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  1. 1. Religion and Globalisation
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes….
  3. 3. What is Globalisation? (& how is Religion related to it?): The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and that barriers are disappearing e.g. as a result of instantaneous communication systems, deregulation of trade, the creation of global markets, global media and culture. > As Societies & Religions become increasingly closer to one another, there is potential for religious conflict, diversity and change. > When one society or state dominates another, people may use religion to explain, justify or resist this domination. > Cultural and Social changes brought by globalisation may threaten cherished values & lead some to turn to the certainties promised by fundamentalist religions. >Religious ideas lead some people to act in new ways that encourage economic development in less developed societies.
  4. 4. Religion & Economic Development. It is easy to argue, when considering Secularisation, that as new technologies, medias, science and rationality spread around the world, that Religion loses it’s significance to society & thus fades away (Look at your notes on ‘postmodernism’ as well as ‘secularisation’). HOWEVER it is argued by some that religion aids economic development and that the economy, technological advancement and modernisation go hand in hand i.e. Religion and economic growth are compatible rather than hindering one another……. Does Religion have a place in the Modernisation of Societies? Arguably not….. Don’t forget the Calvinists!!!
  5. 5. In short, Weber shows us how Religious Ideals can lead to Economic Development (rather than hinder development) which lay the foundation for a ‘Modernised’, ‘Technologically Advanced’, ‘Capitalist Society’. Weber highlighted this idea (that religion can promote economic develop) in 1904. For a more up-to-date example however we can look at India……….
  6. 6. ‘God and Globalisation’ in India Nanda highlights how India is the worlds fastest growing economy and that, even though India is becoming ‘Modernised’, Hinduism is growing alongside it rather than fading out (as Secularisation theory would suggest). Nanda (2008) examines how the role of Hinduism (85% of the population) is legitimising both the rise of a new Hindu ‘ultra-nationalism’ and the economic prosperity of the Indian Middle Class. Hinduism, consumerism and the middle class…. Globalisation has created a scientifically educated middle class in India who work in it IT, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. Secularisation would suggest that these people would be the first to abandon religion for the more scientific, rational outlook on the world………but this is not the case……
  7. 7. The vast majority of this class continue to believe in the supernatural… • 5% said their religiosity had declined • 30% said they had become even more religious • ‘Urban educated Indians are more religious than their rural, illiterate counterparts.’ (SYNOPTIC LINK: Challenges Marx’s views…….) What motivates the sophisticated, urban middle class to continue to believe in miracles and the supernatural? It cannot be due to existential insecurity, as they are not poor. It also cannot be a defensive reaction to modernisation, as they are embracing modernity and are optimistic about the opportunities globalisation brings…….
  8. 8. In light of this apparent contradiction Nanda offers us an explanation of the growing religiosity of Hindus by suggesting their religiosity is a result of their ‘Ambivalence’ (uncertainty) towards their new found wealth in the contemporary globalised world. Traditionally Hinduism preaches the ‘Renunciation’ of materialism & this conflicts with the fact that many Hindus are becoming increasingly wealthy due to globalisation. Far from letting this conflict undermine their religion, Hinduism is adapting to the globalised world & embracing prosperity & self- advancement. Contemporary Hindu Holy Men are preaching the message that desire is not bad & that material wealth is actually a sign that people are motivated, optimistic & hard-working. Many M/C Hindus pay for religious rituals & attend extravagant festivals which takes the guilt of materialism away – they are able to use their wealth to develop their religion. M/C Hindus are being taught that consumerism can be ‘Spiritually Balanced’ by paying for the performance of religious rituals (particularly paying poor villagers to perform their rituals for them).
  9. 9. Hindu ‘ultra-nationalism’ In a Global Attitudes Survey 93% of Indians agreed with the following statement…. ‘Our people are not perfect, but our culture is superior to others’. This figure (93%) was higher than any other country. These ‘Hindu values’ are constantly promoted via politicians and the media. In this Hindu ‘ultra-nationalism’ the worship of the Hindu Gods have become the same as worshipping the nation of India = a civil religion. Nanda argues that Hindu beliefs have instilled a sense of national pride within it’s followers which creates hard working, industrious people – which helps explain the growth in India’s economy.
  10. 10. Hinduism and India’s Economic Growth are therefore very much tied together, they are complimentary to one another.
  11. 11. Redding (1990) The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism: (Capitalism in East Asia) East Asia also acts a useful example of how Religion & the growing Global Economy go hand in hand. Countries such as China, South Korea, Singapore & Taiwan are all experiencing rapid economic growth in the Global Market. A final example of such a relationship between Religion and Global Economic Growth can be found in Latin America……… TIGER ECONOMIES!
  12. 12. Starter: Recap questions The world is becoming increasingly interconnected and barriers are disappearing. 1. Outline two ways in which these disappearing barriers may impact religion. 2. According to Nanda, why is the Indian MC more religious than other social groups? (Ext for this: Why would we expect them to be more secular?) 3. Why might some suggest that the nation of India is becoming a civil religion? 4. State two ways in which post-Confucianism has spurred China’s global economic development.
  13. 13. Berger (2003) Pentecostalism in Latin America Berger uses Latin America (Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, Chile, Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru) to show how religion is spurring on Global Economic Development. Berger shows how Pentecostalism is spreading through Latin America stressing hard work, asceticism, commitment….. just like Weber’s ‘Protestant Ethic’. He agrees with Weber that ‘Religious Values ‘are not enough but both the ‘Normative Conditions’ & the ‘Material Conditions’ are required for economic development. Brazil for example is not developing as much as other South American countries as they lack resources even though Pentecostalism is spreading.
  14. 14. Religious Fundamentalism (the global context) To critically understand the explanations for fundamentalism Task: The characteristics of fundamentalism Match the key feature to its definition. EXT: Read ahead - fundamentalism and modernity In a global context, the issue of fundamentalism has emerged as a major area of media and political concern, most notably in relation to international Islamist terrorism. However, the term ‘fundamentalist’ can be applied to followers of other religions e.g. Protestant Christians. Fundamentalists appeal to tradition - they seek return to the basics or fundamentals of their faith/ It arises when traditional beliefs and values are being threatened in modern society, particularly due to the impact of the globalised economy.
  15. 15. SYNOPTIC LINK “The growth of fundamentalism challenges the view that the world is becoming more secular.” Assess the extent to which sociological arguments and evidence support this view. (33 marks) NOTE: This is an old specification paper BUT the synoptic link remains the same. You must be able to use fundamentalism - could fundamentalism be the response to a secular society?
  16. 16. Fundamentalism, Modernity and a response to Globalisation “Fundamentalists have no time for democracy, pluralism, religious tolerance, peacekeeping, free speech, or separation of church and state.“ (Karen Armstrong) People who hold traditional and orthodox beliefs and values are threatened by a modern secularist culture and by the impact of scientific research on Western thought and culture. Giddens (1999) - fundamentalism is a response to globalisation which undermines traditional social norms concerning the nuclear family, sexuality, abortion etc. This leads to feelings of void, meaninglessness and uncertainty. Fundamentalists do not want an uncertain world - they retreat to faith based answers and away from the risks associated with a globalised world.
  17. 17. Fundamentalism: A response to Cosmopolitanism (Giddens) The opposite to fundamentalism - cosmopolitanism refers to a way of thinking that embraces modernity, is open to alternative views and modifies beliefs based on new ideas (‘reflective’ thinking.) Cosmopolitan religion and spirituality emphasises personal choice and self improvement, rather than submission to authority. Hervieu-Leger would refer to these people as pilgrims.Fundamentalist response to this - too much freedom of choice and uncertainty. People are attracted to fundamentalism because they are intimidated by uncertainly and find sanctuary in ‘old certainties’.
  18. 18. Fundamentalism as a response to postmodernity….. Resistance identity - people who feel threatened and retreat to fundamentalist communities Project identity - foreword looking and engages with social movements e.g. feminism.
  19. 19. AO3: Some weaknesses……. Ignores the idea that reinventing religion may in fact be modern ‘reflective’ thinking? Oversimplified - cosmopolitanism OR fundamentalism…. what about those individuals that fall somewhere between (hybrids?) We focus heavily on Islamic fundamentalism e.g. conflicts in the Middle East, but these are normally fuelled by poor living standards than a reaction to globalisation (Haynes, 1998)
  20. 20. STARTER: Remember, remember…… • I will put a number of sociological terms on the board. I will put one minute on the clock. • You must try and remember all the words. • After one minute, I will removed the words and you must write down as many DEFINITIONS for the words as possible. • The student who remembers the most words wins (note: this will be for the WHOLE of beliefs!) • Are you ready……
  21. 21. Cultural amnesia Asceticism Disenchantment Postmodernism Structural differentiation Spiritual shopping Electronic church Religious pluralism Ultra - nationalism Sacred canopy Predestination Totemism Rationalisation Opium of the people Hegemony Calvinism Sacred Liberation theology Alienation Disneyfication Project identity Disembedded
  22. 22. Monotheism and Fundamentalism (further responses to globalisation and postmodernism) • Bruce (2008) sees fundamentalism as being confined to monotheistic religions believing in a single, almighty God - Judaism, Islam and Christianity. On the other hand, polytheistic religions - such as Hinduism - are unlikely to be fundamentalists. • Think back to the characteristics of fundamentalism - what do monotheistic religions have that polytheistic religions do not? Monotheistic religions follow the teachings of one, authoritative, sacred text which lays down specific rules - in contrast, polytheistic religions have no overriding claim to one, single truth.
  23. 23. Fundamentalism - Christian vs Islamic Responses (Bruce) In the West….. Fundamentalism is a response to trends towards diversity and choice e.g. New Christian Right oppose gender equality, sexual ‘permissiveness’, abortion and the privatisation of religion. The aim is to integrate the state and the church. In the Third World….. Fundamentalism is a reaction to changes being thrust upon society by the outside world, which are triggered by globalisation e.g. Western values being imposed by foreign capitalism or by local elites supporting the West. The aim is to resist the states attempt to confine religion to the private sphere.
  24. 24. Secular Fundamentalism – Secular movements can also become fundamentalist. • So far we have looked at fundamentalism as a religious response to modernity and globalisation (postmodernism.) • Davie argues that fundamentalism may also be a secular response to changes in modern society. • Secular societies can also be fundamental…………….
  25. 25. In conclusion: • Both religious and secular movements can become fundamentalist as a result of greater uncertainties of life in a late modern or postmodern world. • When secular ideologies, such as nationalism, come under attack, some supporters resort to fundamentalism. Another example – some French local councils controlled by right wing parties have stopped serving alternatives to pork in their school meals, on the grounds that all pupils must be treated equally and that religion must be kept out of the secular sphere. Cultural racism? Or the liberal language of universal equality and social integration??
  26. 26. Clash of Civilisations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBKYGaMkFIM Huntington identifies seven civilisations: Western, Latin, American, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu & Slavic-Orthodox. Although Religion binds countries within these civilisations together, Religion also causes conflict between civilisations.
  27. 27. In the globalised world, religion creates an ‘Us vs Them’ mentality as competition for wealth and military power grows on the global scale. Religious differences are also harder to solve than political ones as they are ‘closed systems’ and deeply rooted in culture and history. AO3: Criticisms – Jackson argues that Huntington’s work is based on a western ideology that stereotypes eastern nations and people (especially Muslims) as untrustworthy and fanatical. This is a grossly misleading ideology that portrays the whole of Islam as the enemy. In reality only a tiny minority of the world’s 1.5 billion Muslims are remotely interested in the ‘holy war’. Huntington believes that the West is under threat e.g. from Islam, and urges the West to reassert its identity as a liberal- democratic Christian civilisation.
  28. 28. The real clash of civilisations: Inglehart & Norris (2003) Religion & Politics does not cause a ‘Clash of Civilisations’ - it is attitudes to sexuality & gender liberalism that causes the real ‘Clash’…..
  29. 29. Globalisation & Religion as a ‘Cultural Defence’. As the world ‘Globalises’, national identities mean less and less e.g. politicians now talk about the ‘European Community’ or ‘The Middle East’ or ‘Asia’ rather than identifying individual countries. As such societies around the world are experiencing a ‘crisis of identity’ whereby their cultures, languages, traditions & politics are becoming less significant.
  30. 30. Poland & Catholicism (1945 – 1989) During this era, Poland was under communist rule (forced on them by Russia’s Soviet Union). Catholicism was suppressed during this time but still acted as a symbol for Polish National Identity. Synoptic link: Secularisation
  31. 31. Iran & Islam (1979 Revolution) In the 1950s the democratic government in Iran was overthrown by a ‘Pro-Western regime’ which was supported by Western Oil Companies and Western governments. Both Poland and Iran act as examples of how religion has acted as a ‘Cultural Defence’ against a perceived external threat of the Globalised World.
  32. 32. Outline and explain two ways in which religion and development may be related in the world today (10 marks) Spend 15 minutes on this question and divide your time equally between the two ways. Possible ways: role of Hinduism in legitimising prosperity of the new MC in India, post-Confucian values among Chinese entrepreneurs in the East Asian ‘tiger economies’, the economic role of Pentecostalism in Latin America and fundamentalism as a response to modernisation and Westernisation in Iran. Describe each way in some detail and explain how each way indicates a relationship between religion and economic development in the world today. Use concepts and issues as above plus globalisation, colonialism, Westernisation, cultural defence, civil religion, consumerism, Hindu ‘ultra- nationalism’ the role of the Protestant Ethic, risk society, cosmopolitanism.
  33. 33. While fundamentalism is often associated with Islam, there are fundamentalist groups in many other major religions, including Christianity. In the USA, for example, the so-called New Christian Right is a significant political force in some States, and its members have challenged many liberal reforms such as legislation on abortion. Some sociologists argue that fundamentalism is an inevitable reaction to the erosion of religious certainties in modern and postmodern Society. Applying material from item A4, analyse two explanations for the rise in religious fundamentalism [10 marks]
  34. 34. The 20 mark Q Some sociologists argue that one response to globalisation has been the growth of religious fundamentalism. Much has been written about the decline of religious belief and the secularisation of modern societies, but fundamentalism seems to go against this trend. Many associate fundamentalism with violence, and religious and political extremism. However, while fundamentalists may have views that differ greatly from the mainstream, this does not automatically make them violent or anti-society. Fundamentalists usually seek a return to what they would see as the ‘true path’. They reject modern interpretations of faith as having lost their way because teachings have been watered down over the decades. Fundamentalists seek a return to a literal interpretation of their holy book and strict obedience to religious teachings. Using material from Item A and elsewhere, evaluate the view that the growth of religious fundamentalism is a reaction to globalisation. (20 marks)

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Fire-weapon
    divine weapons as originating from the supramundane
    realm, and that they can be united with ordinary weapons, endowing
    them with the divine weapons’ own power.
    Firstly, the divine weapons are much more
    destructive than an ancient musket or cannon could ever have been.
    Arrows, as one manifestation of a divine weapon, are fired from bows
    in a manner resembling modern day weaponry, and many of the divine
    weapons have the destructive capability of small tactical war-heads,
    killing thousands in one strike.
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBKYGaMkFIM