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Physics-Motion.pptx

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Physics-Motion.pptx

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Physics-Motion.pptx

1. 1. When you stand on the corner of a busy street on a sunny day, you will see cars moving at different rates. You will also feel the heat coming from the sun on your skin and the pull of gravity on your feet when you walk from one place to another. These simple activities are just few of the examples of physics in everyday life.
2. 2. This unit will allow you to appreciate the applications of physics concepts in the world you live in. You will explore topics on mechanics to describe how objects around you move. You will also be fascinated with how the world functions with the help of the properties of heat, light, and sound.
3. 3. CHAPTER 6: MOTION DESCRIBING MOTION
4. 4. MECHANICS Mechanics is a field of physics which deals with force and energy and their interactions. It is a broad field which has several branches. Two of these branches are kinematics and dynamics.
5. 5. KINEMATICS Kinematics is a branch of mechanics that studies the description of motion of objects.
6. 6. DYNAMICS Dynamics is also a branch of mechanics concerned with forces that cause motions of objects.
7. 7. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Describe the motion of an object in terms of distance or displacement, speed or velocity, and acceleration;
8. 8. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Differentiate quantities (in terms of magnitude and direction) using the concepts of distance versus displacement, and speed versus velocity;
9. 9. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Compare and contrast distance and displacement;
10. 10. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Compare and contrast speed and velocity;
11. 11. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Compare and contrast speed and velocity;
12. 12. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Define acceleration;
13. 13. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Determine the acceleration of a moving object;
14. 14. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Determine the average speed and average velocity of a moving object;
15. 15. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Compute for the distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration of a moving object;
16. 16. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Solve problems involving constant and uniformly accelerated motion in one dimension;
17. 17. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Evaluate and interpret visual representations of the motions of objects;
18. 18. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Create and interpret visual representations of the motion of objects;
19. 19. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Enumerate some technologies that make use of motion detectors and explain or describe their applications;
20. 20. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON: At the end of the lesson, I will be able to: • Discuss road safety measures using the concepts of motion.
21. 21. WHEN CAN YOU SAY THAT AN OBJECT IS IN MOTION?
22. 22. Consider a book that is placed on a table. Is it moving or not?
23. 23. Most fail to recognize that the question is incomplete. If you answered that the book is not moving, how can that be when Earth is moving and the book is on Earth?
24. 24. If you answered that the book is moving, how come it stays exactly where it is?
25. 25. The point is motion is relative. In order for us to assert if an object is in motion, we need to identify a reference point.
26. 26. If we use the ground or Earth as the reference point, then the book is not moving. However, if we use the sun or the universe as our reference point, then the book is moving.
27. 27. REFERENCE POINT A reference point is defined as the starting point (origin) for measuring motion.
28. 28. HOW DO WE DESCRIBE THE MOTION OF AN OBJECT?
29. 29. To describe the motion of an object, there must be a change in the position (x) with respect to a reference point. A position or location must be specified at all times from a reference point.
30. 30. MOTION Motion may be defined as a continuous change in position with respect to a reference point.
31. 31. SCALAR QUANTITY VERSUS VECTOR QUANTITY
32. 32. A scalar quantity is a physical quantity that is expressed only in terms of its magnitude and unit. While a vector quantity is a physical quantity that require both magnitude and direction for their specification.
33. 33. SCALAR QUANTITY A scalar quantity is a physical quantity that is expressed only in terms of its magnitude and unit.
34. 34. SCALAR QUANTITY It is described with a single number (including any units) indicating size, magnitude, or dimension. Other common scalars are temperature, mass, volume, time, speed, and distance.
35. 35. SCALAR QUANTITY Symbol Name Example d Distance 30 m v Speed 50 m/s t Time 15 s E Energy 2,000 J
36. 36. VECTOR QUANTITY A vector quantity is a physical quantity that require both magnitude and direction for their specification. Because direction is an important characteristic of vector, arrows are used to represent them.
37. 37. VECTOR QUANTITY The fundamental distinction between scalar and vector quantities is the characteristic of direction. Oftentimes, cardinal points such as north, south, west, and east are used to specify direction.
38. 38. VECTOR QUANTITY Symbol Name Example x Displacement 30 m north v Velocity 50 m/s west F Force 100 N up a Acceleration 12 m/s2 down
39. 39. ASSESSMENT: 1.) 50 km/h 2.) 80 km/h West 3.) 600 km 4.) 220 km 30⁰NE 5.) 12 km from home to market
40. 40. DISTANCE VERSUS DISPLACEMENT
41. 41. Distance is defined as the total path length covered by an object from one point to another. While displacement is the measure of an object’s change in position relative to a reference point.
42. 42. DISTANCE Distance is defined as the total path length covered by an object from one point to another. It is scalar quantity that does not require direction.
43. 43. One Sunday morning, peter was going to church. To get to the church from his house, Peter needs to walk along a straight path. As he was walking 50 meter east, he noticed that he dropped his handkerchief along the way, so he walked back again 20 meter west to fetch it. What was the total distance that he traveled?
44. 44. DISPLACEMENT Displacement is the vector counterpart of distance which requires direction. It is the measure of an object’s change in position relative to a reference point.
45. 45. DISPLACEMENT In symbols, this can be written as: ∆𝑥 = 𝑥𝑓 − 𝑥𝑖 where: 𝑥𝑓 = final position of the object, 𝑥𝑖 = initial position of the object
46. 46. DISPLACEMENT The symbol ∆ (Greek letter delta) means change in. Thus ∆𝑥 means the difference between the final and the initial position of the object.
47. 47. The SI unit for displacement is also the meter. Displacement is a vector quantity, wherein its direction must be carefully considered.
48. 48. Because you are dealing with motion in one dimension (i.e., along a line), vectors pointing to the right (toward the east) or upward (north) are conventionally assigned a positive sign,
49. 49. whereas vectors pointing to the left (toward the west) or downward (south) are assigned a negative sign.
50. 50. One Sunday morning, peter was going to church. To get to the church from his house, Peter needs to walk along a straight path. As he was walking 50 meter east, he noticed that he dropped his handkerchief along the way, so he walked back again 20 meter west to fetch it. What was his displacement?
51. 51. PRACTICE NO. 1: A car moves 70 m east, then moves 120 m west, and finally moves east again a distance of 90 m. If east is chosen as the positive direction, what is total distance that the car traveled and the car’s resultant displacement?
52. 52. PRACTICE NO. 2: A car travels 30 kilometers (km) north and turns east, and continues to travel for another 40 km. What is the total distance traveled by the car and the displacement of the car with respect to its starting point?