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General Certificate of Education
Advanced Subsidiary Examination
June 2011
Psychology (Specification A) PSYA1
Unit 1 Cogni...
2 Do not write
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G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
Section A Cognitive Psychology and Research Methods
Answer all qu...
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Turn over 
1 (c) Explain one limitation of the working memory mo...
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2 (c) Explain one strength and one limitation of using an indepen...
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Table 1 The mean number of pictures correctly identif...
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Total for this question: 12 marks
3 Outline and evaluate research...
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Extra space for question 3 .........................................
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Section B Developmental Psychology and Research Metho...
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Total for this question: 4 marks
5 Outline what research has shown ab...
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Total for this question: 8 marks
6 Psychologists sometime...
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6 (c) Apart from ethical issues, explain one or more limitations of u...
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Total for this question: 6 marks
7 Some research has sugg...
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7 (c) In the media, it was claimed that the results showed spending t...
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Total for this question: 8 marks
9 Outline and evaluate learning theo...
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  1. 1. General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2011 Psychology (Specification A) PSYA1 Unit 1 Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology and Research Methods Wednesday 25 May 2011 9.00am to 10.30am You will need no other materials. Time allowed  1 hour 30 minutes Instructions  Use black ink or black ball-point pen.  Fill in the boxes at the top of this page.  Answer all questions.  You must answer the questions in the spaces provided. Do not write outside the box around each page or on blank pages.  Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information  The marks for questions are shown in brackets.  The maximum mark for this paper is 72.  Question 3 should be answered in continuous prose. You may use the space provided to plan your answer. In Question 3, you will be assessed on your ability to: – use good English – organise information clearly – use specialist vocabulary where appropriate. PSYA1(JUn11psyA101) G/T66809 6/6/6/6/ Centre Number Candidate Number Surname Other Names Candidate Signature For Examiner’s Use Examiner’s Initials Question Mark 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL
  2. 2. 2 Do not write outside the box (02) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Section A Cognitive Psychology and Research Methods Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Total for this question: 8 marks 1 (a) A, B and C relate to memory. Write the appropriate letter in the box below. The first one has been done for you. A 7  2 B Up to 30 seconds without rehearsal Write letter B in the appropriate box below. C Mainly acoustic Write letter C in the appropriate box below. Short-term memory Long-term memory Encoding Capacity A Duration (2 marks) 1 (b) Outline the working memory model. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  3. 3. 3 Do not write outside the box (03) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Turn over  1 (c) Explain one limitation of the working memory model. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) ____ 8 Total for this question: 16 marks 2 A psychologist carried out an experiment using an independent groups design. The psychologist wished to investigate the effectiveness of a strategy for memory improvement. In one condition, participants were taught a memory improvement strategy. In the other condition, participants were not taught this memory improvement strategy. All participants were asked to memorise 10 pictures of familiar objects. For example, the first was a doll, the second was an apple. All participants were then given 50 pictures each, and asked to select the original 10. The psychologist did a pilot study before carrying out the experiment. The results of the experiment are shown in Table 1 on page 5. 2 (a) Write a directional hypothesis for this experiment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 2 (b) Explain what is meant by an independent groups design. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) Question 2 continues on the next page
  4. 4. 4 Do not write outside the box (04) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 2 (c) Explain one strength and one limitation of using an independent groups design. Strength ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Limitation .......................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks + 2 marks) 2 (d) Explain why the psychologist did a pilot study. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks)
  5. 5. 5 Do not write outside the box (05) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Turn over  Table 1 The mean number of pictures correctly identified and standard deviations for participants with the memory improvement strategy and without the memory improvement strategy With memory improvement strategy Without memory improvement strategy Mean 8 7 Standard Deviation 2.80 0.29 2 (e) What do the standard deviations in Table 1 tell us about the performance of the two groups? ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 2 (f) Outline one strategy for memory improvement which the psychologist could have taught the participants in this experiment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ 16 Turn over for the next question
  6. 6. 6 Do not write outside the box (06) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Total for this question: 12 marks 3 Outline and evaluate research into the effects of age of witnesses on accuracy of eyewitness testimony. You may use this space to plan your answer ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  7. 7. 7 Do not write outside the box (07) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Turn over  ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (12 marks)
  8. 8. 8 Do not write outside the box (08) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Extra space for question 3 ................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ 12
  9. 9. 9 Do not write outside the box (09) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Turn over  Section B Developmental Psychology and Research Methods Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Total for this question: 6 marks 4 Anya has a 10-month-old son called Ben. Anya sometimes ignores Ben and does not respond when he cries. However, when Anya feels like playing with Ben, she wakes him up, even if he is soundly asleep. 4 (a) What type of attachment is Ben likely to show? Explain your answer. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 4 (b) Explain how a psychologist could investigate Ben’s attachment type using Ainsworth’s Strange Situation. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) ____ 6 Turn over for the next question
  10. 10. 10 Do not write outside the box G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Total for this question: 4 marks 5 Outline what research has shown about cultural variations in attachment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ 4 (10)
  11. 11. 11 Do not write outside the box G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Turn over  Total for this question: 8 marks 6 Psychologists sometimes use case studies to study children. One example was of a boy who was discovered at the age of six. He had been kept in a darkened room and had had almost no social contact with people. 6 (a) How could a psychologist maintain confidentiality when reporting a case study? ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 6 (b) Psychologists use a range of techniques to gather information in case studies. Outline one technique which the psychologist could use in this case study. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Question 6 continues on the next page (11)
  12. 12. 12 Do not write outside the box G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 6 (c) Apart from ethical issues, explain one or more limitations of using case studies. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ 8 (12)
  13. 13. 13 Do not write outside the box G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Turn over  Total for this question: 6 marks 7 Some research has suggested that there is a relationship between the time children spend in day care and their aggressive behaviour. Researchers selected a group of school children who had been in day care. They asked the children’s mothers to estimate how many hours a week their children had spent in day care. They measured the same children’s aggression. 10 15 200 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 3 5 7 9 11 5 Aggression Relationship between average hours spent in day care and aggression Average hours spent in day care per week 25 30 7 (a) How many children are represented in this scattergram? ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) 7 (b) Suggest one way in which the children’s aggression could be measured. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Question 7 continues on the next page (13)
  14. 14. 14 Do not write outside the box G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 7 (c) In the media, it was claimed that the results showed spending time in day care caused the children to become aggressive. Explain why this claim may be untrue. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) ____ 6 Total for this question: 4 marks 8 Describe one or more studies of the effects of day care on peer relations. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ 4 (14)
  15. 15. 15 Do not write outside the box G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Total for this question: 8 marks 9 Outline and evaluate learning theory as an explanation of attachment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (8 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ 8 END OF QUESTIONS (15)
  16. 16. 16 G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1 Do not write outside the box (16) There are no questions printed on this page DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAGE ANSWER IN THE SPACES PROVIDED Copyright © 2011 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

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