• It is used as a mould for a structure in which fresh concrete is
poured only to harden subsequently.
• Types of concrete formwork construction depends on
formwork material and type of structural element.
• Formworks can also be named based on the type of structural
member construction such as slab formwork for use in slab,
beam formwork, column formwork for use in beams and
columns respectively etc.
• The construction of formwork takes time and involves
expenditure upto 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or
• Design of these temporary structures are made to economic
• The operation of removing the formwork is known as stripping.
Stripped formwork can be reused.
• Reusable forms are known as panel forms and non-usable are
called stationary forms.
Requirements of a formwork
• It should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and
• It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently propped and
braced both horizontally and vertically, so as to retain its shape.
• The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of
• Construction of formwork should permit removal of various
parts in desired sequences without damage to the concrete.
• The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily available
and should be suitable for reuse.
• The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line and
levels should have plane surface.
• It should be as light as possible.
• The material of the formwork should not warp or get distorted
when exposed to the elements.
• It should rest on firm base.
• It should be
1. well seasoned
2. light in weight
3. easily workable with nails without splitting
4. free from loose knots
• Timber used for shuttering for exposed concrete work
should have smooth and even surface on all faces which
come in contact with concrete.
• Easy handling because it’s
• Easy to disassemble.
• Damaged parts can be
replaced with new one.
• Very flexible.
• Can’t be used for long.
• If the timber is dry, it will
absorb moisture from wet
concrete which could
weaken the resultant
• Timber with high moisture
content ,wet concrete will
shrink & cup leading to
open joints & leakage of
• Resin bonded plywood sheets are attached to timber
frames to make up panels of required sizes.
• The cost of plywood formwork compares favourably with
that of timber shuttering and it may even prove cheaper in
certain cases in view of the following considerations:
• It is possible to have smooth finish in which case on cost in
surface finishing is there.
• By use of large size panels it is possible to effect saving in
the labour cost of fixing and dismantling.
• Number of reuses are more as compared with timber
shuttering. For estimation purpose, number of reuses can
be taken as 20 to 25.
• Plywood can also be cut into
required size easily.
• Plywood Strong, durable and
light in weight.
• Provides smooth finish on the
• Very Large size plywood sheets
are available which makes the
construction of formwork
quicker and easier.
• Curved formworks can also be
prepared using plywood.
• When compared to timber, it
gives more number of reuses.
• When compared to timber
it is costly.
• Thin plywood sheets cannot
sustain the weight of
concrete they may bow out
if proper thickness is not
• This consist of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates
stiffened along the edges by small steel angles.
• The panel units can be held together through the use of
suitable clamps or bolts and nuts.
• The panels can be fabricated in large number in any
desired modular shape or size.
• Steel forms are largely used in large projects or in situation
where large number reuses of the shuttering is possible.
• This type of shuttering is considered most suitable for
circular or curved structures.
• Very strong and able to
carry heavy load.
• Easy to be fixed.
• Uniform size and surface.
• Can be used for a very long
• Limited size or shape.
• Excessive loss of heat.
• A very smooth surface will
be produced which would
give problems for finishing
Steel forms compared with timber
• Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than
timber formwork and their reuses are more in number.
• Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater
ease and speed.
• The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms
is good and such surfaces need no further treatment.
• Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete.
• Steel formwork does not shrink or warp.
• It is used often for pre-fabricated formworks.
• It is getting more popular because of its light weight and
• It requires fewer supports and ties.
• Easy to fix and easy to
• It can be handled easily
because of its light weight.
• It can be re-used for many
• The walls and slabs of
structures can be casted
• Monolithic crack free
structures can be built using
• When the load reaches its
maximum limit, the lighter
sections may deflect.
• Architectural modifications
are not possible when
aluminum formwork is
• Plastic is another type of formwork material which is used for
small concrete structures or for complex portions of the
• It is light in weight and durable for long periods. For
complicated concrete structures, Glass reinforced plastics (GRP)
and vacuum formed plastics are used.
• Plastic is light in weight and
can be easily handled.
• Formwork for complex
shaped structures can be
• Good resistant against
• The damaged plastic sheets
can be recycled and useful
to make new sheets.
• Good quality plastic has
• Plastic is weak against heat.
• It is costly material.
• It does not take much load
when compared with
• Magnesium is another metal element which is used for
• Magnesium is not directly used for formwork and is used
with the combination of oxygen atoms which forms
magnesium oxide, usually called magnesia or MgO.
• Magnesium oxide boards or MgO boards are famous in
some countries because of their multiple applications.
• MgO boards are available in required sizes and grades.
• Mgo boards are light in
weight and easy to handle.
• They are fire proof and
• Bio friendly boards cause no
harm to the environment.
• They are strong to resist
• When Mgo boards meet wet
concrete, the magnesium
chloride present in MgO
boards may dissolve and cause
corrosion to the
• Skilled supervision is required
• MgO boards cannot sustain in
• Fabric formwork is the modern technology in construction
• Fabric can be mold into any required shapes which makes
it more famous formwork for architectural purposes.
Order and Method of Removing
• The sequence of orders and method of removal of
formwork are as follows:
• Shuttering forming the vertical faces of walls, beams and
column sides should be removed first as they bear no load
but only retain the concrete.
• Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.
• Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily
loaded shuttering should be removed in the end.
• Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading
conditions allow early removal of formwork.
• The formwork should under no circumstances be allowed
to be removed until all the concrete reaches strength of at
least twice the stresses to which the concrete may be
subjected at the time of removal of formwork.
• All formworks should be eased gradually and carefully in
order to prevent the load being suddenly transferred to