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In the mid-1970s, computers started getting small
and inexpensive enough for people to have them
in their homes.
Many home computer users started using the
network to communicate between computers and
share messages with each other.
You may wonder how computers talk to each
other. In 1963, the American Standard Code for
Information Interchange (ASCII) was developed.
Different manufacturers use the same 128 codes
to make the English alphabet, Arabic numerals,
punctuation marks, and many other things.
During the last half of the 1970s, it was obvious
that ARPANET wasn't big enough to handle all of
this activity. The program was shifted to the
National Science Foundation (NSF), which
developed a larger network called the NSFNET.
In 1990, this became known as the INTERNET.
How does an E. Mail travel?
Email travels along imaginary roads from your
computer to one or more servers and then to your
Servers are the key to sending and receiving
emails. You can think of servers like bridges.
Some bridges are small carrying only a few cars.
Other bridges are very large carrying many, many
If the bridge goes down, no traffic gets through.
It's the same on the Internet, if a server goes
down your email can't travel from your computer
to your friend's computer.
So, What is a Computer?
Computer is an advanced electronic device that
takes raw data as input from the user and
processes these data under the control of set of
instructions (called program) and gives the result
(output) and saves output for the future use.
It can process both numerical and non-numerical
(arithmetic and logical) calculations.
A computer, then has four (4) functions:
a. accepts data Input
b. processes data Processing
c. produces output Output
d. stores results Storage
Input is the raw information entered into a
computer from the input devices. It is the
collection of letters, numbers, images etc.
Process is the operation of data as per given
instruction. It is totally internal process of the
Output is the processed data given by computer
after data processing. Output is also called as
Result. We can save these results in the storage
devices for the future use.
What are Computers for?
Key Points to remember:
1. Computer is a device which converts DATA
2. DATA is a collection of facts & figures;
3. Computer is used in Business, Administration,
Management, Medecine, Space Technology…
4. Computer is a versatile machine that can be
used in almost all the fields.
1. Computer can perform any task faster than
any other machine;
2. INFORMATION is meaningful DATA;
3. Processing refers to the manipulation of data
within the computer;
4. Speed, Accuracy (truth-quality), versatility
(skillfulness), Storage, Diligence (steady
application/industrious), etc. are the
characteristics of a COMPUTER.
Computer System ?
All of the components of a computer system can
be summarized with the simple equations:
COMPUTER SYSTEM =
HARDWARE + SOFTWARE+ USER
• Hardware =
Internal Devices + Peripheral Devices
All physical parts of the computer (or everything
that we can touch) are known as Hardware.
• Software = Programs
Software gives "intelligence" to the computer.
• USER = Person, who operates computer.
Major Par ts of the Computer:
The process by which a person's unique
physical and other traits are detected and
recorded by an electronic device or system as
a means of confirming IDENTITY:
Scanning of the human iris is a reliable
form of biometrics.]
a. the analysis of biological data using
mathematical and statistical methods
b. the practice of digitally scanning the
physiological or behavioural characteristics of
individuals as a means of identification.
the statistical calculation of the probable
duration of human life.]
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition - 2009.
Bluetooth's founding members include Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and
Toshiba. /Physical Rang e : Up to 6 0 Me tre s/
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU).
The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This
unit is responsible for all events inside the
computer. It controls all internal and external
devices, performs arithmetic and logic operations.
The CPU is the device that interprets and
The CPU is the heart of any computer system.
The most important component:
The two fundamental units of a CPU are the
arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit.
The former unit performs arithmetic and logic
operations. The latter unit fetches instructions
from the memory, decodes them to determine
the operations to be performed, and finally
carries out these operations.
2. Secondary memory (storage devices)
A. Hard Disk (Local Disk)
B. Optical Disks: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW
C. Pen Drive
D. Zip Drive
E. Floppy Disks
F. Memory Cards
G. External Hard Disk.
1. The MotherBoard (Main Board – System
Board): It is the main Printed Circuit Board
(PCB) that holds many of the crucial electronic
components of the system, such as the (CPU) &
Memory, & provides connectors for other
peripherals. It contains significant sub-systems
such as the Processor & other components.
An Expansion Slot as well as a row of contacts that is
designed to establish an electrical connection between
the Motherboard & the electronics on the card, which are
mostly integrated circuits.
An Expansion Card can provide various functions as:
Sound-Modems-Network-Interface Adapters-TV &
Radio Tuning-Video Processing-Basic Input/Output
System (BIOS)-Security devices-RAM/ROM Memory…
3. CMOS Battery :
A small battery that powers certain components
on a computer’s motherboard while the
computer is turned off.
The Battery is a 3 Volt Lithium button cell and
has a lifespan of up to ten years. Without it,
many important computer systems would not
be able to function. (www.ehow.com)
Personal Computers and the Net - The Language of Computers,
How Does Email Travel?
- Servers, Bridges, Carrying, and Internet – Jrank -(Articles
Sotirios G. Ziavras, Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, New Jersey, Institute of Technology, Newark, New
Jersey 07102, U.S.A.
Computer Fundamentals, Compiled by: Hemanta Baral , Stratford
College London (DfES Registered Independent School), Stratford,