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  1. 1. ,ffiWWWWffi,ffiWWffiWWWffiffitF;.Nr:.Wl,iIuiltll:liii.rfawrnntr sf AVrrsrrfi&l ecmdSac?,rt!,Pryth.n:i*gw1$61,Ystr" *3, No. S, 5?$-582M lrxevioffisstu"Cy,designedtc eccolrrlti-"W fc:: t,b.eptretrnmeru*ncf identi6catinn-d_ W_ nter:rnscf incid,entgriLearning,deau.on*strateqltha.tchjtrdrenreaditrSrim{.taced.behaii*re;qh-rbited.by an s.dult :nCIdeli:: the pre$etrceof the mod.*l {Eandura $r Fhrstonu1$S1}"Anerlns *f e:r;erirneni,sbvRleke tip$S) aftdotherx (Grcsser,F*1ans3ly,&r Lippitt, 195J.,Resenblith, 1S59; Scha,ci:"fer& i1a11,1S5?)h.ave likewise sh"cwnthat mere observationcf resp*nsesc"fa nrodelhasa facjlltating effectnlr subjeetsreactionsin th* imm*Ciatesceiel5:eflueacenetting"i&&ile th"esestusi*s prcvieieconvinc:-nge"v?^d"e:tcefor the irof;i-reneeanrJ.cmntrCIl"exertedonclthers by th.* hel:avi.o.reif n" nrcd.el?fl. i:r*remucial Lesi*f iffiritarireiear"ningLnvolvesth.egenerali*ati*n-cf imi.La,CrreHe$.p#ase;*c.t"ternst* new **lti:rgs i:: which.th.e;nndel"is ehsee.t.Tn t&e ery*nm.ent rep*Ceclur i.tus paperrchjlfuen w*.r* expcxerlt* agpessi.ieand"ntra-nBg,r*,qsivcncl*"I"tin.*delsanelwerelh*:*.teslcddorerrnevrurt*f idtetiv* learnr$gin a rrcvrsifu-n.ij*r:"ru"th"* n.bse,neeof the m*d*i. flee*rrJ:ngi-n i-Frr. -rvn"J:lt,*,trrn:r erri-1ir.r*tq p.-irrrneot {a} # <lfi*tr tuukir&ur+vk.;w$r u*v.lt",uH Lrl}..ysJ,J..L Li*r *"g;i1[e5-*ivo m*elels ry*uiC repr*ciueeaffE3r-ssitreaei.exeser:"hling Lh*s* nt1heir ::r*d"*ls n::.d w**-ld"d-rf;*i.rn ih:s *tspecil i:CIthirCIetsubl*ctsrh*t:hser*tr*d n*nff"Hgtes*i,vr,m.td"*isencl f::*ra th*s *w,hc tiaC lr# pri*:: c-rT:osur.ela an;f moei.eisilli-rsh1p*lhesi.s n.ss*med.iha{. suhleet-s Lra,q]" l.*arnecl irniilatirrc "ha[:i.tsa:i a rnxr:"Liuf pncrreinj:nrcn.r:nnnt,*"nd "i"hexeterid.*nciexwculd"g*n*::ah,:** Lr.: H{}r:rfl exfen; t* aeldt exp*ri-:n*nters{itiiltr*r& -**lLard,1941},i:.hwali firytirer pr*rJici"*d.t$"*t iltrnersraLicix*f sLrl:Ehrs:d.n;r;raggiesslvflrr"ncl.el*r"ftLitej.hant*ft,HlI-t*rfi,lixnrt.iCi:ihrtinn *:ff**t *r:*.r: strbj *ei;s*il.h:;eq.;1sn"tJ:ehirvtor. n"r:dttris efieri vr*ulci"hei*fi"*ct-*C in.. st. *ifi:bience h*twc*il f,h* r:tor.-aggrcssirr* anC ths c*n"h:*-lg.:.*,,:"pE,"T1illsu.b*tl.lirE iftvesLlg;ri.lil:rlrsrr.$su"pperi*d h:f "Kr:.u*a.r:chtlra;*.L"ird...l3$Sfr:errxi*i: irlx.nr:rrClnntjieig *:f TJcr,.ltir,[]nit*d $tp"te*-F-nhU"cf,r:rl1-b-S*::lrfl*x.[.h.r:rr,lf_fumrsmsh" i:r: exprr;s.*L]i*ii iip_rr*crali*n"le:;:I,:ltlj: Fr:wl*t. .*-ir*cf:r:i*irn* ilnlr-r"r:i*Fl*w*, I{*a*T c*,cih.r:r,Star-t.l*rd.Iiu-lr,ex-siti.1-rr*r:r-;5*,hn*1frrr *iei-t:as:irs.i;:,ne*ti:r*u gh.t,iur. ilus str-rdy".:ilKLS$[S"rViJ;,%SICj$fiF AGGR]ISSX*HItrEffi*"UL]l-{r}drTl/{,ffi*N#F I1"L}GRE$$TVEiVi*NHLSlAI-EHRT Bfl}ffimt-A, FOR$?-ffiA H"OSS,arcnSTffiH,A *1.ItOStr,S$ott/mdUmfnvtsityjeetsin thelatter grsup displ*:o"g sigeiffieas"ttryffiore aggression.${ypotheseswere also adlenfiedcnneemringth.e rn$ueneeof the sex nf :ncdetra,ndsex erfxubjectsoe j:nrta.Lt*n,Fauls and"Sn:ith {iP56}hsve shown that preschr:olch{ldren pereeive.theis parmts ft$ heving distixnt prefereneesregarCingsffi a"pprmpr{.at*m*d.es cF-beharoiorfo:utheis daitrd:en^Thek frndklgs, as Tsel"lasinfcrmal obsea-vaticn,suggest.thatperenL$r*.ward. indtatinn. *f sex appropriaLe be!:.arri*renqi"diseouragesx punish s#K inappr*priate; *-^ J +-* .1",,"-,."^*^-.-rr..,-rrL;:rL.&r,runc*p$ft$e-$, e"ffi", e m.ale ehild is u:ir*I:$:ei-vtc xeceiqemneh revardfni pmrf*r:nhgfemaleappro"piaLeaetiqritt*s,suehancc*king,er f*r edopLtng*Lh"erasp*cts of f,hematemraLrcle, hu.Lthese $ar$"*hehavinrs ane t".ryif;aI,l"ysarlcft:neri{{ nerf,s"lt*r1rflrlhv #qggles" ,*:t*a reguStIY urvvl:.uLLr- "u }Ju-ai.v*-r,J+usir-F *L-* rirF-*i* - *:inf*rce:ment i*str:des- tenrl*nE:i*sU !- Li-t L: f,;I LtlS j" Ul-L!.rajr E-U-1I..!,[,"LIt. }!-J * - - - * **t* imicaternaleand"{emaXe:mod"eisLllusncqurreffierential habit"str*ngtJ: #ne w*u}.**expecto*il L,hishacis mrhir:cis t,n ii"rri.fu,**tfu.ehec.eu,,i*iq,J ra tuilru*j: a $fimfl-sflf,r:*d.*Ltc a g;errter:depee,i3ra,u.a m.senel"*f th.*epp*sit* s*n-$lnce ag&re$$lfin,J:*we-*"*l,-isa }ughl;,Lt:asc"Lr"Hue-r,,ped}:eha,vi*::,"h*trssli*iri.d"he m*r:e i:re-{Ltposmt tha;r gixls L*w;r,;:cl::nn:"i:atl-ngeggr*$*si.*n, i-ir* rllffersncs being rn*st :ni:"r"ked".i*t:*uJ:lectnexp*serit* tlr* i:raic r"gg:ressiire:+"1*d.rliviu::m*ruSt",.bjaetsT"he sui:jeutswere i$Shr:ys nnd SSgirls *urrrl-leeli::rihreSt$"n:innli-Tnr*,*inr.Lyitfursery $ch,:*i. ?"hey ra::gedi-e"a.gefrqlm JT t* d$ n:ilcrths, rnd.t&s Lltta.nage r:.f53m.cnitrsTi:,* ari.ults,a :::.aCt:a-rs.da,{e-t::"a"irt,:itt.^.,eqlii i]r* r*le+i niori"*l,s,nd*ne f*ron"ie*xq-:erim*nteir:nnducier{theslud.yf*r al-t"?2 d:ilqlrn*..!lx!s*r t,w,*rlfgi i)3t:szgrt,Suhje*t.srryeredivieimdinLr:eigil:.t*xp{"rr,r-r1est*-l.g.rnuptrrf nis *rrbjects ea,*-ha,nela iln$LquiSrfir.pctnsi.ski:ng*f24 s*bjertx" ffia"rtLli*:*a-p:ex;uautnJsubj*tls. rEflr* *x-poseC,.i.* aggxesxi.",t*.rnodelsn::.Chalf T{*re expCIt*dtl:rnndeJ*that n;rru*subdrrediluC n*naggr*tsiv* ur i.he.Lri:eln*-in.r.Th.*s* gl:CIlrpsrqLr* ii-u:&"*rst:htji,,i*1tdfuli:cl^m:al*p-r:dfe::i.*ir: eubje*tu. Halj: L"ile*uh3cct*i"n h-*i:"6qgresn{..,*xn,t :Llr,naggtes:li.*r:q:n*ttj*ns *"hs*rE*it; :] i,; ::ijfT-1F!:l-a:T,*{ 4.:;
  2. 2. LJ f q-,-qnr$e-sffimod*trs,while {he remnirrisgsubjer,tsrn eaehgTsttpviewecimodeis of tfr.copponttesex.T";€ conbrnlgrsup }:ad r:c pricr *v,pCI$ureto t&"ea"dult mud.eJsandvrastssted nnly Lnthe generalixatisrnsituatian.It se*ned rea*qsnat,ieto expeettha.t the *ubjeetssJ.ereJ.of aggressiveaacsrqoidd.b* posi.ti,relyrelat*cl t* tj:"ereadinesswithwh"ieht&ey iruita"tednggressi*rem$desufbeh"avi.nr.Therefor*, in order to inereasethe precisicn$f f,:eetmeneccrnpari"strrtsssnbjectsin Lh.eexperin:entaias.d c*ntscl groupr trer* n:ali*ed indlvidua"11rr*n thebasisof ratings of th"alr aggressivsbetravlsr in slceiali:ateractiernsio CU*nur$ery schonl"Ftr*srrhtnctqwere rated s*. foul Ste-pCiht rating--d;;; ffi;*#il*;** ,l; ff--T"$*fri*uC*",both of whom were wei.l acquaintectwitfu tke ahiidrenThe*e seaiesmeast$ed ti:e extent tc rvhich subjectsdisplayecl physical aggrexsion, vere-hl *.ggression,aggressiantswerd i::.a.nimat* objecis,a;rd aggtessive*rhibiticn" Th.e iati:er seaie, whicb" dea.lt eiith thesu.hjectx!ten{ien*y te inhibit aggrernivereacti"onsin ihe"faceof high inetiga,ti*n,pr*tlided,a;m*nsureeifnggresstcn an-uiety" ,liiff*,-nrre er:hlpr-lc rxrFrp r*.ferJ inricnenrinnflv hvJ - . t 4 L J- l - i I L Li l U U . i b L u d ! ! u - l u a U , L U uh*th jttdgess* #,$tc per:rnii s,s,a,ssnssx3ent*f inlersaler*greement Th.ei:e3.rab:J-ifi.c{ th.ecermpoEiLeagpes$cnficorej mtilmattei i:3r means of tft"ePearscu"produ*tm*msnt e*maia.tictr,era* "8F" :The ecrnpositeseclrew&$cntnined.?:y *tlrnming thenatfu:.gson hfo"efergr aggressicnrcalms;on tXrebasis c*fi-Jresescflrp-s!uubje*ts w*re ar-r&ngedfn i:riplet* aneiasxigaedat riuurl$ni^""1ecna of Llflntceatmente*ndif,tanscr flsl*"ec*&trel.grou"p"Hre,,perirw&tui${ t} *nd"iiii asr,s"F"nt*le f,rst st*p in. ihe pm*edu^re*ithjects werehr*ught furriiiid.uali:; hy th.* ux.p*ri-rncn"tert* tiree,tp*runenta.l:rr;*lut.;*.nclt]rn mod*l qrhe ws*: irt tli*h.allwav*utside th"e-r**mr ?trfi-s:"ir"Eitedbv th.e ex,peri-mr:nt*r to c*r*e ai:s1r.mil:i* i:li* fi;rrilr:11l:.nem:e.q:-m*nterLhenese*rt*eI.t$"E:nuhjr*ci:f* crn.ef,or-nerelf th* sfrom:ribrcb nas ntnrcLuredns the nuh;ecispinSarea H-{lerre*iurg ilhc srlxirl ai; r- *r:1411lehla:"th* *:"lp*ri:ii*nielei.efficnsLlaterti:r*ri" itr"esublccl **ulti cl**igu pi+tur:ei;witl:" y:il*r.t,-lpri-nt;r:a.nd]:i*ctuesticL-*rsp;cl.:iei.:ii.?hep*t*,t* pn::.t,:jrclurleri a r*tietrci ge*nu*t;-i.ur.lf*rras:.l*.* sfirksrs w*r,i: at"tra*tjvc s:ru-Lfficcl*rpietar:e*iain.nim;rls fln_.veis.---r ---"r"-"- .L-*req ln hn nirtt:er{ *51 *niJ f-l-tl tY EiStUlr.:. 11$lJl.bJ {b uL*J.uLLtr!.-pu;t*xa.i $c*fl*Iheser,cfivides w*re s*lected sinc* ffie-itL:.aelbeenestahl{s}:*d, il1 pr*vi*us siu*iw.isr &* ntu;*seryschtnl, as.h.a*""inglrigh i*i:mest var.lt*r*fcr the c.?:i]Clen".Ajter har,i.ng :$*t"Llq:cifln* xuh.iet[ i:: ]ds *ur:r*r, tiir:*xp*:rltre::.ter *sccrted th* rncul.elL* r-k.e*pp*uite *oruflz:*1 ths ril$rTr.liir.i.q-ficcrrlai:rt:d e srnr:^iJIahX* *x<i drni::"p. iii:irer i*1" $r:t, a m*.,Jet, $,B"ri;r 5*fc*1; .raf,aierl Ei:hcdctrl" T.h.e *3:t:)eil.ffii.ir3tert.tphr.iired ihs"L th.t*t r//ei:* ift.ema*eiiiils p.rr:,riri*ri J.*r th* rnucel i:r: ;:}ily niib. and.,aff*li jhe rrildel =fiz$ $*n.t*d"+?:i:*;xp*ri..er*;rter .left lh.cff;p r.riirn{:fi.1.n-lr* cm.Elith. ,t*hjec.in irr l.ir* i*a;tog,qi#.wt# mnd{.ti,rttt,lh*:.ei:tlei pssembJ.cd.i:]:"* fi:rll*r t*-v:; in a. r:,r:i.i:L*rii:lt:*d.jn;n.rli,*i:i*t*-1.1i,!.gri*rir-lg lhe .fi*b* ilcli.lln *r:n.hast, -.rtIiir*uhj*ch jn lbrert,ggressise*rsnrJiii*r;,f*.* n:*cli:l hcga::u.hu, ilffiaiabling *.c tjnF"er to;is foui;:itel. npFr:cxircn,ielY e minirte J:r,il,*lel.Fxut-],the,:;n*dniA. tsa*ilu-R.A,3)" Rnss, Arqr)S" A. -fi,ans[umeel tc Lhe Habo dn]l s;nd spent ths cemainder efthe period aggressi"ngtcward it"EmitaLivelearnrag cnn he ctrearlyeleffic$etrairedif, am*elelp*r{or":nssuffi,rientl5nav*l pa.ttemscf :crspr:nseswhieh"are unllkely ic sceur ineiependentlyoi tb.e r:tr-servadcll cf tb"ebel:avinr o{ a,mod.ela.ndiJ a nubjertrepraelucesthes$bebnwr.nrs.in prrbstem.Eiultyid.enttcalfCIrm"Fcr this r*&sor1,in a,rlditiun t* punchlng fheBc?:sdoll, a recponiiethat is Hleelyts be perfcxxnedbychjldren ind"ependenffy*f a clemonstxad*n,th* mnetreLex.tribi"ted#stincdve aggrcssiveac"Lswhieh"qreretc besccred as fuitative re$Fonses"The ::lodcl laid Bmhccr:.its siale,sat an it a.:rdpunehed.i.t r*p*at*dly in Lhen$se"The rn*rletr.ccrearai*ed ti]"eEch* d*1$,piched erptft.emajXetand -qtruck Lherlcll CInthe ]read. Foliow.irLstft.emallnt aggressicn,tft.emcdelLassedch.edcll wp ii"tlieair aggressio,elyancllciatrq.edit a"bout&e rcloffr.Thisseq.u*nceof phynically aggressiveacts v/a* xbtreatedappruxlmateiy tluee$me.s,int*rxperseds"ith vr:rba.llyaggraxsiurmresplo$ses*uch as, to$r:ckhim j:r "Lh*nc:se. o ,urliIit hins d,cwn . ," "Tierow }u,nnru. {:}:eair. , .;t* ttKi*h h-iim," , , ,"tuFosq,,,,.,,nuand. tw* nern-aggreusiv*eurnrnents,Tfe keepsccrurxrgbackfor.mor*"*nd. ?{e su-r*1$a t,cughf4lu""Thus fur.th* e:rpostffcsituati.on, *ubje*is w*r* pri]-",ided wit"h a #.ver#sg tesir" wlx& cceu.1:ied.thei.ra.rtend*u wldle at f,he i;s^m*ti:r:e [a*]$red,mbse:srp.Lrlcn"o{ Lb-*mr*d.elsbe"harru$rirr ffie e,bsen.ce*f enSri"lasLn-r"c*tion* to cl"bser,reor tc 3e+:"rruth* a"espeasesin. quesf,teur"S.[n*esuhjectsc*q]-ldx:.ctp*rfeirm t$.em*eleJ.nnggre.ssi.rr:bel:a,r*r,#.&3r[spssdmgt"h*,t#efru.ff*dwa* pul*try ss fii.rl*bgerorr,rtonal.ur ffo,onrtbasis"At *he esd e:f J"ftmfurut*q*th.* eE:eriim*nter *nter*d{ire r$$ei, in3un::iedi"hes*i:jeec f,hath.s wcurld"n*lvgo to anriiheSrmle:rofitrrrs.ndtiki. {:h*:*eodelgc*dbyc.A-ggrr,ssi,#it".f::-"itrtiu$&l, uhients rier* {:esled.:fnr th.* a.rucunl *$ im;.taffi*.reii.-lat-iri.it$lri l d-j-f;er:antuxg:eri"rn*ni.al):oilrffLhat rryasset,*ff fr*rn Lhe ma-i-*n$Esi*E/sehc*t l"rulicl-rng-L,:tetwr:e:,p*rir**ntsJ situe,Liflr$ wei:*tkus r:I"early differ**Lla.Ledu!.:,r"IarL,3.11ril:3rnuhir:c.lswrr* rrrieier{1e*i:nprcssi.mn-*hatih,*3,r,,sg4:r* }.er*gerr:n Lh* .rur$*Fys*hrc*lg-ccuu^ds,Fnci: t* lh,eiLestl*r :.:::liti,.Nicn*h*weyer, ;r.i3suhler:ts,*xp*riment*-i a"ucl cc;:L;*1, y.rer:e*ubj*cLecl tc uul,;iii#g?res$r,finss*rt-catr"L*i:rsuretli*,t Lhevw*re and*i: srlxtee[+g-ree*f r*rsiigafi*irLnaggtexsi.*LThe ar*usaJ-expeti"erxf;*TTasirr,drlited"f*i tw* :tnir,inyr;a:ton$"l-r:.Lh* firstnlra:e. a1!is6r::us,[:i*-il.rlf fi.gs.fd$stre heb,*nir:i exhihit.*d"t3er"** -hy rrtlieis tenr!,sic :-eclu.r:*tlrrepr*hi:,i:rlily *i agg;:e*si*nclnth"* payt *filh"r:r:bc*nu,r*r{Relsenhaum,,.tkdeehar.r::.s,i-q(5{}).il*r:scq"**nt11..,sxh;t:cts:.rrfhe a.ggressiverr:r*-.rlit-icn, i$ id.ad$n F:*l"]l.LotJ:r:nc,nr,gEetsircr+*d.cr;n-i:.**15*L:;:s, lrt-rril.clhr:wr$t*rw*air*r lnnLi.gationfcilr:nring+qflr{}irft r"n l1r,,, *t"rot:l;rl* (r.r"nr"r.rl if trr}rr,=r{c ir* {h. *f il.jU}{.t..ru l.L.r [..*dl l"ituLtiljfi ojJ;Ullltl .!-r.r(.aL,Jdf,,ur rr+ u,*i, *{Jl.].""=gg;rnssr,tr*e*ild.ih,rn erlpr*sserJ}itt;i"caggr(:$t]Lfi.r.$f.l.reit:.:t *{ *pprc:lprrai:+ Lnsiig;iti"*n, iJ:.* pr*tr)r-rf;d cf Frl:,nb,ihi.trr:ryi].ts*es$.,riE:ruids*em i:r:"t:e ind.icn.ii:d.F*llcrvtirg ihr-; expCIsiiie ex;:enence,l tJr*refur,*, thr:riip{r{ra,entfl} h-rulr$ll hhe sttlije;f l* a-r}.n:ltercor;:fh.at **ntained i.h.ener*lii,iv*lv u.i:-t;*.fihretiry$: i:" fu:e*n6i**, , l***urn[.irfi1, fi, jfit fig]:.i.r:i:piar-r*, r, r*]:.1* c*,r,;r cr-rJ.cr{ul"npirr.ning L*p, and a. cl*ll s*fl e:*x4:i*t* mt*hj1,s.rd;*h{:"*,s:11"ca*:iag*, ;:.nd.i*ah1- ciii. lilhe, i:xF*rr-
  3. 3. ffiffiffiffiffi,MWWWffi"tffiffiWffiWMWffi,,,.ffiiiFffi.:iai:t!rffihcrsaffi*ilT or AG,cREsslrs i(onersI$1Fii$ififr$filiiti#$fijfiIJIJr1tjiiltliiilj"-,i1 ii-i.;.1,1II,lIIIi,!.xneuter expkftred {fiat the tays were for t}:"e srrbjeettc play with F:rrt,ir,ssoon as &e subject bec*^lsrecum-eiently invoived snl,thLheplay material (nsuaLlyis about;2 rninut*s), Lhe expcri*renter remarleed ihat il:essweseher very bert teysutftat shedid not let iu*t m":rycrieplay wi{h cfr.em,and tha.t she had decided LoreserEeihesetoys fcr the ci:herchildrerr"Howev*r, ttre sui:jecie*uld play with any of the terysi:titt nrerein the:rextroom";I]re r-aT:erirnenterand the nubtectfuh.enentereelth* adiciaing experimentsJ.trc$Ia.ft was &eces$a-Tyfnr th* experi:nenter tc remain ini&.eror:rn duri&g t&.e*xperimental"sessiari;ntherwise anumber"sf the cldl&en woulci et{her refuse to remainsl"eee"*r wculel lea.vebefsre ttre tqrrnir.a,Lio:r*t ihe. session-FTcw*ver, in ord.ert* r:rinimia* s."&yinfiueneeh.er presencemight ha.vs CIathe subjeets i:ehavier,th* e:rperimentetremainedas ineonspicucusas peis*iblebybusylng .herseifwith pap*r wnrlc at a desk i*r tfrefar e,:rnsr of t:he room and avciding s,ny lnteractit*vrit3:. the ehild"TrstJw #ektyedfmitttt{mTlrere:rner-ime,r"lta*TilCIrnecnte-ineeta vn.r{*ty *f tcyslanludifig nsre.eLhane*Cd be used,Lnimits,tive sr non*imitati"trs aggxessi.on,ffid *trher"s{:hnl tenderl tr: *l-lritpredcmtn*oUty F.ea*,ggpassiroef*rms ef beixawlor.Theaggr*ssiv* t*ys 9*etrudeda 3-tq:ot Bobm eloil, a mr{lef,,-od p*g borxdu two dar-Lglffisr and a tetherhallwiLha fac*,$a{mted sn iL prhichhutg frcm tke e*ilfuigTheo.cnaggresni.vet*ys, onthn other hnnd, insluC*elx,tea*et, crapons fi^&de*l*rilng ps.Fer,a be,11,rvr* d*li*u th;eebea,rs,ce"rsat:.d^t-tucks,and plaxti* farEnanimais"-h *rder to etri.rainateany variatisn i:r be"tia,vi*reluet* rnere:ptrace:xentsf thc t*ys f:l rhn rco:u, ift* pla.y-r*.ateris.it,as a"u*,ogeriin r" fixe* order fcr: tail}r *f rn*gesnr.ons"The ;nb,1ectsi:ent 2{Jrninuiesul tht.qclxl-:en:x.entn{i:osmrhlxll3gwldcit iiti:e trisnehalti*r rvas-rat*r1i11L*:ff15:*t pred"*t*r:r::ineelre,c5]$iliiscategoies b3 i*clges rvh"*$i:servrid fJr* se*si.runLl:r**gh p, *ne*wa:!rm:r::*r :-a snadj*i.uing $l^lseffralio&r*4]rs" Tiie, 2tJ-n:rnn.tr,sessioi:tvra.sd.ividset lnto S-si:**nd .ktt*r"ralsi:)rrrea-c*qq:f an*J"s*tricfur.tr-r.,;:1"tixler, {hus 5d*lclir.g* irtrJ r"E-rnheicff4S respcnserrits fnr *acli E"*il.jert"Tllia rrral* m*ele],scureil i^h* *;perm*nlir,l s*ssicn*f*r s,tri?il chj}lrsn. Kxec*ptf*r the casesrn vri:ieh b"eserveeias ::icdei, he did n*t have kno:vitedg*:*f t.besuhjer:is grcup assi.gnrn*nts"In nrde::t* pr*r"idr anestj^Il:.aleCIf inters*{,}rel:n}Piee:u-ent,the g:ed*rl$aIl*es*f half {ft"*sr:}:jectsvrrreslx* ser:redurclepexd*ntly hy asecr:r:.c{.mh,!erver.Tkus CIne*r {b-* cik*r uf th* tw: cb-$*{n.ersusqa-lIy.hatj.nc krre:wl.eetge*f the c*I1Cili*:nsr{},;.rlj:j.-":l:.Lh* subJr*ts trer* i:.s,si14xtcl- Sitr*e, l:lw t:r*r, ai1hirt twt r.:f i:-Ll*nubje*{:*jh .ful].*ijHFJr;s$ivt}c*l:1diiltirpnderr:nedc.heniodds n*l*^:lagptestiqe:rr5Ffin$3swhilt:iuhiecr1*i.n Lh"*i:fh.*r rr:n*iir:.*nri*rrly iaffil1 exht3iield*r"rtr.h::ea,c.tir:ns,sn}:jertswh^*qr:rf;r.trpss*dl{}t;.h.*aggres-sj.roeru*tl*ls c*u-iclh* :r:er.r.liitide::.Li-,ted"thr*ugh th*j;,liri:in::i-ive hrlheti*i..llh*respc,tlsfl$s**ret: 1]{lopivr:{i-big}riy*;i**iii* t:n-,,x*i:i:s:la.ss*s*JltreJ:rawir:riind fi.Erleicdhigh irtielsfi"]Ier::*I.a?:i1it:i.es,iht pr*rtri:c{,*in*n:*iLt*-ryefiitiei:.1.:,1h*ing,ii i^he .{}{)r;RespsrtseIYfe,nsr{rasThree mea.sure$sf irnita$sn sflre*bta,inerJ.:Itmf,cati,ory*f pkysdoatrmggr*s"daff;This eateg*ry--$:r*atudeclaets cf str:ling the tsob* doll witb the nealiet,siffirng*u the doltrand punehi::g :{Lrn th* n*$e, kickingfhe d*trl,and.tossing it in the air,fwituti,ve terba{,#Sgrd$.w0r-4:Srrbieet repeaes thephgase*,t*$ock hfur"-;*m.t hisr. d*wn," ul{ink himrti-T.hsrwhtmia. the *..i.rurtQr *uffov/""trmifutixerzoramggressdueussrbsf,resfomses; Suhjettrepeats,duffieleeepsc*ming back for mcre," ol tnHesuxeix a t*ugh.,feila."T)nrinq th* nrnj"psf.p.ttl:mberof tire subjectr irlri"s w a l s 6 d ! *} J r - v t 4 h r L JF s a r r - ! A , v qtated ctreessryndeJc*rrp*ueets sf the m0.*e[sb**haviarbut did ncL perturm th"ecornr:leteact, or t3-9)fdlr*cJ:eeithe idta$vi aggreEniYerflspsauet$ s*me ohject othesLkan the Bch6 rt*i}" Tvr* respo$$fls*f tfuis eynewereth"erefarescou*dt nnetrl?*re interpret*d. as partla.}iyimitsdve }:ehn,w*s"rt.{al1efe,ggrsssiiora;$ubject .stsi"ke$o?:iectsoiSr"extheet.*trreBobc el*II agpesniorelyvri.th t"hemallet.Srfsersffslr$ rdol4"$ubjeet iu,ysthe ]3qhmColl un itsside &Tidsi,tson it, i:nt d$esnst s"Hgressi:cvva,rdicThe fcllowingg au.ddtti*na,incni:nitaLive aggre*si*re$ponse$lrefl*f scgred:^Pw,rafies-Ser&sdcr$fi;5utbte*titsikes, slapx,ut pushe*the rioll aggres*ir,eilY"i{ow,€,tatdt*,t{,ttePkysi*mts,vadaet&*l erggaes;rf**t:Thisrateg*ry lrraluded phy*rcrutty *rggt*:sive acts dis**tedtnwprel*bje*r1soltrer ti:"ant""Lee-#*h* **ltr and.a;nyhmutil*r*m$.xl$ e:teept.fcr th.*sein Lhevr:rbalmrdtadsn eet*-ECIryj*"ff.r *;$h.coti*:e B*bmr" t*Cut .hinl," u$tupidlrili,t tTlu.ock *vev p€:*iller" rWcrselsfr.ghail:g,b$.tJng",iggr*ssfuegwn;filrrty:Subj*ct shc*ts dsrt* ryrair:ls Lh*,o,roo-o-ootfueximagi:rary sh*tx trt ehjm*tr-tsthu:{fi*Eu."Rir,tingsw{18fia.lso,rlradeof *e nurml:sc*fbcharvi*r:u:rits rn l.,hich.subject* piayed n$nag8;rsssiu*1yov sntquietly s:rdcliii nut plny wit*T*.any *f Lh*mataris,l at nll."R.Es{rLTs{}wrt,p"l*t* }sr"itatn*:rrr-}frt{{tstl*tsBe!r,r:"tsx*rSuhj*ut.ii:: t]lreaggres$isnc*r:Citi*r-r*pr*"dur*d"n,g{r*d"clealnf pb"ysicalnnCrr*rhill ag"glessirreheh.avi*r lesfilr.bling Ltlat st thtm*Cels,anel theil tn"enx"sil$resdiffe;:*d rn&rkecl"lvf:*:n"Cs**e*f su*j*ctsrtrthen*ni:.fifiressivs,nclq:cnfu:*lHr*itps wh-#*xnr.hit*rivi-rtxtallyil-lri:xr:.tai-ttie r,ggx**csi*n.{s** itJan}r, !"}-Eine*fj:cse wi:rr;tlnSrni:*w sfle;:{f;$f*r suhiei:tnin t,h*:nfinaggr*s:iii-rfis.nd.til]:tfu:clc*ndiLierns{appr*nimfit*1"}7*Yr*f i:* snbj**L*}ln,firr$ scfirfl$) fi,TLdLhe assl"rffil-]tj*T],*f h*rnrg*nerl4r fii: xlfi.riil,Tr{l***r.*rl. .r-t*tbmsnnd*, thFCe{*:anLw*-tia;y analYsi.s r:i var:"a;:"** t:i:ixnJtsqn,*4i.rrlnL*)i*Ctt: i*-gt i:!r*signifi-cfincet*lc uht ai:-r*eicli-tiq:r!.n"rlc*$lltre i:r*$j,q:ilicn lhat r::K;]{}suri*1 srlb;ec* iag;Hrf;.ci$i1r*la*tL*l$ i::*rr:an*-qtir* pr*br.,br!ii
  4. 4. 5?Sfff eggressrvfibehnrri*r is ciea.rl3reonfi:-med"(*eeYnble 2). The main effeetmf tr*atmenttonditions is trighlSrslg:reficarit"r:*thfor physl-mj- *n& v*rbal {mitative a-ggressi*n"t*rnpar!-scn of pair*a:fsecrssby t91ige tesfl*hmwsth*rt.hlae**$ntul**C.nver*al1"etriffer*neeswefe duem.lmcst*nflrer t* the aggressir:n"disptrayedbysubjeetsiryhohad i:een exposedLcthe eggr*:i-siiv* rn*deis. ?h.eix $ccreswffie ri.gnifica:rttryidgher than-th*se af eii^herthe nonaggresstveTF,.tsLE1 ,i/Iil4}{ Pe$snssT,o$scnxes-s$R E""x*alwrsl:iirAl;ram CelltrRCIL$sxf*crs^ r.l , <ffi*ffi ,, la E! rnrc o n"=ro $ 4., ROSSf1-. J}Ar3-EUr{jl;, JJ, -t*LJb;3i *)""1i-rSlxp*riuwtrl grouPtiIt66rassiv* gun.pL*,3Fe:nnl* subj*ei":i I i ll 3 " 6 I 7 , " 5 I $ a l a r : u i : i e c t $i t : l t . s s i $ , $ i : . t 5 " ?E *lt;:n*s* ua;*1i;*rry fft*r e*ntv:elgroups, r?hi{fuclid-neL &tf;"e::fu*meaehmther{Table ?}"Sseit#.tina"yrasn*L co::&ned"to iLle m.*deLsaggresni.rfirr.sprus$es" "&"Pproximaiel3rmn*--th:sd"*f tA* su"l:ieetsts"the rggt*ssivecsnd:Li"onalsmrepeff,ted.th* madel$sn"$nagfiressi:vnvmhaLr**pooseuEvhilen"sT]"eof th.esuhjeehsi:r ei"t}:"erttrenenngppes:iioren::*onfu:mlgu*ttpsro"ad"cmu"*}lIeffi.arks.*:*ts di$*re:rc*, test*ei h}r m*ansi#fthe Ccchv:na# test, wnsxlpdfica"nLwbll i:ey*.ndL}:e"##i"J-evei"{"tabte7,}"Fn*da,[I:vsaits,{*$fosJ}iCs#,e"sfr sh#"w"isr-B:-ff*tence*Lrr{he p::*dieflecl#iv*eticn rr*realsc n]:tair:ed"on Lhe two u:ea,$Ltuf;$#f nartiaiimi.ta.tiCIn,A-nn.trysiE*f vartance *f scsr*s bn"sedr:rl t,h"esul:jectsuus* *f &e maJj"*f;n,ggressi*retr;ytcwa::cl*hjenL**ther then the Enb* d*U";*veaJ"s-t]:attreatm.ent ecncli$*ns ffis dsuafu.stl.t:*"tr1;rsi"g-d3lcan{::sfrur{:*fff "raetnh.*s("-iluhle2} }g ad-dJtS*nultrrtivid*nl sign{:e*tsshmw"ffiseh*Lh"*.eaggre*niv*a::Cth"es:*m-L:;*}g"r*up*, -r:ela,tive*tersubjects :s" tne n.ft.irs,#guessiveearodjticlarpY*-*u*ed" sigifrean.tSy ts.sre smalLetagg:.es*i*n,Lh.cdfuTeren.dJ*ht*lr:gpa.rtte*i"n.rJtn:arltccln"-t"hh"regai:dtc f*..,mnJesrt"[:j**is.Gtkkivho**i:serv*d.n*ilft,ggrcsnj"-=..*mod"elsperfm::ro*d"a m.e*,nlr"tfix*h*l: *f *"$ m.tlJ-*in.gglessi*-*"rexp#ffise$.&$esffi-pa::cd"L,c,r::.en,;:"a-L*egir:f 18,*n,:d--i"3,1tm;:gtrl*tii- t*:e ;i.gg;:i*xsio.,*s"i:-d"*q]$-fl.r"*J"ffir*[$tr]srtre*mp*r:tlv*!5r,.$i.[:h*:*gh*t"i:jemsriir* *hnmsved"agp*nni*r*:::r.*d.el*perf*::::n*d. i:ff.flrifrrl:a,33eLl:,ggrex*i*nt?},,[,.=". *,*) L.Lranthe"i::**r:tr*ls {!uf* :i#"3},i.,J:.*d-rff*;*ILfir*wfi,sn*{, :tL*,i:ititr^calJ-Ysr,pd-{l*ar:"h.5::::Y: ":1g:Y-I:iT::FrL,::,:{S:s";i L4gr*ssiv* ;,:1. &;gflrrxsirlc rr*, K*5reg-" .l{nrro.g1p:***i*"{i*nuE:t *ff**lifot** * ! ;I *,- -.r----"-**^,"*,. II".ixp*frxiT::::_lI tf*-l-*o*"R*rpon**eiitegnq"* |Asares-*iv*I":-fffi"*i " - . - - i * - - * * -l * i u l r l u nIi,tn,i*llucn"tlrvlodclisa$del----;-*;;,"!-[-*[-[-s i o n l l l lF*sa,at**uLrjeetc I S.s i ?.? I 2.5 i *- s&{nlc$qibjeeh |.ru"* | m.n |0"tIt}-imitativeqerbalx.ggressicnl I I IIiomratresubj*eh* | t*"* | 3,S I 0,i i 11.{}l d a l e s r n b j e c t s 1 4 " $ 1 1 2 . 7l 1 j i i l *lvJnl-tetassesslon t I t iFsnrilceubjecl* |tf,: itr,i; ti 5 | fi s] i { n l e n u " h j e c ki t s , s l z n , n l : e . r l* . ?Frm*he*Erhcdqrll I t | |}fum;liesshiectr I a"sItr:.*;! ss I 4;;3ds,.1esubjeeL* | tu.+| lt.u ILs6IE48itionimitutiYenggxes:*ion | | I tFemetr*]sr.rbjsctu ltt.ni r.4i T2 tr!idn[*xubj*nts I te.r I s{i.Ii ?d.1I 7?sUSBffOIB_1rfiup*. t . d"6" U-u . 3.i rfi.3"ItL1"J.,t . tf f !i{i,iLu.c, {i};1,.i.l.lc JT.lr*3-l,H?,"!-toigr::n*;*i*cll *jI .mrn i]:;,*t*E.ElTCgs Blrrrmnw, -E;;s:rwlsa;$$iLr.L p,.rE*#*igT:t*L#n*ff**s ruI :l:ET:-fixm,-ussr*lT fiF Stlc"aussr*rg-tsultativeI;rspsn$*:]Fh: sicsi a.ggp*s:li*:rv e:"hai agg:reesir:rilil*uaggrex$i",rgr,qvi111,1rasp*r;lt:s,.1.)sri:iai ixri"tah"*nLtr !let.tr.ggm*liiu:lr$iiii r:n.,E*hE,.::lnn:.rzuta.hv*sggrriiiiii;r."|.r:nc.h.*s3+i:* tit:ilq}:tYxir:a.ianrS,t*r[:al,* -xmmnnrtrclir::r1fr-:-r;r?iTp .x ?i f , : i *.i:,i,r1.y,ii* .Uu-L,c*4.ili}1,,*?s.i.liii,il$,,*:;]ti"5.il*$,;ri_5.,{..il{}J.4.frer;",il*i"{ ,iil; ,#i.q ,*ff"i,s4s.il"l+ifi,"f"iliij.t.n""*5l i f J t il t t l tr],,.s lf ] ri: u*r!1:i il,litiJ.{;;,tJJ,
  5. 5. IF$$fl$tr$ff$Ir,lii$.#XM:T,qrrcN*F Aru+x-ussnrnlttlonnr,s qTaWith respectLnth* partiatrlvimitartv* re* tinjtativea,fugression(r ,* S.J""$,P < "S25),anrtrspCInsecf si.ttingmnth.eHobc d*11,the cver-e}l engaged"is" sigmiicantly illoi"* aggresslvfigt1r3gr01-1pdifferenceswfiIesigni&cantb*v*ndthepiay{*:2,t?,p<.trJ-leveL(lilabi* 2), Cn:::rpa-uis*iecf pairs nf tc the aggresni"reraalero.ocleLtha.nth.efemalesfloreshy the sign test proeedurrrelealsthat su.hjects.5-n cnrttrasc,glrls *xp*sed to the*rhieri"c in t"l-rrw#rvvlu **e aggressivegrou.t)reproclueed. fem.aleracelsl perf*rm.ed"e*nsirierai:ly Etor*this aspee[,,of the modetrsbeha,rncEta a greater :-udtati*reverhal aggtcssi.*nenci more nsn*exLentLhandrCLhen$neggressl"re{S == "ili8} imitative aggrflssicnthan drd the hr:ys {Table*r the controtr(p * S59)subjects Tne latter X).Th"evaiances,h*weverj Tvereequallytrargetrvmgraups,fin the cther h.and rliri nnt niirssy and"qrith nnty e smaRfi !n eech.ceil.the xffifiau"frc::r *aebotlier"]Y*.s;irm:ita{iue#-ggressiaru.Anetr3sesclf vaiance of *he"remaini:rg agdifferenees#.dnct rea*hstadsdea}signlfieaaf;e"trats fcr fre nilR*.ggressixreaud c*nfuo"[su{:3ectsprcvide a*diti:ct$at *nggestive e"ri-dm:.eethet hh"ehehavi.or"of tlhe ma4e"modelgressicnffieasures{Tnhle 3} shont that treat* cxerted #, greaterinsuenee than Lh.etevna.lem*nL e*ndit:.ons&"elnct lnflt-lenceth* ez-Lent mcd.eJ.on the sni:je*ts ?:ehartiorLetl:e $fiHe.T*Lr: ntr:ch subjects en"gagedicr aggressrvegu:r a-l{r.ationxitr-r.ah*n.play or i:unched"the Haberdoll, The effectof ff, w*l""here*al3edith"at,except"f*r the greate:c*nclitions ls hlghl"y signif;cant {X*, : 8"SS, arnCIu:rt*f r:.allef,a,ggressinnexhibit*el hy i:he* 4 .ilZ),h*vqever,furth* fl*.se*{ Lheser"hjeetsccntrol suh.lects,n* sign{&eantdiffer*ncesw*rtrexpr*ssi*n *f n*xrin.itatisr*Fh;vstealand"vesbal fis]-tainedbetrveen"*le ::onaggr*ssiveand"r$xx-ag6ressicn"Ferrh.hexeontparl*CInnf Lreatment tr*i grsu.ps"The data,-rndj.cnLe,h*wever, tlratpa!-r*sr*vealn that the mafu:.s*Llrilenf th.eilver* the ai:se"aeen:!:nignlfi.cantd"ifterenfreshetweenal"Leliff*rence wns Lh* aggresniv* and $"ofr"* l,hesetvro &"*.lps r?e$ due prtmrutly Lc Lh*ncr,-rr.*iqirrr"clmu.tr]swh{ch.#Seged"signtfi.cant^l3rfae,ULb.atnubjects*ry*s*d.telth*ft{}negg.ressive*C.r()*frmm"eae.h"nther {Tabtref;}, "wi"Ctrsui:ijectse,-* fm:ra!.en:"cei.eldid.nct differ fu*ro"&e eerntrclspclser.lto the *,ffg:"ssslve"trncl"elsrtrspla-*ugthE *Tf,#"Llv*f the jtr"e#.s;Lres*i fi.ggres-sl#n""Wlttig;:*atrlr aru:.*rint*f eggrrssi*n .icspecLL* *r* u:.a.L*ruudel, mnthe *th*i .*.*,nd",ruffi,r+ewuu*fS*x*f iri"t:rte[,a,Ed,Sffi;*i,S,u.b,i**rs*r,,L1:t#ruXT-tltf:ffiffflJff;H-#;-;ff#"triIsn;{{af;t"*ttthe sign"t,m*trrrrceis th.nf,*in seLatiernt* the """?hq h3"g:*{.hesrstha,t h*1s fi,re ffil-*r* pr$n* cq:ntrol grtrLl.F:ti!-lhjects exp*sed t* thre nslr* u,t-hai.l gllis rc,enxt.a1"caggrensicn *xlibrt*cl [:5r fi.trsres$txini.*r*,iemgdr] n*;t*rmecl xrgi:ificErli,lva,onntielwa.s*ni.3pa,r,tilI-l3,c*nft:n::ed".f tescs ;J.#-j*i*#;;-;;;;"-tugE**niog qi, i:-:::,ilS),^^*n.,**r t."=su.L,jeetsin the aggressiveil#n- J.*ssnr*te#,veir*ihut eggr?*sicr:{"f : .fi*t},r../-r.s_rl. jf {"d rsL, LL J- LJ i.*i.C*n r*reai Lh.athc3m-rep;*d*.ccd.i-m"mreirnjta* j.esnn:a,11*i:agsr*ssicn {S !:::*.ili}S} less "6.ffi1-iirre ph1sicaiaggTuu*tuouhuog*"t* (.t ::- .?".$fr,il;-ri;*"pfi;;;;;T-u"* ver-Lralaggr*ssion"itr{"LU,}.llh"egr*il,iJ*qd* r:.*1"differ,h"*w*loer, {S: ,q3},an.{.*eyw?{eiessi::"clin.ed,T,:prlr.&.--in thnir kr"ltntrn"n*.[ nr*:bal;r,ggressi*n, r,heF*h*"c*ii {g}; ,t?}"-f"h*u.ser:f $*fl4,1a:,",T,mrtricfesLs.nec*ssitated "irll"hjleilre *r:r11na,nsn*"*i s,,,ihg;rnups,w]:en,hy ti:e exLremdy skewetl clisdbuticnn cf uuro* *i fr; ;;;;:;*i*ls d* n*L r*ach,$ra.-se*l-*$f*.r su-bje*tsia tl:.e.o*naggpessr".rnand .LintLcriixign!.fi.eanc*,rs ljtrrelrrt* capj.talj_r,e*ncr:nt;r*l cfindin{}n:r,,-};.r-r-:i.:-tri*a:: *"cr*r**,l:.t*sl: r:}:.an.r.*&fl*******, nclr*fi;helesr t,"* r*n.,*i,Lireinfi:.:en*n*f nex:nt :cndslp*r sf:;al-d.nt sisfcLtci,*f ttri* fix*d31gsufi.Cs*"r":ppr:r-i.l.i: Nh*the varj.rus i::L*:anri.nnsbef.wecnthr, rnei:: irri*:xpietaticl::.i: t*n::"s *f i::dfu:-r"nc*hy tlreq:#ectshrspechon-,*f {h* i:{r*air*"pres*:-rte,j"iil .,:*d.r*."l"ahle-Lf:nrsnbjectsin"thc uggt*uotonc*ntt-i*t.ir:n,h,,:vr*ver-*r*txri"g "rrigx"csi^*ii.:* i:rersr,ihllii"yrjfi+,r,{J:r*;.iti,r?;rrsI,,r:itr,,.t.i;;o*r*i;x.S*x ){ iV:?-*{"Lell-r::r.Lq:::a,;fi.q:r:,.15ii:isjr:,iera*trnneffectis::ru& moreconsisten[anclpronou:rced With the exceplianoi expectedsex djffer-__ {or ilremalemodelt}an for the fernaienodel. encesrLitdquist (1956)l:ypeIJT analysescf--.----Male subjecls, fci er^,rmpie,-exAif-A$iteamore-vffi[ncecFlle-ni:-naffiaisiu-erespur:sesCorilp}:.ysi.cal(d.. 2.0?,p < ,05)andverbaiimita"" yieideclfewsignificantfi-flerences.tirreaggressinn(I - ?.sirI < .05),motenor- Femalesr:bjectsspe$tmoreLimetlan hoys
  6. 6. IIIj-!. -ils"t.l qJI,,A"3{itlfiti$ltti#lilriiijt.ii;illitr,ljti:ll,il;:lrlj x t Iptapng Ttrrthct*trlsW < .il01),witr the fieaset{p < il$l}, endeclorlng{p < .*S),Th*hoys,*r"th* oiher f:and, devutedsipr{scalltly morec-bnei;h.anthe gul* t* eqpl"oraL*ryrpia.y wi.tirthe gun* ipf*unel !s. rmpec.t tc) &e su"bjectsuse sf *le*th.er stimulrrs *bje*ts, i"u, farm n,nimals,il#.r$rmrtetker trlall.Trem"imen|ecndi.ti*ns djcl pr*d.uce sigarf,-cm.nicli-fference"s*n twc n:aa$t:.rescf m#nafi*gransiv*i:eharrierthai are Ev"crth-m"entioning.$ribjecls rn ihe ftonaggress*/fl ecndrLicn*ngageclia sigxif:cantiy more nneag6ressiveptra::yrife d.olls fhan either snbj*ets :ift th.*agg.res-siv*gffsu"I]{d :.*,?,"&7,p q" .ilZ}, or inthe emntrolgr*u,p(ii * 2,57,,#qt ilft)Even ffi.fires.*Lewor*h3ris th* f;:rd:_ngth.aLriuh;eetssrh* obsen*Cil$il.fi,ggrersi.rrerncrleisspen"ta:rfiL"eLha* fnice as :x.ueh.tr:ne as sitb*iectsin a,ggressiroe,***.rliiiar"{* =. "3.*7,d}{ ,*j"}ln rui;::piy siiliieg q-uieily v*"tltclnt hrun"&b::0,.any of the pl.riymnt*S"ai."jjrse;essr*:":i",,"r-uehm:-rs*::-tgesearrft.*;:"socia,i.i.earnurgisfq:r::-sed$n. tlrp nhaping *f ft*w hehardortlu*tigh rerrarding s,ncl p*::iuhlttg flonse*Er]"eri.ces"ilnless .{.esponsfis#.;emi.,*led_,h*vr-ev"*ff,tir*y cu,n-n**he influenced.."tlhe/t$sC**f dhts ti:rielyp::er"vtdesti.o;-r.geyi*en** that*bser-qta,ti.mnE:fclt*s pr*CucectT:)r[,1.1ehefu,avielr*1"q)d:ersis filrf; effs*tlv* .ffil*ensof e1i*iti.r:.gcertafu.f*;srs n:frles"p*ns*sJ.*rwleteh.l_l:m*n"gr,.nal"pe"r:hn"biJ-rtyis v*ry l*w fir .nf;rfi,*:"r1***,s*ein.iimitafi*n, ffiifi,:{l}lasten*r shcr[-r:ut. Lr:"*aecaur.*;ifu"*n*t merr ,heharricrs$iirl:clu-lti"h"*:t**tssil3r *f r*j,nf*rcr{ig s"icc*x*iqneappr*:.d.ma-tionsas$trggeiitedhir f;ldrtrcr{tr#S#}""-illrus su-bjects H*ifiil ft.,ael3:p*::tru*F,vr.**b*erti* aggr*ssi*..em.*d"elsLar.srreg:r.*elue*C,r,go**. deal cf ph."i*icalanC .r*rb..11aggre*sir:rii*n rrl*ll as iltrmff.ffiffr*snirt*r**p*os**i *lu"h-stanl*aliy icl*ntical w:rrhth"s.ilcrf thic r:r*d*l.Ln cr:ntrilst, sr:hfcct.gwh.* v?.*r**:<puseili;cl.i-{}.na.ggratbillr{::r::clci*lsand"Lh*s*vr}rt }:.erj.nr:Fr*li*** *r"-tl{}ni:if*t* en)i .i:nr:d-d;,;r:nl"v..i:t.:islvp*l*e:.i::neclsurh i:es;i]*n$i:sjil*Lh* c:Ei*nl; ,;x*r i:hse:::it$,t"rilir*t aCr.:_lt;rnr.,ci"*iiiflisS:la;ringi*.g.r.r:msi*n{:*ij:urrl.r:r-r,r-:,l,tes1:,::;.",-r:-issi?*nf.rj$fi:;: aL4f.?*i1$ty{ri:*h,lrrj.*_r. :1,*q:,lirlfii]il5tit:t :ttsg,:tiit:I.r{: t.r.: :,lr**.i1,*lj i:..flffbiiilf1JiesiJ*i1$flsnurj. i,j:.er*r:-li.* ulitrjf;i:.ijtt?:l* pi:r:L*a,b.ilit-,,r..r.i;:,gg.i*ssta,r*lr*ff.flir.r::r,-si,* si:.hseqrtr:*1,D. Rcssr Alffi S. 4""Rcssfrusi.rati.oru;"Th.sfaet, hsw*r,rer,that subjeets*R1)tress*dtheir ag;gr*nsi*nin w*.y$thaLelearly.resem"bledth* n*vcl. patter:mscffiil:iteci hv,thcm"ccl*ls prervides rutrikix.g evid.snce fci: "thesccurreil"eecftean:ing hy fuitaticn.-h the prucedure emplolsd by iV{ii].eranctIlclia,rd {1S41}f*r *srs.hiisbrngfuir*.tjv* he.harrror, aclCnftr pcer .rn*del,s-per*or.meilCis_cr*:aimn,tt*nr:esp#:r$esfottorung qshiehnthe.p,rrysre**nsisi"en"tlyr*werrd"ed,ar:d"Lh* ,:ubieetswere simiia,rly ::ein-t*rced wh"enever tn*-i,matched the J.eadsrs,chcieerespoases"Xryhiietheseexperknentshav* heen"wrc[.e]ya,ccept*das C.em"*nsLreti*nsmf S.eamrtngb3r"rneunh*finuteh.cn*in faett .&ey sirnptryinrsl.vea.npe_eia,l*ase nf di"sey.{mina.iiern..!"ealdngj.n qvhiehf,he"[:eh*viurmfothers $er.{,rfises ctrmerinrinalturesti"xnultfr:r r*sponsesilhs,tare c,lreadv.pn"it.cf*.e" su.hlectsi*perucr-r"*.&.uehtoryn*..o*iu*jenrireinm"eat*l eu.esE:o.ffii$easily }ra.ve}:eens"i"bsttLu"cndf*r *h* nnciai s,r*nutrlto faciliLs.tet.hech.silr:rc{nai^t*mte*ir:rirrg"I;l a*nixast, ,chepsoce$setf :-n:rraci*:nstudi"edin ,nh,eT:reseniex;*rim"ed: clffiesed.in. seqey:a}funp*rtln"t r**sg:ectsfrom. {:&.e#fi.* i:evesti,gated.hi i"t,.{ili*tand ffi*llarrt jr:.c;hat*uh.feetsleaxia*qJ"LE:cor::.*hir:.etT::a*$*nntres-p,-:trses:nL* re}-s,tivelycstn-.pl*x cr"*0,.*1petLerns s*trely.by mhs*ru,"itrgth*perf*rrn&.11"fi*cf s*eie.l nr**.e"l"s.runtnq:r*ila::.r,app*rtuiri[y tr,pe.rl*,:.rrrih.e,**.*dc1s,h*]r;],,tr:r:lnli. rr, l:*r-o.**.-^L.r.r"";{j;{##$L1.-,!:es*t,*::9, arti ,pi,e.hr:u.f.p,ny rr:in*.lc::rc::sdehler*d"ei.o,$.mL*th"e"m:clelels*rl t* ,rJ*u.*i:ri*r-rers../5*r nd*clurete t"h**ry *t lhe :m"eche:ris:r::.sur"nrl*ri"trngrmitalive ieei"l.n_rn&is trae.is-tng_,"i"-.n**:rpiana.tr*irnti:erthave-b*r:nmffm:ed.fl,*g**,*"l,msted, H-*sn*r:,,$ihwa:,**o ,31SLe=r***,t$SS;i{ac**i:v, :i.E$S} trs$urxe that th* irnifiarL*perfoi:rs tFre :::*d.el.s rrspi]u.$fls c*v*rl^ly.lT it can-h* essu{il.edae1d.iti*naitry"thafi .lcwelqJsanc-l punish-m*rrts ,?ffe s*H-admmis{:t::ed -t.n*q:*"luncti*r" with. ti:* **vert resit*E;ces,ilr*pr*ces$ *i rry:itah=re Jra,rteir:"gq{"}LlldTr; af;*c*::ntr:rj. fo;" ui i;e::ns *f Ll:,r:"sa.rl**f:rin"cip3.*sC.l:"i:,i g*v,*l-f; xlslr*rn *nta,ltiirili -alrcl-*rl.*r Iea;x-.Lng -Tnthe *aullr *tag*,s *1 t;.h.ed"**,reJ.*Fn:e6lie.Lpfi]i:esx;..h*lt*rrer,the :rjrij:gnrtf tr*nrpg"rn*nt.re..sp*n$en j:r- th* *i:ga,:i:.irni*:1.*p:e1,fi*l-ueis g::"*h-a,hi.yin,;:r*a,s*rirh::n:r:"g.1:s. i)i:*cf;ss *f e;l*,sxi*a,].**::irlit,i*i:lriir- {-t}x,,;r,;-1.ur*,i!: .T.:J-irgLcn,_i$#j.,.lH{*wrr:r,i..$Si}}.--Lh* rj.ata,pi",,irriil.*s*fr.r{:*ri.ci.e*cei:bir.liLi"r:i-i:lr,l*:nudi:l rnfiu*i:.ci:d.ilhr: *rr;rhj**ts:i_,*r|1s."rl"rJ;:
  7. 7. WWW^viLWWW[it1WWWIrunsesrclTop Acexsss$,rstrUcnprs )ff-t"CI*tside bherespilsu.r#*ettr::g t* ?peatex rng andf;ghiingbutnc nwe*:-{ng""}f--qggsessicnexf,eni rhan was true f*r thE fu**le h*del."hyme mate model",offi the *th*r hnnd"uws*q,tn.the snal,yssiof f,he sex ){ Ivredel:s.tesac- *oru ake}"ytc be $eeaes aptrrmpdaerandtinns, fcr *xample, nx*.3rtU* comptTsoils approved hy bcth the hcys (uF"l"s& gccdi:rvolv[ng the male :ncd.el 3n"eldedsignifi.cant **ok*r, he beat up Eo"b*"r Evantt$ sCIe"k3ilaedifferenees"$imilarlvu sublecm *npises tn Ai.") a"ndthe go{1*._{"Thatman is a stx*ng.Lhencnaggressiv***"1* :nc*lel i:ede-i:nierlless frgqtgr, .he punc$qd and p*unched and heaggressl"vebehar,-rorthan thn cofr.tx*}s,*n*uuuu *Jota hit F*tlc right doon:tm the fi$ns n31df;offilpm.rrssnsinvolvi::g,*:e feiv:ale mcd*t .i-[.ffiobcgol -"rrPhe-"}aif,*Puneb]r*ux n*seuwnyec**sistentrynonsigro^ificant. -Hes& g*oaf;ghterHkesaddlu.")"rn a stuely cf trea-r-ningby imttationu]R.*sen- Th* fudj"g that nubiectn rycned tc thebirth ti.$ss) has trikewrtEe-Inuedmale expei- quiet ruad.elswere ffiCIre inhibited" ai:d lln:""m-entexsranre effe*ti:re.than femal*s in in- rmpnnsive than su.bieets tn fhe aggressive.fruenci:rg chii.o-rens, beha.vior. Rosenbtrith oudaiffiu*, together ryth t}:"em}:taiffdsdi-{FeFadvaneed the tentati.ve explanation th-a,tihe ence on tft.e nggressicn roea$ures,stiggestsmahc*lsethingmay in=ro1.qe***u s**iaJ.**p-*p i-hat eq)osttret* tol*tui.r** m*cetrsn*"1 *nlyri=rs".Li.*:rjn respeet Lo n*urt rnnles wh*S,.-d d**t**&fte prgbalitiry erf ccetlffence *fin turn,, enhanc&the m"de,$rew*;rd"rraJrue. -egEessive behavi*s"but aisc generatrlyre-The trends in the dn,ta yicideclhy "the sfficts Lh* ra-ngeCIftlehauri*remitterl bv"thcpr***"t s.[:ud.yslrggestan etrtes:r*,tive*r,g:iana- silbieets;,,)i*n"rn the casemf a h-rghLy,o****fuu:*vpu*, . *trdentl&caticn wiih ?"ggrf;s$*"u".{Fr*uc3-hehavi*rsueh.asphysro*l *gw*sion, tuert fu 194s) *s ndetensirei.clenLi6catier#ft[*urr*r,*.i-s,.*,4F,nn-{.r,.fnrboth mBJeu##g**ra1"esubjeets 195CI},vrher*fuva pe}ss.* prexumeb"Lvkanq*eL LUJJ"qLL.uu.l/ -ot* ir:eitatethe male gnccel"io * gn**te:,:cte#:ee r*try hims*lt fur:mcbienil t* eg*::t *f ag-tha.n .*},"efemale mr:dex. fin tjril *r*:sE#;d; gressian by- adr:pttng Lire atLmh*tes mf &af::"the n&se*f verbaS.agEr.ession,whieh l* i*u* Lggratsive-thr*atbni::gmmde3so &s tc ail*ycl*artrv $*x linkerl", the gx*a,t*st ppl.slrs-t of *pk"u{, i* vietreLyaeceptec[&s8tr"explan**-r"::dtaLi.*nnccr:.Isi-ft.i:e.!"ef,{nnt*Lhr sa-rx.e-$eKtic}n *f-,,*iretKttt#ti-Y*J-e*::n:ngq}$eggressi*nmsrl"*J-.,f.hessLrey:"cis{.*getherry1&t}-refi:niling3k.s rierreJ"cpl:r.eni:*f aggt*ssirtern#d-*s*ftlaa"ilbr*-1isin rnleti*n tc gffil,rr,sni.ir gen*raI ]:e$p*nsehy e?*t*e"n,::[ agg::*ssl"iveiy"puatti**":dr*s-*:Lnnitatt*re*.1pSvsicrl ngg:eersicnbutd"e,, nd"u3ts,h"*vre"trer::{*"firystrxp3"}rrefl"eeL*h1e*tncL, Ciffeg tiq i:ui,cahj.*-se*:[ verbal *gpu**io*, r]inp.!"ae*men[:""dLhmm.tir:vcfinnH fin3i.nuefo*uggesf.,ib.atsrrl:iecL* rsa,y be di{fr**;:ti-,$" rnei.F:atrfum*{ delensi"veidentificati*n" :ful*.ff.eetegi:3. the s*,s *f ihe m*d"cl b,:.t ,r".# xL-uldir:**f csrtld tr-t"f":.lu*gar***ed"sntsmf ft"H-pred:r.*ti*ssmusi ts.tr* intr: anc*emrtth* d.e[r*e ry.yqsi=r*lrareis*in-B"nein1*s*mnts{sandnra fu:tc whrici:.Ltrre?.rehnvi"qlrffir"q-rie*ti#ni$ s*r:-nr{e*.- {,4ra1ter*,:L$Ss}anel^*j }t*uq#"tg3":*reg6r:*xniv*,lfhe; p.teccding et.lscussi*nha.s. asgrrincrj i:*1i..g{Barrdu:"*,,ips*}, ih* pr"len.tn wffi:t[hs."L.maJ.r:n*ss.-[eri=ni.enes.$rr.th.nr than sor*e E*i**" l* be nonpemntssic/ea;:d prueicrre*f*i.1.:.erp*rs*n*.1eherp.,ctests$;;*t tau pa.fricuiar aggr*ssion ciueeted"ecvsaxcci:emrsehr*s#n:r*.*ri"eJ^sfuiveii.v*ii.,rx iti* *lg*i.n**,ot iarinhl"**- 16* *the-rhanel,th.ey scLl-lel-:rrnccrLreffiedallclaa *.s$Lrrs"p1i*nt3:,nhce*ern*Th*tesr*Cdixe*t{y: :efutir:re*d.t}reis ti{:$"$ aggrrssio:: r*sarsl,,riitht.h* clah.nJl:.an#"it wa^Eckx:i:lr,e,.rid-e.nt,peffi*n$ **td-de Lhn tr*113*lflhil* p*tt:m: *:l!.:.*v;*.v.*r,pa::ticiLlar)";,rfr*::r bo.,ll:sp*nt*.n*ooi ildre:r*ntraJ"r*ln{*reer-nr"nL*[ aggr*ssiv*he-;r:m*r!g:sm,!:*r:t;i.Lr.:clisptay*I nggrrrssi*ir"nyhp"q,i"c"r-s*rvec t* fnhii:ir|}:q:h*"1sirg,gr*ssi*rLLrc:t*s:a.j"*;:i*cr:}, irret ssnr*sirhj*r:traL .L*ast t*warC t]:e *ngillai Srrutign1"*rsar-ti:t*sle:#lqq*rflrespcn*ir:"giu i*r-.:,::x*f a,s*x *,ncr:x:i::.a^ ih"e*splac*n:ent qf i"strt*$!31frrit*warr-l#hj*cfuLi*:"-ra**. .hh"e.ir,;ri*r. le*r::ing nh*uL,,v.hai is nntl- sii"uaii*lts *i;.citing; :.n*-trir?*&lr:*r:Lr:sfiXitltill",;print*i.:r:.Lln.rr:-*r{,,.g","$,t* is t!:at h*:itrrrVi:*stni}n$i?sln,dr;.,J..h.rLi,,sr"*Lt*i* sfi,y.u*,* .!.ae]lri* b*h.a..,r*.3,{i*rer:ve,,:,tk* ii::elb:p;sj:"*in ;di:t teirljti-i.,n,ql-1*:rffi.* ;rsilp*r**d,t* ect iil{* l"neiies.",." *hu.Cv{-sandl:::aiil #ii*t*n, ifsi}, lft rrhir::lr:,n""ii*r.:lsi:"r:r:-lcj"l:n,.,rr:sfl*.rlrvi;.ai"t*hai:p,;irJc[c].i:r c.Clrjien inttar*d";{r ar. im,ri*l**gr** }g&r*}ih*.li,l.$-.h.*,na*jusl:rr*ti.r-l.3;id<.r:f".iai.Li.lilre-i,ry*i*.*.c-qlf|rrt,*E1h;.,:],i],L;t.i|*]{a.*rij,"{;i,gi:l.1i;i:i1j}^r:i:lreiln*t.*i"*.lj!i*rli,i:.nLlq:rleh.n-rtr|r:.rn,r-..tin*tini,
  8. 8. q a *""i(J.frA" B,q-r,Tpqtna,il. Rcss, ANi] $" *L. Rcss*{ tft* present *xperi:menf,in which silbje*tsreadiLyiuoi,r*t*d. aggX*sslurem*q1sl"s"rn]-r*wci*ffi*::* #r ]"essn*u#al fr"guressi*ggentthatm*se erbsena$*n of aggreesion,regar#ex*of th* c1*aliw n:f L.hem*sel-subjeetrelati"on"*uhtp, is"e suffieient c*nffiti*n for pr*du-cingim-:.1ati*res,ggrr.ssimnin cgfiekenA c#mp*ril*#; xmelyG t]:.e sr"$rjertsirxdta"d$n*f ag*gre**i=rernq:d*isvrkc ere f*areC,te}:q-are}Jslked"ilnd esteemed",m::.wh* F"reess*sti.n"Xl-yeutrnjf;.gmm wcl*d. tLtr*w sCIrnsHgFt un"rryhe*:eior n*t a,ffi.oreparsim*nj*us ffig*ry[h"an"Lheone ir:..r*lved ix n*i*entj-fiearisxrwitthe Ffl*gress*t" eanexpietro"the madelingprclfiess"Su-ersili-E:lTrv*n4*fCIul p:*r*schc*]. ilal"ldsen Yler* a"$*sigeedtoeechof ttr*** *$u*litions*ne cxp*m-m?ntai gr*W *bser*red agg5gryi;re.adCt:m*elels;A see*ffid"*bservcd"islrthitecl n#n-*ggr**uio* m*d*lti oryhilesubjectsYr.:-u"*mntrcJ"#o"p J:s,d::* priern.ex"1**nure{:o f,he :mcdeXs"Hg*,tftl** subjects in &e nryerin:eot{ ?sti-diti*m* *bs*:-t:ni*,*.saffie*s*x :mr,d*-lsnnd llnld"sn*w{rclmeldals-*f#e *pp*sit* *sx. $nhj*r:ts,iur* th*rr?cuot*cilf*:" th*- ann*u*t*f i:mii;au{r"ces wel-Las nmnljl .haLiv*aggTes*ionp*rt*rmed;_nn,:n*wxiktaitnlrin tleeahs*ne**:l t-hemod*.[.s"ilim.t*.sa;rin*mnl ih.e *r:"h"in*l-si:*hri*r"u;s:Lhe g*o*r*lixa$csr. xiluati"cn r*treal*dr*:ats*hjeJi:$ eE:cs*d" t* agg{*ssive::r*cleis r**pr*d"*"eed"r,trt**d"d**L*fi *gEcxsio::::*seml:[rng;iJ:.et *f th"*; m***l*, nnd rhall &^eir"ffeens*{}il*s d,jffcrr:rj:r::-auttrn"edj? ft-*rn i:l:mn*q}f srt}:-i{:*ts i::"tb"er}.rJllfi.figr*ssio,"*a^ndc*n"Le*}gr*mps,%,;bt*r:hirr thft u,ggr:*xrlive. r:rrnd.i"ti"cnnls**x*ilhi1ectsiprl$carr"C-n"*lff** put:t**Jrytjm:rt*-ii."q,"ennd :scnlrru-hati,veaggressiv* bchsviclp,nd.w*re g*n*::r",[lo j.r*s ir:hlhit*i in {:hei::*e-i:a,vt*r ui:an uuh;*ct.s i* t:i* t-t*llilffigre$$fif;*r:*.til.Ll*lr.-1-m.itati*x""rla*ftinru:r-i" f,* l** Cj-rt*r*;:lirJ"l.y:itrfJ"u.{:n**ii:r *re s*x *t.i&* :cnndeJviith b*5sEh{-r;li.,3F,:irl-*j:* i-iSfi!rcs$l-*::-thaj: g:"i"|*r*11*.1ring. ,*r.q:t:**:r:, 4;* 1liei }:*,lt: icr:ejeJ,ey"i"*i$"*r*Tlfl{;io*lng i:*.rLie:.:lail;t :*:*":;[i*c]-*rl leighl]r "ffiij"sij;ii-i 1.il.e"i*rtl:q:rJi:*ita, *tl;.$,REFHB*?SbTCHS J,;ii. e-&*.spm,qu,&".)Reiatienshrpo{ $a.c*ilypn"tterus-t*-e.hrtdiiif f i . . . . . - ^ - . 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