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Welcome to research methods. This is the workbook we’ll be using for this topic. Use
the books to improve your knowledge, if you don’t catch something in class look it up
in your text book.
Wherever you see “key words” make sure you have noted down the meaning of the
Aims and hypotheses (p90-93)
A hypothesis is......
The different types of hypothesis are:
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Hypothesis has a
definite direction – the
Ppts will recall
more trigrams in
Hypothesis has no
definite direction. The
results could turn out
There will be a
difference in the
recall of trigrams
for ppts in the
Null hypothesis. Hypothesis is very
precise stating that
nothing will happen.
There will be no
difference in the
recall of trigrams in
What does it mean to make variables operationalised?
Internal validity VS external validity. Explain the difference.
What are the three types of validity?
Activity: Answer questions 2-5 on p94.
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Define the key words shown above.
What kinds of extraneous variables do we encounter?
Explain the term “demand characteristics” and how it affects psychological
Investigator effects are......
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Single blind technique is when you
Double blind technique is when you
Name the three types of sample:
Definition Method Population validity
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What 9 aspects of ethics does the BPS (British Psychological Society) cover?
The main ethical issues in psychology revolve around deception, informed consent
and protection of participants.
Explain these issues:
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What methods can we use to try and deal with these issues?
Protection of participants
Activity: answer questions 12-14 on p103
Choosing a research method
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Description Advantages Disadvantages
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What three things need to be present for an experiment to be classed as a “true”
Activity: answer questions 1-3 p108.
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Design Description When
should it be
Advantages Disadvantages Controls
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Explain order effects.
What is counterbalancing?
Types of observation are naturalistic observation and controlled observation.
What is the difference between the two?
Activity: create a table showing the different types of observation along with their
advantages and disadvantages. Use p114 to help you. (If you use a separate sheet
make sure you attach it to this booklet!)
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Sketch a positive correlation
Sketch a negative correlation
Give two examples of “correlational statistical techniques”
Advantages of correlation are......
Disadvantages of correlation are....
Surveys and interviews
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Key word: social desirability
What is a survey?
What is an interview?
A question can be either open, or closed.
State the strengths and weaknesses of open questions.
State the strengths and weaknesses of closed questions.
What key things do you need to take into account when constructing a survey or
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Key word: idiographic
What is a case study?
Advantages of the case study are.....
Disadvantages of the case study are....
Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode)
Key words: Qualitative VS quantitative
• Qualitative data is data that focuses more on words/language.
• Quantitative data is data that is collected numerically (using numbers).
Activity: create a table that shows the three types of central tendency measures
(mean, median and mode), an explanation of each and their advantages and
Measures of dispersion
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How do you calculate the range of a set of results?
When should you use range?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of range?
Standard deviation (SD):
What is it and when do you use it?
How do you calculate standard deviation?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of SD?
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Sketch a histogram
When should you use a histogram?
Sketch a bar-chart
When should you use a bar chart?
Sketch a scattergram (scattergraph)
When should you use a scattergram?
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What does qualitative mean?
What is content analysis?
What is pure qualitative analysis?