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  2. 2. Learning Outcomes • Examine the links between minority ethnic groups and religion and why religiosity appears to be higher in minority groups • Examine the extent to which older people are more religious than younger people and the reasons for this • Examine the evidence and explanations for why in general, women are more religious than men
  3. 3. Something to think about… What is Ethnicity? Are Ethnic Minority Groups more or less likely to participate in religion? Why?
  4. 4. Ethnic Minority Groups and Religion Arrange the table according to what you think is correct.
  5. 5. Ethnic Minority Groups and Religion Ethnic Differences in Religious Affiliation % rating religion as important. % likely to attend weekly worship. White Anglicans 11 9 White Catholics 32 29 Hindus 43 43 African Caribbean Protestants 81 57 Muslims 74 62
  6. 6. Ethnic Minority Groups and Religion Ethnic Differences in Religious Affiliation % rating religion as important. % likely to attend weekly worship. White Anglicans 11 9 White Catholics 32 29 Hindus 43 43 African Caribbean Protestants 81 57 Muslims 74 62 1) What are the patterns we can see here? 2) Why do you think this might be?
  7. 7. Statistics – Religious Differences Brierly (2013): Black people twice as likely to attend church as whites Muslims, Hindus & black Christians more likely than white Christians to see religion as important & attend place of worship every week Modood et al (1994):  Found that second generation of minority ethnic groups were less religious than first generation
  8. 8. Reasons for Ethnic Differences Most ethnic minorities are from poorer countries with traditional cultures, both of which produce higher levels of religious belief and practice This continues when they come to the UK with their children BUT others have proposed different reasons!
  9. 9. Cultural Defence Bruce (2003) argues that religion offers support and a sense of cultural identity in an uncertain or hostile environment Bird (1999) – religion can be a basis for community solidarity, way to preserve culture & language & way of coping with oppression in racist society Example, African & Caribbean Christians were not actively welcomed by white churches in UK so some founded black churches (especially Pentecostal) Brierly (2013)- increase in new churches in London catering for specific languages/nationalities due to immigration
  10. 10. Cultural Transition Religion can ease transition into a new culture by providing support and sense of community for minority groups Will Herberg (1955) points to high levels of religious participation for first-generation immigrants in USA Bruce sees same pattern occurring in UK
  11. 11. KEY STUDY: Ken Pryce (1979) Bristol, UK Studied African Caribbean community and found evidence to support cultural defence and cultural transition CULTURAL TRANSITION Pentecostalism helped African Caribbeans to adapt to British Society by encouraging members to succeed through self reliance and thrift Gave the mutual support and hope of improving situation CULTURAL DEFENCE Rastafarianism: different response! Radically rejected wider society as racist and exploitative.
  12. 12. Practice Exam Question Identify and briefly explain three reasons why members of minority ethnic groups may seem to be more religious than members of the majority population. (9 Marks)
  13. 13. Mark Scheme One mark for each of three reasons identified, such as: part of cultural transition part of cultural defence the majority population worship privately they are more religious resistant identity/fundamentalism vicarious religion. Two further marks for each of three satisfactory explanations, such as: part of cultural transition: some members of minority ethnic groups may see active religious participation as desirable in adapting to a new culture. part of cultural defence: some minority ethnic groups may practise their religion actively as a way of maintaining their previous culture. the majority population worship privately: changes in the religious habits of the majority population may mean that they practise their religion in a less visible and more private manner, thus it may seem that minority ethnic groups are more actively religious. they are more religious: religion is an inherent and permanent feature of their culture and socialisation.
  14. 14. Exam Question 2 Assess the view that, for minority ethnic groups, the practice of religion and membership of religious groups is mainly a form of cultural defence. (33 marks)
  15. 15. Age and Religion
  16. 16. Age & Religiosity Under 15 15-19 20-29 30-44 45-64 65 and over Put the age groups in an order to represent religiosity today. Explain reasons for each of your decisions. Which group would be the most religious?
  17. 17. Age & Religiosity: Sunday Church Attendance (thousands) (Brierley, 2015) Age 1980 2015 2025* (projected) Under 15 1, 165 493 338 15-19 394 126 63 20-29 492 170 114 30-44 718 432 328 45-64 897 751 614 65 & over 810 957 1 070
  18. 18. Age & Religion- Trends The older a person is, the more likely to attend religious services Except- under 15- no choice! Parents make them go The drop off for 15-19 years olds is steep By 2025, half of all English churches will have no-one under 20 attending!
  19. 19. Reasons? Voas & Crocket (2005) propose 3 ideas Aging Effect: People turn to religion as they get older and approach death (more concerned with spiritual life with age). Older people more likely to go to church for this reason. Period/Cohort effect: people born in certain time periods are more religious due to events at the time (e.g. war, rapid social change). Secularisation: As religion declines in importance, each generation become less religious than the one before.
  20. 20. Supporting Evidence? Evidence supports secularisation! Arweck & Beckford (2013)- ‘virtual collapse of religious socialisation after 1960s’. In 1950s 1/3 of all 14 year olds attended Sunday Schools. These have all disappeared. Voas (2003) where parents share same faith= 50/50 chance they will raise child to be church goer as adult. This is less for different faith couples. By 2025, 4/10 church goers will be aged 65 or older. Christians likely to become small and old minority of UK population.
  21. 21. Exam Practice: Item A For some people, religion plays an important role in their lives; for others, its role is minimal. One factor that seems to be important here is that of age, shown clearly by statistics on religious belief and participation. In 2005 the English Church Census showed that the number of people attending church regularly had fallen from 5.4 million in 1979 to 3.2 million in 2005. Over the same period, the average age churchgoers had increased from 37 to 45. The age group that decline the least was 65 years. In fact, 12% of churchgoers were 75 or over. In contrast, the age groups that had declined the most in this period were the 15-19 and 20-29 cohort. For these age groups, the numbers had fallen by over 60%. Although there figures apply only to the Christian Churches, other religious groups in the UK also show significant differences between young and old in terms of religious belief, though these differences are less marked among the Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities. Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the reasons why the young seem less likely to believe and participate in religion than older people. (18 marks)
  22. 22. What kind of things might you include? Issues of elderly being closer to end of life's and impact of spirituality (Voas & Crockett) Elderly more effected by loneliness Young more susceptible to secularisation (Voas & Crockett) Young have ‘Cultural Amnesia’ not been socialised into religious stories Young are exposed to so much spiritual choice ‘spiritual supermarket’ it can make it difficult to stick with one, plus influenced by a range of other factors, such as music, drugs etc, which may replace spirituality Impact of private sphere – religion can happen at home, young people might be more susceptible to this (e.g. Chat rooms) Some young are strongly religious – Pakistanis and Bangladeshis
  23. 23. Gender & Religion
  24. 24. Who are more religious? Women or Men? Why? Can you offer any explanations from what we have learned on ethnicity?
  25. 25. Table 1D Religious beliefs, by gender Percentage believing in: God Sin Evil The Devil Life after death Women 84 72 756 42 57 Men 75 66 58 32 39 Source: Davie (1994) Gender & Religiosity
  26. 26. 2005, 1.8 million women in England were churchgoers, as against only 1.36 million men (Brierley, 2005) 55% of women vs 44% of men say they have a religion (British Social Attitudes Survey, 2012) Same survey found women 38% vs men 26% agreed with this statement : “Religion is important to me”- Women express greater interest in religion, have a stronger personal commitment to it this applies to all ages and all religious organisations and faiths (Miller & Hoffman, 1995) 34% women atheists/agnostics vs 54% men Gender & Religiosity- Trends
  27. 27. Gender & Religiosity But why are women more religious than men?
  28. 28. Miller & Hoffman RISK, SOCIALISATION & ROLES RISK- Men are less risk averse than women. Not being religious might be risky (you might end up in Hell!). This may explain why women are more religious than men. SOCIALISATION – Women socialised to become passive, obedient & caring. These qualities valued by most religions- therefore attracts more women. Men who have these qualities likely to be attracted to religion too. ROLES – women more likely to work part-time or be carers so have more scope to participate in religion. Role of caring for family members also increases likelihood of participation.
  29. 29. Davie (2013) Women closer to birth and death through child-bearing and caring for elderly, sick and dying. This brings them closer to the ultimate questions about the meaning of life that religion answers
  30. 30. Paid Work Religion has become privatised- women are more religious because lower levels of paid work (Bruce, 2011) 1960s- rise of women in paid work = ‘decline of female piety’ (Callum Brown, 2009) BUT religion still more attractive to women than men because: 1. Affinity with caring- women do this in paid work & at home 2. Churches have become feminised with men withdrawing (Woodhead, 2001)
  31. 31. The New Age & Women Women may be more attracted to NAM because they are often associated with nature (childbirth and healing role) Heelas & Woodhead found 80% of participants in Holistic milieu in Kendal were female Women get higher status & sense of self-worth E.g. Bruce (2011) argues that child- rearing makes women more cooperative, less competitive – this fits with New Age emphasis
  32. 32. Focus on individual sphere in NAM Women in paid work may experience role conflict between work & family roles Woodhead (2001) says New Age beliefs appeal to 3rd sphere: individual Concerned with individual autonomy and personal growth rather than role performance Bypass conflict by creating new source of identity based on ‘inner self’ rather than social roles
  33. 33. Class & Gender (Bruce, 2011) New Age beliefs & practices emphasise personal autonomy, control & self-development – attract middle class Working class women may be more drawn to religions which give them passive role e.g. all-powerful God OR fatalistic ideas such as superstition, horoscopes, lucky charms Differences reflect class attitudes in other areas e.g. education- m/c control own destiny vs w/c fatalistic approach
  34. 34. Women & Sects Twice as many women in sects than men (Bruce, 1996) WHY? Religious Market Theory Stark & Bainbridge (1985)- sects offer compensators for organismic, ethical and social deprivation. These more common amongst women. Organismic: more likely to suffer ill health – seek healing Ethical: more morally conservative – see world in moral decline Social Deprivation: more likely to be poor
  35. 35. Pentecostal Gender Paradox Read p.54 What is the gender paradox in Pentecostalism? What did Brusco’s research find to explain this paradox? What did Ann Drogus find in relation to gender inequality?
  36. 36. Recent Trends Read the section on p.54 and then decide whether the following statements are True or False? 1. Women’s participation in religion is declining in the UK today? 2. It is likely that women’s movement into paid work is partly responsible for the decline in participation? 3. A very large amount of modern women are attracted to New Age movements? 4. Traditional religions tend to be bound up with traditional gender roles and this may be a reason why women are becoming less religious?