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Glossary - Governance

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This Course is for students of Information Systems Engineering [Professional BA], National School of Applied Sciences, Safi-Morocco.

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Glossary - Governance

  1. 1. Glossary/Terminology I ICT for Sustainable Development Courses Prepared for Students of : Licence Professionnelle: Ingénierie et Conception des Systèmes d’Information at Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquées de Safi, School-Year 2004/2015. - Redouane Boulguid boulguid.redouane@gmail.com 1. E-governance can be defined as the application of ICT tools in (1) the interaction between government and citizens and businesses, and (2) in internal government operations to simplify and improve democratic governance. Explanatory Note: E-Governance is the public sector’s use of information and communication technologies with the aim of improving information and service delivery, encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and making government more accountable, transparent and effective. The concept of electronic governance chosen by the Council of Europe covers the use of electronic technologies in three areas of public action: - Relations between the public authorities and civil society - Functioning of the public authorities at all stages of the democratic process (electronic democracy) - The provision of public services (electronic public services). (E-Governance). 2. Accountability refers to the obligation on the part of public officials to report on the use of public resources and answerability for failing to meet stated performance objectives. (Governance). 3.Accessibility refers to the accessibility of web pages to all users. People with impaired sight, hearing, manual dexterity or cognitive function encounter barriers when they attempt to use the internet. (E-Governance). 4. Access Authorization: Giving access to the possibility to communicate electronically. (E-Governance). 5. Assistive technologies comprise software and hardware that is intended to assist disabled people with their daily activities. In the area of information technology, some examples are screen readers, screen magnifying glasses, special keys and speech input software. (E-Governance). 6. Back-office Reengineering is the reorganization of technology, processes, systems, skills and mindsets of public officials in the government (achieved through integration, consolidation and innovation in the back-end/back-office) to achieve improved service delivery (front office - what the citizen sees). (E-Governance). 7.Capacity:The ability of individuals, institutions and societies to perform functions, solve problems, and set and achieve objectives in a sustainable manner (UNDP, 2002).
  2. 2. There are three levels at which capacity should be developed: Individual (experience, knowledge, technical level), Organizational (organizational systems and procedures), and Systemic or related to the enabling environment (policies, legislation, social norms, etc.). (Capacity Development). 8.Citizen Participation implies the involvement of citizens in a wide range of policymaking activities, including the determination of levels of service, budget priorities, and the acceptability of physical construction projects in order to orient government programs toward community needs, build public support, and encourage a sense of cohesiveness within neighborhoods. There are many models of participation. At one end of the scale sits information provision – a one-way government-to-citizen provision in which a government simply tells its citizenry what it wants them to know through media or other means. At the other end is the active citizenship or empowerment model, in which citizen groups are involved in agenda-setting and decision-making and monitoring. Following the continuum model of participation, the International Association of Public Participation (IAP2) conceptualizes participation in five categories of relationships: inform, consult, involve, collaborate and empower (UN World Public Sector Report 2008). (Decentralized and Participatory Governance). 9. Civil society includes voluntary civic and social associations that are not part of the state, private sector or the extended family. Each civil society organization, and its members, may be seeking to advance broad social interests, narrow group interests, or even narrower individual interests (pecuniary or recreational). (Citizen Participation and Pro- Poor Budgeting, DPADM-UNDESA, United Nations, 2005). Civil society is a vital component of governance and decentralization, the one component that is supposed to vigilantly hold those in power accountable and to promote democracy. Simply put, civil society is that sphere of action independent of the State, within the realm of civil organizations, capable of stimulating resistance to and change in undemocratic regimes. (Decentralized and Participatory Governance). 10.Communication Technology: Technology used to transmit information. Thus, in the context of “e-government”, communication technology primarily refers to computer networks such as the internet and other data connections, but also includes fax, telephone, mobile phone. (E-Governance). 11. Community development is an approach to the administration of social and economic development programs in which government officials are dispatched to the field to act as catalysts at the local level, encouraging local residents to form groups, define their own needs, and develop self-help projects. The government provides technical and material assistance and helps the community establish institutions, such as farm cooperatives, to carry on the development programs
  3. 3. after the officials have left. (Decentralized and Participatory Governance). 12.E-democracy is the utilization of electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, to enhance democratic processes, including elections, forums and other participatory means. It is a relatively new political development, as well as the subject of much debate and activity within government, civic-oriented groups and societies around the world. (E-Governance). 13. Electronic Government: 1. E-government is the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) within Public Administration to optimize its internal and external functions. (Source: DPADM/DESA, 2003). 2. E-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing) that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. (Source: World Bank, 2009). (E-Governance). 14.E-participation refers both to government programs that encourage participation from the citizen and the willingness of the citizen to do so. It encompasses both the demand and the supply side. E-participation, as defined in the UN Global Reports, aims to achieve these objectives through the means of: a. Increasing e-information to citizens for decision making; b. Enhancing e-consultation for deliberative and participatory processes; and c. Supporting e-decision making by increasing the input of citizens in decision making. (E-Governance). 15.Ethics:The standards which guide the behaviour and actions of personnel in public institutions and which may be referred to as moral laws (UN Charter for the Public Service in Africa). The "ethics infrastructure" includes measures to enhance and preserve organizational integrity, access to information that promotes transparency and accountability, and oversight by independent institutions and the public at large. (Governance). 16.Engaged governance is ‘an institutional arrangement that links people more directly to the decision-making processes in a manner that does not by-pass the representational democracy but complements it.’ (United Nations, 2005a). Explanatory Note: Engaged governance enables citizens to influence more directly the decision-making process of the State so as to increase their influence on public policies and programmes with a view to ensuring a more positive impact on their social and economic lives. It has become an increasingly significant feature of public governance in the past ten years. Driven initially by new public management techniques in both the developed and developing countries and
  4. 4. by d-nor agencies in the developing world, it has become a practical enhancement to representative democracy, a keystone to democratisation and crucial to the rebuilding of post- conflict states. Enhanced civic engagement in public affairs has the potential to yield pro-poor benefits, re-arrange political institutions of decision-making, deepen democracy, create new citizenship values, and enhance accountability and transparency in public governance and indeed, build trust in government. The report emphasizes that it is no longer a question of whether participation works or if it is necessary, rather how it should be done. (UNDESA 2008 World Public Sector Report). (Decentralized and Participatory Governance). 17.Globalization is increased global integration and interdependence. It has a multidimensional character: economic, political, social, and cultural. It is characterized by unprecedented rapid flows of goods and services: private capital, circulation of ideas and tendencies and the emergence of new social and political movements. (UNDESA, World Public Sector Report New York, 2001). (Governance). 18. Governance is “the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences” (UNDP, 1997). (Governance). 19. Good governance entails sound public sector management (efficiency, effectiveness and economy), accountability, exchange and free flow of information (transparency), and a legal framework for development (justice, respect for human rights and liberties) (World Bank). In seeming agreement with the World Bank, the Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (now the Department for International Development), defines good governance by focusing on four major components namely legitimacy (government should have the consent of the governed); accountability (ensuring transparency, being answerable for actions and media freedom); competence (effective policymaking, implementation and service delivery); and respect for law and protection of human rights. (Governance). 20. Hierarchy: A characteristic of formal bureaucratic organizations a clear vertical "chain of command" in which each unit is subordinate to the one above it and superior to the one below it one of the most common features of governmental and other bureaucratic organizations. (Leadership & Human Resources). 21.Human Capital: The set of skills which an employee acquires on the job, through training and experience, and which increase that employee's value in the marketplace is human capital. Human capital refers to the properties of individuals. (Leadership & Human Resources).
  5. 5. 22.Human resources is a term with which many organizations describe the combination of traditionally administrative personnel functions with performance, Employee Relations and resource planning. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Human resources has at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production. The more common usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within the firm, and to the portion of the firm's organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues. (Leadership & Human Resources). 23. Human security means protecting vital freedoms. It means protecting people from critical and pervasive threats and situations, building on their strengths and aspirations. It also means creating systems that give people the building blocks of survival, dignity and livelihood. Human security involves different types of freedoms: freedom from want; freedom from fear; and freedom to take action on one’s own behalf. (Governance). 24. Innovation is a creative idea and implementation, which is different from invention. It is the act of conceiving and implementing a new way of achieving a result and/or performing work. An innovation may involve the incorporation of new elements, a new combination of existing elements or a significant change or a departure from traditional ways of doing things. It refers to new products, new policies and programmes, new approaches and new processes. Public sector management innovation may also be defined as the development of new policy designs and new standard operating procedures by public organizations to address public policy problems. Thus, an innovation in public administration may be an effective, creative and unique answer to new problems or a new answer to old problems. (Public Administration Institutions, Policies and Processes). 25. Knowledge Management: Knowledge management refers to how an organization gathers, organizes, produces, shares, and analyzes its knowledge in terms of resources, documents, and people skills. Strategies and processes designed to identify, capture, structure, value, leverage, and share an organization's intellectual assets to enhance its performance and competitiveness. It is based on two critical activities: (1) capture and documentation of individual explicit and tacit knowledge, and (2) its dissemination within the organization. (E-Governance). 26. Ombudsman is a term of Scandinavian origin, then adopted in many countries and in international organizations. The term indicates a public body charged with vast powers, including the control on public administration acts and the
  6. 6. redress of complaints against maladministration. (Public Administration Institutions, Policies and Processes). 27. Transparency refers to unfettered access by the public to timely and reliable information on decisions and performance in the public sector, as well as on governmental political and economic activities, procedures and decisions (UN/DPADM, "Public Sector Transparency and Accountability in Arab Countries: Policies and Practices", p.11. (Governance). Source: http://www.unpan.org/
  7. 7. redress of complaints against maladministration. (Public Administration Institutions, Policies and Processes). 27. Transparency refers to unfettered access by the public to timely and reliable information on decisions and performance in the public sector, as well as on governmental political and economic activities, procedures and decisions (UN/DPADM, "Public Sector Transparency and Accountability in Arab Countries: Policies and Practices", p.11. (Governance). Source: http://www.unpan.org/

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