelligence : IoT comes with the combination of
algorithms and computation, software & hardware that
makes it smart. In spite of all the popularity of smart
technologies, intelligence in IoT is only concerned as
means of interaction between devices, while user and
device interaction is achieved by standard input
methods and graphical user interface.
3)Heterogeneity: The devices with different
architectures and platforms can be connected to each
other. They can interact with other devices or service
platforms through different networks.
5. 4)Safety: As we gain benefits from the IOT, we
must not forget about safety. These smart devices
collect a lot of data . So, should we be worried
about safety? But in this context we can say that
companies are making arrangements to ensure
safety of all the data collected.
5)Connectivity: Connectivity enables different
devices to communicate with each other and
share the collected data . For example a smart
device may data collect regarding the routine of a
person and may share it with another device so
that it can take appropriate actions.
6. APPLICATIONS OF IOT
1.SMART HOMES :Wouldn’t you love if you could switch on air conditioner
before reaching home or switch off lights even after you have left home? Or
unlock the doors to friends for temporary access even when you are not at
home. Don’t be surprised. With IOT taking shape companies are building
products to make your life simpler and convenient.
Smart Home has become the revolutionary ladder of success in the residential
spaces and it is predicted Smart homes will become as common
as smartphone. All more with the help of IOT.
2.WEARABLES : Wearables have experienced a explosive demand in
markets all over the world. Companies like Google, Samsung have invested
heavily in building such devices. But, how do they work? Wearable devices
are installed with sensors and softwares which collect data and information
about the users.
This data is later pre-processed to extract essential insights about user. These
devices broadly cover fitness, health and entertainment requirements. The pre-
requisite from internet of things technology for wearable applications is to be
highly energy efficient or ultra-low power and small sized.
7. 3. CONNECTED CARS :A connected car is a
vehicle which is able to optimize it’s own operation,
maintenance as well as comfort of passengers using
onboard sensors and internet connectivity . For
example your car could pull up your work calendar
and automatically provide the best route to your
meeting, or send a note to relevant parties if you’re
4. SMART RETAIL :The potential of IOT in the
retail sector is enormous. IOT provides an opportunity
to retailers to connect with the customers to enhance
the in-store experience.
5. IOT IN HEALTHCARE : Connected healthcare
yet remains the sleeping giant of the Internet of
Things applications. For example some hospitals have
implemented smart beds which detect which bed is
connected and when a patient is trying to get up. Also
there are some devices that collect data regarding
blood pressure, glucose etc.
8. CHALLENGES FOR IOT
There are key challenges and implications that need to be tackled before
adoption of IOT can occur.
1. PRIVACY AND SECURITY : New challenges
identified for privacy, trust and reliability are: A)
providing trust and quality-of-information in shared
information models B) Providing secure exchange of
data between IOT devices C) Providing protection
mechanisms for vulnerable devices.
2. DATA MANAGEMENT: Data management is a
crucial aspect in the Internet of Things. When
considering a world of objects interconnected and
constantly exchanging all types of information, the
volume of the generated data and the processes
involved in the handling of those data become critical
3.INTEROPERABILITY: As devices with different
platforms can communicate with each other so IoT
possesses the feature of Interoperability. This makes its
use convenient for the end users as they do not need to
be worried about platforms.
4.Cost versus Usability : IOT uses technology to
connect physical objects to the Internet. For IOT
adoption to grow, the cost of components that
need to be connected needs to be relatively
5.Device Level Energy Issues :One of the
essential challenges in IOT is how to
interconnect “things” in an interoperable way
while taking into account the energy
constraints, knowing that the communication is
the most energy consuming task on devices.
Internet of Things is a new revolution of the Internet & it is a key
research topic for researcher in embedded, computer science &
information technology area due to its very diverse area of application
& heterogeneous mixture of various communications and embedded
technology in its architecture . Though its mass adoption will take some
time but one thing is for sure, its introduction to the world will
definitely make human’s life more convenient and this world, a place
worth living and loving.