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  1. 1. Religion’s Relationship with Science and The Arts Galileo (1564-1642) was an Italian astronomer. Like Copernicus, his studies and measurements of the heavens led him to believe that the sun is the centre of our solar system and that the earth spins and circles around the sun. At this time the Roman Catholic Church banned these views as heresy. Although Galileo’s books were very popular in Florence, the Pope ordered the presses to be stopped and Galileo was called before the Inquisition in Rome. To avoid being put to the rack, he eventually agreed not to say or write such things. He was put under house arrest for the rest of his life. The book on earth physics he then wrote was only published after his death in the Protestant Netherlands. 1.How does this illustrate the action of religion as a conservative force? 2.Find other examples of conflict between science and religion. 3.In groups, carry out research to find examples of European paintings, architecture, music and medicine before the 15th century. What do they tell us about the power of the Church? Alternative Starter or Extension Task
  2. 2. Religion and Social Change LO: To describe and evaluate the explanations of the role of religion in promoting social change, using specific examples. Starter: Read/listen to Dr Martin Luther King’s ‘I have a dream’ speech. 1. Which biblical references highlight racial inequality and injustice in America? 2. Which biblical references did Dr King use to motivate people to change society? Ext: Which reference do you find most powerful and why? All tasks complete? Read ahead – page 13.
  3. 3. Item B Many sociologists argue that religious beliefs and organisations act as conservative forces and barriers to social change. For example, religious doctrines such as the Hindu belief in reincarnation or Christian teachings on the family have given religious justification to existing social structures. Similarly, it is argued that religious organisations such as churches are often extremely wealthy and closely linked to elite groups and power structures. Applying material from Item B and your knowledge, evaluate the view that religious beliefs and organisations are barriers to social change. [20 marks]
  4. 4. Religion as a conservative force….. Thinking back to the last set of lessons: - In what ways does religion ‘defend’ traditional customs, institutions, moral views, roles, ways in which society should be organised? (Think back to feminism, Marxism…….) Religion’s function as a conservative force is to preserve things the way they are – maintain the status quo. It does this in three main ways… Religion and Consensus – promoting social solidarity and a value consensus Religion and capitalism – Legitimising exploitation and inequality – discouraging change Religion and Patriarchy – Legitimising patriarchal power and women’s subordination.
  5. 5. Max Weber – Religion can be a force for change (social and economic) He rejected Marx’s ‘economic reductionist’ model which argues that religion justifies and reproduces wealth and power for certain social groups. Will you stop using people’s financial status as an explanation for everything!!! Weber believed that people’s social and economic status is a product of culture and the way in which society is organised – it is not random, nor is it a product of divine intervention. HOWEVER, people need to use religious explanations to make their world feel more meaningful and predictable.
  6. 6. Keyword: Theodicies A religious explanation or justification for something e.g. “God made the volcano erupt because he is angry with us.” Marx suggests that these theodicies are used to legitimise inequality and discourage social change……can you think of any examples which illustrates this? Think back to previous lessons. Max Weber – religious theodicies can lead to social and economic change……Calvinism.
  7. 7. Religion and Oppression • Marx identifies two aspects of the role of religion: • It ‘cushions oppression’, by making people feel better about their oppressed situation. • It acts as an ‘instrument of oppression’, by keeping people ‘in their place’. • Read the section on Marx (pages 12 to 13), including the example of the caste system, and find five phrases to illustrate the two aspects of religion that Marx identifies.
  8. 8. Weber – The Protestant Ethic, the Spirit of Capitalism and Social Change Religion – specifically the Protestant religion Calvinism – was one of the catalysts for capitalism in the 16th and 17th centuries. TASKS: Calvinist beliefs and the emergence of capitalism Task 1: Read the information sheet on Calvinist beliefs and highlight any references to capitalism. We will then discuss as a class. Task 2: Watch the two video clips and answer the set of questions provided – can answer in pairs. Task 3: Write a summary paragraph on how Calvinism led to the development of modern capitalism in Northern Europe.
  9. 9. Calvinism and the emergence of capitalism Using the videos and the reading materials in your lesson hand out, answer the following How did Calvinism lead to the development of modern capitalism in Northern Europe? The idea here is to explain how this social change came from a theological source. You must include reference to the following: • Calvinist theodicies e.g. predestination, salvation panic, ‘this worldly asceticism’ and how these led to social change. • How these Calvinist views differ from Chinese and Indian religions, as well as Roman Catholicism? • Explain how this development challenges Marxist views that theodicies are used to legitimise inequality and discourage social change.
  10. 10. Summary tasks…..Explain What was the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and how can this idea be linked to capitalism and social change? Explain what Weber means by ‘this worldly asceticism’. Why does Weber argue that Calvinists experience ‘salvation panic’ and how has this contributed to capitalism and social change? According to Weber, why do Indian and Chinese religions discourage social change? How does Weber’s view of social change differ from the Marxist view? How would Marx challenge Weber?
  11. 11. AO3: Evaluation – Criticisms of Weber 1. Capitalism did not develop in every country where there were Calvinists e.g. Scotland had a large Calvinist population but was slow to develop capitalism. 2. Marxists argue that Weber overestimated the role of religious ideas and underestimated the role of economic factors already prevalent before Calvinism e.g. slavery, and colonialism….for example….. Counterargument Weberians, such as Marshal (1982) points out that Scotland lacked the other factors necessary for development e.g. investment capital and skilled labour – which may explain why capitalism took longer to arise.
  12. 12. Britain gained the capital required for industrialisation from colonising in other countries and gaining access to cheap raw materials and labour. This developed Britain’s capital and therefore accelerated capitalism. Thus capitalism is not due to Calvinism ‘back home’, but to expanding the empire elsewhere.
  13. 13. AO3: Calvinism – economic success as God’s will……is this too optimistic? MacKinnon (1993) argued that Weber misinterpreted Calvinist theology and that the religion was opposed to greed and the pursuit of money….perhaps the opposite was true. Perhaps it was all about the money! (Difficult to determine, as much of the theory was based on assumption, rather than evidence). He accused Weber of only selecting parts of the Calvinist religion that suited his hypothesis which questions the validity of Weber’s findings –WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? Others argue that capitalism predates Calvinism and that the bourgeoisie have adopted the Calvinist ideas in order to legitimise their pursuit of economic gain.
  14. 14. Religion and Social Protest Like Weber, Steve Bruce (2003) is interested in the relationship between religion and social change. He compared two examples of religious inspired protest movements in America; the civil rights movement and the New Christian Right. One of the above movements was successful in creating social change, whereas the other is unsuccessful. VIDEO: The most hated family in America Followed by…..Next slide…. Write up tasks using pages 15-16.
  15. 15. Religion and Social Protest - Tasks Read pages 15-16. 1. According to Bruce, why were the black clergy so important in the black civil rights movement? 2. Briefly outline four ways in which religious organisations can support and contribute to social change. 3. Briefly outline the aims of the New Christian Right in America. Give some specific examples of their ideas. 4. According to Bruce and your own interpretations of the documentary, what are the two reasons why the New Christian Right have been unsuccessful in their aims? 5. What can be learnt from this comparison, with regards to religion and social change? EXT: What would Marx say with regards to social change?
  16. 16. Keyword check: Without looking! •Asceticism •Spirit of Capitalism •Salvation panic •Predestination •Conservative force •Theodicies You must be able to define the following key terms AND understand how they are used in context. Starter: Define each key term. Extension: Use ALL the keywords in context - write a few sentences using the keywords.
  17. 17. Keyword: Definitions • Asceticism - Abstinence, self-discipline and self-denial. Two different types: ‘Other wordly’ and ‘this wordly’ What is the difference? • Spirit of Capitalism - having an attitude to be industrious and entrepreneurial; having a duty to prosper. • Salvation panic - Calvinists did not know whether they would be saved or not, so they developed a theodicy to help them deal with the ‘not knowing’, in order to be saved. • Predestination - God has already decided what souls to save. • Conservative force - preserving traditional customs, institutions and moral views, roles etc, maintain status quo. • Theodicies - an explanations for why there is evil in the world, or why God permits evil - Justifications.
  18. 18. Social Change - so far….. • Max Weber – Religion can be a force for change (social and economic) • Theodicies can be used to encourage social change e.g. Calvinism and the emergence of capitalism • AO3: No capitalism in Scotland, economic factors before Calvinism more likely to have caused capitalism e.g. colonialism, theory based on assumption. • Religion and social protest - American Civil Rights movement vs New Christian Rights,
  19. 19. The Dual Nature of Religion Whilst Marx argues that religion is a conservative force shaped by a set of ruling-class ideas, he also acknowledges that religion can have its positives: He describes religion as “The soul of soulless conditions”…..”the heart of a heartless world”……what do you think he means by this? Marx argued that religion is capable of humanising a world made inhuman by exploitation. Friedrich Engels (1895) Marx’s life-long collaborator and friend argues for the dual character of religion, an example of which is Liberation Theology. Can inhibit change AND challenge status quo….
  20. 20. Liberation Theology This theology combines the teachings of Jesus and Marx. It encourages people to actively change their societies, through the use of violence if necessary. They believe that it's a 'Christian duty' to be involved in any actions which ease suffering and lead to liberation. In fact, liberationists said the church should act to bring about social change, and should ally itself with the working class to do so. Some radical priests became involved in politics and trade unions; others even aligned themselves with violent revolutionary movements.
  21. 21. Where did it originate from? Liberation theology grew in South America as a response to the poverty and the ill-treatment of ordinary people. The movement was caricatured in the phrase ‘If Jesus Christ were on Earth today, he would be a Marxist revolutionary’ but it's more accurately encapsulated in this paragraph from Leonardo and Clodovis Boff: “How are we to be Christians in a world of destitution and injustice? There can be only one answer: we can be followers of Jesus and true Christians only by making common cause with the poor and working out the gospel of liberation.” • Leonardo and Clodovis Boff
  22. 22. But not all agreed….. The late Pope John Paul II was frequently criticised for the severity with which he dealt with the liberation movement. His main objective was to stop the highly politicised form of liberation theology prevalent in the 1980s, which could be seen as a fusion of Christianity and Marxism. He also closed institutions that taught Liberation Theology, which led to the removal of the movement's activists, such as Leonardo Boff. He didn't mean that the Church was not going to be the voice of the oppressed, was not going to champion the poor. But it should not do it by biased politics, or by revolutionary violence. The Church's business was bringing about the Kingdom of God, not about creating a Marxist utopia.
  23. 23. Liberation Theology Where now? The movement has since lost influence and the mainstream churches have given up the struggle of the social gospel in favour of a more feel- good theology, whilst still defending democracy and human rights. Possible AO3: Liberation theology is seen as an example of religiously inspired social change but other Marxists disagree. Liberation theology may have helped to bring about democracy but it did not threaten the stability of capitalism. Q: Do you think this is comparable to the New Christian Right?
  24. 24. Liberation Theology vs Pentecostalism In recent years, Liberation Theology has faced competition from Pentecostal churches which have made big inroads in Latin America among the poor. Liberation Theology - The ‘option for the poor’ - consciousness -raising and campaigning for social change led by revolutions. Pentecostalism - The ‘option of the poor’ - people pull themselves out of poverty with help from the congregation and church pastors One is RADICAL and promotes political change, whilst the other in conservative and promotes personal self improvement.
  25. 25. Millenarian Movements (Worsley, 1968) Social unrest and loss of power result in religious movements that may be called millenarian. Millenarian movement believes in the coming of new world in part through supernatural action. This will create a ‘heaven on earth’ and the whole group will be saved. For example…The Doomsday Prediction 2012 These movements appealed mostly to the poor, exploited groups as they are promised immediate improvements. They also often arise in colonial situations e.g. European colonisation of tribal lands and Christian missionaries.
  26. 26. Millenarian Movements in the Modern World • Economic rules or vast conspiracies are seen as generating oppression. Only dramatic events are seen as able to change the world, with only the few dedicated groups remaining. • While many millennial groups are pacifistic, millenarian beliefs have been claimed as causes for people to ignore conventional rules of behaviour, which can result in violence (such as the Jonestown mass suicides). • In some cases, millenarians withdraw from society to await the intervention of God. TASK: The People’s Temple….will watch this later (very disturbing!) Synoptic link: Cults
  27. 27. Starter: Link back to hegemony and ideological domination
  28. 28. Neo Marxist Ideas - Gramsci and Hegemony Definition: Ideological domination - When socially powerful people use their influence to convince less powerful people it is in their best interest to do what the most powerful people want. When the ruling-class uses ideas, such as religion, to maintain control, hegemony is established. However, hegemony is not always guaranteed and the WC are not always hypnotised by the dominant ideology. They may experience a ‘dual consciousness’… Ordinary people may subscribe to some dominant ideologies e.g. the royal family is necessary, but still be aware that the capitalist system is unfair e.g. I do not get paid enough! According to this view, the WC are not blind to exploitation and often seek to deal with it e.g. through trade unions. VIDEO: 10 Minute Philosophy
  29. 29. Dual Character of Religion Ernst Bloch: The principle of hope…. Religion often inhibits social change but can also inspire protest and rebellion. Religion is an expression of ‘the principle of hope’ - our dreams of a better life that contains images of utopia. People can see what needs to be changed in this world to build their utopia. That combined with effective political organisation and leadership, can bring about social change.
  30. 30. Religion and Class Conflict Dwight Billings (1990) • Page 18 – A study to emphasise the importance of leadership and organisation for religion to promote social change. The Billings (1990) study shows how religion can have a dual character – it can be called upon to defend the status quo (the textile workers) or challenge the status quo (the miners). Briefly describe the study and outline the ways in which religion either supported or challenged the employer’s hegemony. EXT: Problems with this study? Only two, specific groups used……..?
  31. 31. Summary: Dual character of religion •Marx: Religion can humanise a world made unhuman by exploitation, even though the comfort is an illusion •Ernst Bloch - the principle of hope •Liberation theology - Catholic Church in Latin America - religion can be a revolutionary force •Millenarian movements - raises the hope of a better world and may create desire to change things.
  32. 32. Using the above points and your own knowledge, prepare an opening statement (3-4 minutes) which outlines your general perspective. After these statements, opposing teams can ask questions and debate the points raised. We will end with a closing statement from each side, summarising why your perspective is right. For this debate you will need to be SYNOPTIC. cause
  33. 33. Write up - Answer the debate Q Using the arguments presented in the debate, write up the various responses to the debate statement: “All religions should be abandoned as they cause more problems than they solve.” Make sure that you use evidence and examples where possible. NOTE: You can use the ideas presented for a number of topics - Marxism, Functionalism, Social Change, Fundamentalism.
  34. 34. Imagine you have been asked to prepare an opening statement for each side of this debate. Using the above points, research and your own knowledge - prepare a 4 minute opening statement for EACH side of this debate. This should amount (roughly) to a page. For a Q like this you will need to be SYNOPTIC. cause
  35. 35. Research - Religion and Conflict (examples) 1. AO1/AO2: Research at least 3 examples which illustrate religion as a cause of conflict (not Marxism or Feminism.) HINTS ON WHERE/WHEN TO LOOK: New York 2001, Madrid 2004, London 2005, Burkina Faso 2016, ISIS attacks, Paris and Tunisia, Boko Haram, Hamas, the Talliban, India – clashes in Gujarat in 2002, Yugoslavia in 1991/1992. 2. AO3: Some argue that these conflicts are not based on religion but on other political, cultural and financial factors e.g. foreign policy, oil, the spread of Western cultures, fights for land and resources, expansionism. Research and summarise at least two arguments which suggest conflict is not due to religion.
  36. 36. 10 mark question • Outline and explain two ways in which religion promotes social change (10 marks) • How do we answer 10 mark questions? • AO1, AO2, AO3? Write a 10 mark answer to this question. Remember you need some AO3 analysis and evaluation - either strengths and weaknesses OR comparisons e.g. examples where religion inhibits social change.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Examples – role of women n in the home, reproducing role, men as the head of the family in a traditional marriage vow, love honour and OBEY, forbidding aboration etc, instiotuions e.g. keeping all priests MC and male, family institution.
    Examples – Religion and consensus, religion and capitalism, religion and patriarchy
  • Economic reductionism – reducing all explanations of society e.g. social class relationships, down to economic relationships.
    Pronounced as VEY-BER
  • Include the photo from folder – a comic strip.
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gBPeCQzHu5w – Civil rights images
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1QZik4CYtgw&feature=related – Montgomery bus protest.

    Video: Most hated family in America (Netflix)
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXOEAz46vMk – televangelists in America
  • Appeal to the tribes as they need an answer to the dominations of their land and the loss of their culture
  • http://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=33127 - info
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7IxGGfpSWk - pt 1 video
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9rSN05Pi94 - pt 2
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3yzkhJVXE4 - whole documentary
  • Beliefs beat bullets
    Religion as mind control
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=js8E6C3ZnJ0&index=27&list=PLIxulep9i7PY0oic8nFAYeLkE-E-9YWrC

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