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Courses in technical english ensas i 2014 2015

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This Course is meant for students studying for the Bachelor (Professional) in computer engineering at the National School of Applied Sciences-Safi, Morocco.

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Courses in technical english ensas i 2014 2015

  1. 1. Engineering and Conception of Information Systems For Students of -Prepared by Redouane Boulguid School-Year 2014/2015 ENSA-Safi
  2. 2. 24/11/14
  3. 3. 24/11/14  In the mid-1970s, computers started getting small and inexpensive enough for people to have them in their homes.  Many home computer users started using the network to communicate between computers and share messages with each other.  You may wonder how computers talk to each other. In 1963, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) was developed. Different manufacturers use the same 128 codes to make the English alphabet, Arabic numerals, punctuation marks, and many other things.
  4. 4. 24/11/14  During the last half of the 1970s, it was obvious that ARPANET wasn't big enough to handle all of this activity. The program was shifted to the National Science Foundation (NSF), which developed a larger network called the NSFNET.  In 1990, this became known as the INTERNET.
  5. 5. 24/11/14
  6. 6. 24/11/14  How does an E. Mail travel?  Email travels along imaginary roads from your computer to one or more servers and then to your friend's computer.  Servers are the key to sending and receiving emails. You can think of servers like bridges.  Some bridges are small carrying only a few cars. Other bridges are very large carrying many, many cars.  If the bridge goes down, no traffic gets through. It's the same on the Internet, if a server goes down your email can't travel from your computer to your friend's computer.
  7. 7. 24/11/14  So, What is a Computer?  Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use.  It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
  8. 8. 24/11/14  A computer, then has four (4) functions: a. accepts data Input b. processes data Processing c. produces output Output d. stores results Storage
  9. 9. 24/11/14  Input (Data):  Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc.
  10. 10. 24/11/14  Process:  Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system.
  11. 11. 24/11/14  Output:  Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing. Output is also called as Result. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use.
  12. 12.  What are Computers for? Key Points to remember: 1. Computer is a device which converts DATA into INFORMATION; 2. DATA is a collection of facts & figures; 3. Computer is used in Business, Administration, Management, Medecine, Space Technology… 4. Computer is a versatile machine that can be used in almost all the fields. 24/11/14
  13. 13. 24/11/14 1. Computer can perform any task faster than any other machine; 2. INFORMATION is meaningful DATA; 3. Processing refers to the manipulation of data within the computer; 4. Speed, Accuracy (truth-quality), versatility (skillfulness), Storage, Diligence (steady application/industrious), etc. are the characteristics of a COMPUTER.
  14. 14.  Computer System ? 24/11/14  All of the components of a computer system can be summarized with the simple equations:  COMPUTER SYSTEM = HARDWARE + SOFTWARE+ USER
  15. 15. 24/11/14  • Hardware = Internal Devices + Peripheral Devices  All physical parts of the computer (or everything that we can touch) are known as Hardware.
  16. 16. 24/11/14  • Software = Programs  Software gives "intelligence" to the computer.
  17. 17. 24/11/14  • USER = Person, who operates computer.
  18. 18.  Major Par ts of the Computer:  1. Mouse 24/11/14
  19. 19.  2. Keyboard 24/11/14
  20. 20.  3. Scanner: 24/11/14
  21. 21.  4. Digital Camera: 24/11/14
  22. 22.  5. Web Camera: 24/11/14
  23. 23.  6. Joysticks: 24/11/14
  24. 24.  7. Track Ball (Point) : 24/11/14
  25. 25.  8. Touch Pad/Screen: 24/11/14
  26. 26.  9. Light Pen: 24/11/14
  27. 27.  10. Bar Code Reader: 24/11/14
  28. 28.  11. Microphone: 24/11/14
  29. 29.  12. Graphics Tablets: 24/11/14
  30. 30. 24/11/14  13. Magnetic Ink Character Reader (Used in Bank):
  31. 31. 24/11/14  14. Magnetic Card Reader (Used in Shops, Colleges, Stations etc):
  32. 32.  16. Biometric Devices : 24/11/14
  33. 33. 24/11/14  [Biometrics: The process by which a person's unique physical and other traits are detected and recorded by an electronic device or system as a means of confirming IDENTITY: Scanning of the human iris is a reliable form of biometrics.]
  34. 34. 24/11/14 [Biometry:  a. the analysis of biological data using mathematical and statistical methods  b. the practice of digitally scanning the physiological or behavioural characteristics of individuals as a means of identification.  the statistical calculation of the probable duration of human life.] Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition - 2009.
  35. 35.  17. Bluetooth: 24/11/14 Bluetooth's founding members include Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba. /Physical Rang e : Up to 6 0 Me tre s/
  36. 36. 24/11/14
  37. 37. 24/11/14
  38. 38. 24/11/14  Processor ? CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU). The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all events inside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices, performs arithmetic and logic operations. The CPU is the device that interprets and executes instructions.
  39. 39. 24/11/14  The CPU is the heart of any computer system.  The most important component:  The two fundamental units of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit. The former unit performs arithmetic and logic operations. The latter unit fetches instructions from the memory, decodes them to determine the operations to be performed, and finally carries out these operations.
  40. 40. 24/11/14
  41. 41. Output Devices : 1. Monitor : 24/11/14
  42. 42.  2. Printer (Dot Matrix): 24/11/14
  43. 43.  InkJet: 24/11/14
  44. 44.  Laser: 24/11/14
  45. 45.  3. Projector : 24/11/14
  46. 46.  4. Plotter : 24/11/14
  47. 47.  5. Speaker: 24/11/14
  48. 48. 24/11/14  Storage Devices?  1. Primar y memor y (main memor y) : A. RAM (Random Access Memory/Read-Write Memory)
  49. 49.  B. ROM (Read-only-memory): 24/11/14
  50. 50. 24/11/14  2. Secondary memory (storage devices) A. Hard Disk (Local Disk) B. Optical Disks: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW C. Pen Drive D. Zip Drive E. Floppy Disks F. Memory Cards G. External Hard Disk.
  51. 51.  A. Hard Disk : 24/11/14
  52. 52.  B. Optical disk : 24/11/14
  53. 53.  C. Pen Drive: 24/11/14
  54. 54.  D. Zip Disk (super disk): 24/11/14
  55. 55.  E. Floppy Disk : 24/11/14
  56. 56.  F. Memor y Cards: 24/11/14
  57. 57.  G. External Hard Disk: 24/11/14
  58. 58. 24/11/14 Peripheral Devices:  1. The Modem/ Internet Adapter:
  59. 59.  2. Switches/Hub : 24/11/14
  60. 60. 3. Router : 24/11/14
  61. 61. 4. TV Tuner Card : 24/11/14
  62. 62.  Internal Components?  1. The MotherBoard (Main Board – System Board): It is the main Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as the (CPU) & Memory, & provides connectors for other peripherals. It contains significant sub-systems such as the Processor & other components. (http://en.m.wikipedia.org) 24/11/14
  63. 63.  2. Expansion Slots: 24/11/14
  64. 64. 24/11/14  An Expansion Slot as well as a row of contacts that is designed to establish an electrical connection between the Motherboard & the electronics on the card, which are mostly integrated circuits.  An Expansion Card can provide various functions as: Sound-Modems-Network-Interface Adapters-TV & Radio Tuning-Video Processing-Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)-Security devices-RAM/ROM Memory… (www.technopedia.com)
  65. 65. 24/11/14 3. CMOS Battery : A small battery that powers certain components on a computer’s motherboard while the computer is turned off. The Battery is a 3 Volt Lithium button cell and has a lifespan of up to ten years. Without it, many important computer systems would not be able to function. (www.ehow.com)
  66. 66. 24/11/14
  67. 67.  4. Cooling Fan : 24/11/14
  68. 68.  5. Network Card :  24/11/14
  69. 69. 6. Graphics Card :  24/11/14
  70. 70. 7. Power Supply Unit (SMPS) : 24/11/14
  71. 71. 8. Memor y Slots : 24/11/14
  72. 72. 24/11/14  Personal Computers and the Net - The Language of Computers, How Does Email Travel? - Servers, Bridges, Carrying, and Internet – Jrank -(Articles http://science.jrank.org/kids/pages/129/Personal-Computers-Net.html#).  COMPUTER SYSTEMS  Sotirios G. Ziavras, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey, Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102, U.S.A.  Computer Fundamentals, Compiled by: Hemanta Baral , Stratford College London (DfES Registered Independent School), Stratford, London.  www.wikipedia.org
  73. 73. 24/11/14  THANKS A LOT FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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