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Outline

    ●  Challenges faced by today’s combustor designers
    ●  Alternative strategies available to address the
   ...
RD software enables “virtual” experimentation
    ●  RD’s software allows designers to visualize the effects of
       che...
The Combustor Designer’s Dilemma

                        • Cost of Experiments
                        • Mechanism Size
 ...
Global Issues Driving Change
    ●  Low Emissions Regulations
       –  ICAO limits on nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxi...
While Testing Costs Keep Going Up

          Example: 250 MW Turbine




6
Diverse Fuel Sources Add Risk to Design

    ●  Syngas from Integrated
       Gasification Combined Cycle
       (IGCC)
  ...
Design Changes Introduce Risk to Combustor
Stability
    ●  Lean-premixed combustion with low
       flame temperature slo...
Today, Designers Use CFD and Extensive
Physical Testing
                             ●  Computational Fluid Dynamics
     ...
Detailed Chemistry Drives Accurate
     Simulation
 ●  Traditional CFD and empirical approaches do not
    accurately pred...
Designers Say They Need:

 ●  Fewer, better directed experiments

 ●  The ability to simulate conditions that cannot be
  ...
Equivalent Reactor Networks (ERNs) are
Being Used to Abstract the Chemistry
                                        Air


...
Energico Adds Chemistry to the Design
Flow
     3-D CFD Solution




                        Automatically
               ...
Combustor Flow Field Automatically
 Divided Into Zones




 ●  Zone creation algorithm eliminates manual analysis
    and ...
“Instant” Equivalent Reactor Networks




     ●  Automation supports commercial design timelines
        –  Creates ERNs ...
Viewing ERN Results on Combustor
Geometry Facilitates Design Modifications
                            NOx Production
    ...
Assess Lean Blow Off (LBO)

 ●  Capture the flame
 ●  Conduct detailed
    chemistry analysis
    locally in flame
      –...
Energico has Completed a Rigorous
Validation Program on Real Turbine Designs
 ●  RD conducted extensive internal benchmark...
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

 ●  MHI is the largest gas turbine
    manufacturer in Japan
 ●  Energico Validation Summary:...
Kawasaki Heavy Industries

 ●  Mid-size engine range up to 25MW
 ●  Energico Validation Summary:
      –  Test cases focus...
US-based Gas Turbine Manufacturer

 ●  50MW to 400MW turbine systems
 ●  Energico Validation Results:
      –  Compared em...
Sample Energico Validation Results



        Class of Combustor                          NO         CO
                  ...
Current Industry Concerns

                Combustor                 Sustainable
                designs are              ...
ENERGICO: A Revolutionary Software Design Tool for Gas Turbine Combustor and Burners
ENERGICO: A Revolutionary Software Design Tool for Gas Turbine Combustor and Burners
ENERGICO: A Revolutionary Software Design Tool for Gas Turbine Combustor and Burners
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ENERGICO: A Revolutionary Software Design Tool for Gas Turbine Combustor and Burners

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ENERGICO is a complex system-design simulation tool that works by applying detailed chemistry technology to solve the toughest gas-turbine engineering problems related to emissions reduction and stability. By using ENERGICO to model and test new combustor designs, companies can save millions in gas turbine development costs and substantially reduce time-to-market when compared to traditional physical prototype testing.

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ENERGICO: A Revolutionary Software Design Tool for Gas Turbine Combustor and Burners

  1. 1. Outline ●  Challenges faced by today’s combustor designers ●  Alternative strategies available to address the challenges ●  Announcing Energico ●  Summary 2
  2. 2. RD software enables “virtual” experimentation ●  RD’s software allows designers to visualize the effects of chemistry on their engine designs ●  Chemistry simulation can help determine key parameters that can affect efficiency and emissions ●  Exclusive developer and licensor of CHEMKIN 3
  3. 3. The Combustor Designer’s Dilemma • Cost of Experiments • Mechanism Size • CFD Complexity • Cost of Design Mistakes • Design Complexity • Fuel Options • Emissions Regulations • Fuel Consumption • Design Cycle Time • Design Resources 4
  4. 4. Global Issues Driving Change ●  Low Emissions Regulations –  ICAO limits on nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and Unburned Hydrocarbons –  New Soot/Particulate emissions regulations for commercial aircraft in airports International Civil Aviation Organization NOx Limits ●  Fuel Flexibility 2003 –  Alternative Fuels 2006 2009 –  Opportunity Fuels 2012 (Proposed) –  Biofuels for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction Certification Test Data (Engine Size) Source: ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions, May, 2007 5
  5. 5. While Testing Costs Keep Going Up Example: 250 MW Turbine 6
  6. 6. Diverse Fuel Sources Add Risk to Design ●  Syngas from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) ●  Opportunity Fuels Syngas and Fischer-Tropsch –  Blast Furnace Gas –  Landfill Gas ●  Coal-derived, F-T fuels ●  Bio-fuels Bio-Diesel –  High in methyl esters –  Sources differ regionally and are changing ●  Oil-sand derived fuels –  High in aromatics Biomass and Waste Fuels 7
  7. 7. Design Changes Introduce Risk to Combustor Stability ●  Lean-premixed combustion with low flame temperature slows burn rates –  Lean Blow Off (LBO) when mixing overpowers burning –  Flashback in premixed systems when flow velocity is less than flame velocity –  Ignition more difficult with lean mixtures ●  Opportunity fuels can have inconsistent composition and flow rate –  Fuel composition impacts stability –  Combustor experiences transient conditions with rapid load changes 8
  8. 8. Today, Designers Use CFD and Extensive Physical Testing ●  Computational Fluid Dynamics –  Geometry resolution –  3-D flow field representation –  Accurate prediction of mass flows –  Accurate heat transfer –  Simplified chemistry ●  Performance and emission requirements drive combustor testing –  10-20 tests per typical combustor design –  $50k-200k per test in a physical prototype 9
  9. 9. Detailed Chemistry Drives Accurate Simulation ●  Traditional CFD and empirical approaches do not accurately predict emissions and stability NOx NOx Measured Measured NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx NOx Under Predicted by CFD CO Over Predicted by CFD 10
  10. 10. Designers Say They Need: ●  Fewer, better directed experiments ●  The ability to simulate conditions that cannot be experimentally tested ●  A way to complete rapid evaluations of fuel and operating condition effects ●  An accurate applications engineering tool for combustion stability assessment 12
  11. 11. Equivalent Reactor Networks (ERNs) are Being Used to Abstract the Chemistry Air Flame Air Mixing Recirculation Post-flame Pre-mixed Fuel + Air Equivalent Reactor Network Benefits of ERNs Drawbacks of ERNs •  ERNs use detailed chemistry •  Can takes expert >1 month to accurately simulate to create by hand pollutant emissions •  Difficult to map results back •  ERNs can identify regions onto combustor geometry where emissions are formed 13
  12. 12. Energico Adds Chemistry to the Design Flow 3-D CFD Solution Automatically create ERN Map chemistry results onto Map chemistry geometry view results onto geometry view 14
  13. 13. Combustor Flow Field Automatically Divided Into Zones ●  Zone creation algorithm eliminates manual analysis and errors ●  Designer can easily adjust and refine the algorithm to capture flow/flame structures ●  Energico accurately tracks all flows to “stitch” together the zones into an ERN 15
  14. 14. “Instant” Equivalent Reactor Networks ●  Automation supports commercial design timelines –  Creates ERNs in minutes rather than months –  Enables widespread use by combustor designers ●  Accurately follows specific set of rules –  Correct-by-Construction 16
  15. 15. Viewing ERN Results on Combustor Geometry Facilitates Design Modifications NOx Production Identify where NOx emissions are formed CO Concentrations Identify where CO emissions are quenched 17
  16. 16. Assess Lean Blow Off (LBO) ●  Capture the flame ●  Conduct detailed chemistry analysis locally in flame –  Chemistry rate from reaction mechanism –  Mixing rate from CFD ●  Determine how close flame is to LBO ●  Visualize flame within geometry to guide design modifications 18
  17. 17. Energico has Completed a Rigorous Validation Program on Real Turbine Designs ●  RD conducted extensive internal benchmarking with designs supplied from industry prior to release ●  Three major gas turbine manufacturers involved in Program –  Mitsubishi Heavy Industries –  Kawasaki Heavy Industries –  Large United States manufacturer ●  Over 60% of power generation gas turbine market represented by validators ●  Program included validation of Energico on well understood designs –  Emissions predictions –  Lean Blow Off assessments 19
  18. 18. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries ●  MHI is the largest gas turbine manufacturer in Japan ●  Energico Validation Summary: –  Energico predicted emissions well within a 5% margin on natural gas –  Test cases on 25ppm NOx and less than 10ppm NOx cases –  Focused LBO testing on both fundamental experiments and large scale combustor tests ●  MHI Turbine Business Division Manager: –  “Energico can help MHI reduce costly and time consuming experimental testing” 20
  19. 19. Kawasaki Heavy Industries ●  Mid-size engine range up to 25MW ●  Energico Validation Summary: –  Test cases focused on a parametric variation of fuel/air ratio in production combustor –  Emissions of NOx and CO predicted within 5% of experimental data 21
  20. 20. US-based Gas Turbine Manufacturer ●  50MW to 400MW turbine systems ●  Energico Validation Results: –  Compared emissions results from experiments to Energico –  Emissions for NOx and CO within 1ppm of experimental data –  Fuel impacts on emissions predicted (syngas from IGCC) –  LBO tool provides new data for effective simulation ●  Team Leader, Combustor Simulation: –  “Energico is clearly superior to CFD for accurate emissions results” 22
  21. 21. Sample Energico Validation Results Class of Combustor NO CO Fuel Type (all CO less than 10ppm) Variance Variance 10MW Less than 10ppm NOx Natural Gas 1ppm 2ppm 25MW 25ppm NOx Natural Gas 2ppm 2ppm 250MW Less than 10ppm NOx Natural Gas 1ppm 2ppm 250MW 25ppm NOx Natural Gas 2ppm 2ppm 250MW 25ppm NOx Syngas 2ppm 2ppm 23
  22. 22. Current Industry Concerns Combustor Sustainable designs are fuels becoming introduce more complex combustion uncertainty Mechanisms become more detailed to capture required effects n ENERGICO: Revolutionary Simulation Package •  Reduced Need for Physical Engine Testing •  Ability to take Advantage of Opportunity Fuels •  Increased Speed-to-Market for New Designs •  Reduced Field Failures with Capability to Accurately Simulate Emissions and LBO 24

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