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Echinoderms 
(Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, 
Sand Dollars, Sea 
Cucumbers)
General Stuff 
• Echinoderms belong to the Phylum 
Echinodermata, meaning “hedgehog 
skin”. 
• Echinoderms have spiny skins. 
• They have radial symmetry. 
• They lack body segmentation. 
• There are more than 5000 species of 
Echinoderms. 
• Types are sea stars, sea urchins, sea 
cucumbers, sand dollars.
Digestive System 
Digestive system is perfect . Digestive system starts 
from the mouth of the position under the surface of 
the body. Then passed through the pharynx, the 
esophagus, the stomach, then into the intestines, and 
the last in the anus. The anus is located on the upper 
surface of the body and does not function on some 
Echinodermata. In the stomach of this animal has five 
branches, each branch leading to the arm. In each 
arm of this forked stomach, but it ends nowhere.
Respiratory System and 
Excretion 
Echinodermata breathe using lungs skin or dermal 
branchiae (Papulae) the protrusion of the wall of the 
body cavity (coelomic) is thin. These protrusions are 
protected by the cilia and pediselaria. In part this is 
an exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. There 
are also several types of Echinodermata that 
breathes with the tube feet. The remains of 
metabolism that occurs in the cells of the body will be 
transported by amoebacyte (amoeboid cells) to the 
dermal branchiae henceforth be released to the 
outside of the body.
Reproductive system 
Echinoderms have separate sexes, so there 
are male and female. Fertilization occurs 
outside the body, that is, in sea water. The 
fertilized egg will divide rapidly generate 
blastula, and later developed into a gastrula. 
This gastrula develop into larvae. Larvae also 
called bilateral symmetry bipinnaria shaped. 
These larvae swim freely in the water looking 
for a suitable place to be branchidaria, then 
undergo metamorphosis and eventually 
become adults
Types of Echinoderms
Sea Stars- Starfish 
• Have radial symmetry. 
• Most starfish have 5 “arms”or rays. 
• Starfish have tube feet for locomotion, and 
strong suction to hold them in place. 
• They also have a water vascular system 
that enables them to store water in their 
tube feet so they can survive while the tide 
is out. 
• They breathe through small gills in their 
skin. 
• Their mouths are located on the underside 
of their bodies. 
• Starfish can regenerate. (must have the 
central disc attached).
More Starfish Stuff 
• Sea Stars are carnivorous, yup, they eat 
mostly shellfish, snails, and barnacles. 
• They use their tube feet to pry open the 
shells and then throw their own stomachs 
out into the shell to digest the meat before 
it’s brought back into its body! 
• There are lots of different types of Sea 
Stars, about 2000 different kinds. 
• Most Sea Stars have spiny skin.
Sea Star Anatomy
Sea Urchins 
• Sea Urchins look like big pin cushions. 
• They use these spines for protection 
against predators. 
• The spines also act like stilts to keep their 
bodies up off the ground so the tube feet 
can pull them around! 
• They eat mostly algae. 
• They live mostly attached to rocky 
crevices, which protect them from waves 
and tide surges. 
• They have become a popular item to eat 
and are being harvested in alarming 
numbers.
Sea Urchin Anatomy
Sand Dollars 
• Are found on the sandy shore or 
muddy bottoms. 
• They feed standing on edge with 
their tube feet acting as filters. 
• The star pattern seen on top of the 
sand dollars is actually caused by 
special breathing tube feet! 
• The mouth is found on the under 
side of the animal.
Sand Dollar Anatomy
Sea Cucumbers 
• Sea cucumbers have tentacles at their 
mouth openings to grab and hold food. 
• They look like snails, but have radial 
symmetry and spiny bodies like all other 
echinoderms. 
• When provoked, or annoyed, Sea 
cucumbers throw out their intestines to 
entangle, frighten, or confuse their 
predator! Then the intestines are 
regenerated.They are filter feeders and 
have a sticky slime that covers their 
tentacles and lets them grab particles 
from the ocean floor. 
• Sea Cucumbers are considered a delicacy 
in Asian cultures.
Interesting Stuff 
• Some Sea cucumbers are quite 
poisonous, and the poison has been used 
as an inhibitor of Cancer growth. 
• Sea Cucumbers secrete a sticky glue as a 
defense mechanism that has been used as 
a bandage to bind wounds. 
• Sea Cucumbers will stick each tentacle in 
their mouths, lick them off and then do the 
same with the next one- kind of like you 
licking your fingers after eating!
Sea Cucumber Anatomy
Questions... 
• What is the meaning of Spiny skins? 
(by : naila zulva /22) 
• What is the roles of Echinoderms? 
(by : nur hidayatun /23) 
• How the reproduction of Echinoderms? 
(by : anang nazaruddin /01)
Answer 
• Spiny skins is the skin that has lot of 
spine,and it is made by lime 
• The roles of echinoderms are can be used for food source,cracker 
mixture,and as a cleaner from organic waste.
Continue 
• The reproduction of echinoderms is fertilized egg 
will divide rapidly generate blastula, and later 
developed into a gastrula. This gastrula develop 
into larvae. Larvae also called bilateral symmetry 
bipinnaria shaped. These larvae swim freely in 
the water looking for a suitable place to be 
branchidaria, then undergo metamorphosis and 
eventually become adults

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Tugas biology echinodermata

  • 1. Echinoderms (Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers)
  • 2. General Stuff • Echinoderms belong to the Phylum Echinodermata, meaning “hedgehog skin”. • Echinoderms have spiny skins. • They have radial symmetry. • They lack body segmentation. • There are more than 5000 species of Echinoderms. • Types are sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars.
  • 3. Digestive System Digestive system is perfect . Digestive system starts from the mouth of the position under the surface of the body. Then passed through the pharynx, the esophagus, the stomach, then into the intestines, and the last in the anus. The anus is located on the upper surface of the body and does not function on some Echinodermata. In the stomach of this animal has five branches, each branch leading to the arm. In each arm of this forked stomach, but it ends nowhere.
  • 4. Respiratory System and Excretion Echinodermata breathe using lungs skin or dermal branchiae (Papulae) the protrusion of the wall of the body cavity (coelomic) is thin. These protrusions are protected by the cilia and pediselaria. In part this is an exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. There are also several types of Echinodermata that breathes with the tube feet. The remains of metabolism that occurs in the cells of the body will be transported by amoebacyte (amoeboid cells) to the dermal branchiae henceforth be released to the outside of the body.
  • 5. Reproductive system Echinoderms have separate sexes, so there are male and female. Fertilization occurs outside the body, that is, in sea water. The fertilized egg will divide rapidly generate blastula, and later developed into a gastrula. This gastrula develop into larvae. Larvae also called bilateral symmetry bipinnaria shaped. These larvae swim freely in the water looking for a suitable place to be branchidaria, then undergo metamorphosis and eventually become adults
  • 7. Sea Stars- Starfish • Have radial symmetry. • Most starfish have 5 “arms”or rays. • Starfish have tube feet for locomotion, and strong suction to hold them in place. • They also have a water vascular system that enables them to store water in their tube feet so they can survive while the tide is out. • They breathe through small gills in their skin. • Their mouths are located on the underside of their bodies. • Starfish can regenerate. (must have the central disc attached).
  • 8. More Starfish Stuff • Sea Stars are carnivorous, yup, they eat mostly shellfish, snails, and barnacles. • They use their tube feet to pry open the shells and then throw their own stomachs out into the shell to digest the meat before it’s brought back into its body! • There are lots of different types of Sea Stars, about 2000 different kinds. • Most Sea Stars have spiny skin.
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  • 11. Sea Urchins • Sea Urchins look like big pin cushions. • They use these spines for protection against predators. • The spines also act like stilts to keep their bodies up off the ground so the tube feet can pull them around! • They eat mostly algae. • They live mostly attached to rocky crevices, which protect them from waves and tide surges. • They have become a popular item to eat and are being harvested in alarming numbers.
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  • 14. Sand Dollars • Are found on the sandy shore or muddy bottoms. • They feed standing on edge with their tube feet acting as filters. • The star pattern seen on top of the sand dollars is actually caused by special breathing tube feet! • The mouth is found on the under side of the animal.
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  • 17. Sea Cucumbers • Sea cucumbers have tentacles at their mouth openings to grab and hold food. • They look like snails, but have radial symmetry and spiny bodies like all other echinoderms. • When provoked, or annoyed, Sea cucumbers throw out their intestines to entangle, frighten, or confuse their predator! Then the intestines are regenerated.They are filter feeders and have a sticky slime that covers their tentacles and lets them grab particles from the ocean floor. • Sea Cucumbers are considered a delicacy in Asian cultures.
  • 18. Interesting Stuff • Some Sea cucumbers are quite poisonous, and the poison has been used as an inhibitor of Cancer growth. • Sea Cucumbers secrete a sticky glue as a defense mechanism that has been used as a bandage to bind wounds. • Sea Cucumbers will stick each tentacle in their mouths, lick them off and then do the same with the next one- kind of like you licking your fingers after eating!
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  • 21. Questions... • What is the meaning of Spiny skins? (by : naila zulva /22) • What is the roles of Echinoderms? (by : nur hidayatun /23) • How the reproduction of Echinoderms? (by : anang nazaruddin /01)
  • 22. Answer • Spiny skins is the skin that has lot of spine,and it is made by lime • The roles of echinoderms are can be used for food source,cracker mixture,and as a cleaner from organic waste.
  • 23. Continue • The reproduction of echinoderms is fertilized egg will divide rapidly generate blastula, and later developed into a gastrula. This gastrula develop into larvae. Larvae also called bilateral symmetry bipinnaria shaped. These larvae swim freely in the water looking for a suitable place to be branchidaria, then undergo metamorphosis and eventually become adults