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SHROFF S. R. ROTARY INSTITUTE OF
CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
SUB :- DC MACHINE AND TRANSFORMER
BRANCH :- EE (3 – SEM)
GUIDED BY :- MR.KRUNAL SHAH
-: BY :-
HARSHIL PATEL (150990109007)
PATEL NISHANT (150990109008)
ANKIT PATIL (150990109009)
RAVIJEET VASHI (150990109010)
RAVIRAJ SOLANKI (150990109011)
CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF TRANSFORMERS
CONTENT
 What is transformer
 Structure and working principle
 Construction of transformer
 1) Magnetic core
 2)Windings or coils
 Comparision between core type and shell type transformer
INTRODUCTION
 A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one
voltage level to ac electric power at another voltage level
through the action of a magnetic field.
 There are two or more stationary electric circuits that are
coupled magnetically.
 It involves interchange of electric energy between two or more
electric systems
 Transformers provide much needed capability of changing the
voltage and current levels easily.
 They are used to step-up generator voltage to an appropriate
voltage level for power transfer.
 Stepping down the transmission voltage at various levels for
distribution and power utilization.
WHAT IS TRANSFORMER
 A transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of
which an electrical power is transferred from one
alternating current circuit to another electrical circuit
 There is no electrical contact between them
 The desire change in voltage or current without any
change in frequency
 Symbolically the transformer denoted as
NOTE :
It works on the principle of mutual induction
STRUCTURE OF TRANSFORMER
 The transformer two inductive coils ,these are electrical
separated but linked through a common magnetic current
circuit
 These two coils have a high mutual induction
 One of the two coils is connected of alternating voltage .this
coil in which electrical energy is fed with the help of source
called primary winding (P) shown in fig.
 The other winding is connected to a load the electrical energy
is transformed to this winding drawn out to the load .this
winding is called secondary winding(S) shown in fig.
 The primary and secondary coil wound on a ferromagnetic
metal core
 The function of the core is to transfer the changing magnetic
flux from the primary coil to the secondary coil
 The primary has N1 no of turns and the secondary has N2 no of
turns the of turns plays major important role in the function of
transformer
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 The transformer works in the principle of mutual induction
 When the alternating current flows in the primary coils, a
changing magnetic flux is generated around the primary coil.
 The changing magnetic flux is transferred to the secondary coil
through the iron core
 The changing magnetic flux is cut by the secondary coil, hence
induces an e.m.f in the secondary coil
“The principle of mutual induction states that when the two coils are
inductively coupled and if the current in coil change uniformly then the
e.m.f. induced in the other coils. This e.m.f can drive a current when a
closed path is provide to it.”
 Now if load is connected to a secondary winding, this e.m.f
drives a current through it
 The magnitude of the output voltage can be controlled by the
ratio of the no. of primary coil and secondary coil
The frequency of mutually induced e.m.f as same
that of the alternating source which supplying to the
primary winding b
CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMER
 These are two basic of transformer construction
 Magnetic core
 Windings or coils
 Magnetic core
 The core of transformer either square or rectangular type in
size
 It is further divided into two parts vertical and horizontal
 The vertical portion on which coils are wounds called limb
while horizontal portion is called yoke. these parts are
 Core is made of laminated core type constructions, eddy
current losses get minimize.
 Generally high grade silicon steel laminations (0.3 to 0.5mm)
are used
WINDING
 Conducting material is used in the winding of the transformer
 The coils are used are wound on the limbs and insulated from
each other
 The two different windings are wounds on two different limbs
 The leakage flux increases which affects the performance and
efficiency of transformer
 To reduce the leakage flux it is necessary that the windings
should be very close to each other to have high mutual
induction
CORE TYPE CONSTRUCTION
 In this one magnetic circuit and cylindrical coils are used
 Normally L and T shaped laminations are used
 Commonly primary winding would on one limb while
secondary on the other but performance will be reduce
 To get high performance it is necessary that other the two
winding should be very close to each other
SHELL TYPE CONSTRUCTION
 In this type two magnetic circuit are used
 The winding is wound on central limbs
 For the cell type each high voltage winding lie between two
voltage portion sandwiching the high voltage winding
 Sub division of windings reduces the leakage flux
 Greater the number of sub division lesser the reactance
 This type of construction is used for high voltage
VIDEO OF CORE TYPE AND SHELL TYPE
TRANSFORMER
COMPARISON
Core type Shell type
Winding encircles the core Core encircles most of the
winding.
Cylindrical type Multilayer type or
Sandwich Type
Natural Cooling is provided Natural Cooling not
possible. Cooling Fans are
used
Coils are easily removed
for maintenance
Coils are not easily
removed for maintenance
For Low Voltage
transformers
For High Voltage
transformers
SR Rotary Institute transformer guide

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SR Rotary Institute transformer guide

  • 1. SHROFF S. R. ROTARY INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY SUB :- DC MACHINE AND TRANSFORMER BRANCH :- EE (3 – SEM) GUIDED BY :- MR.KRUNAL SHAH -: BY :- HARSHIL PATEL (150990109007) PATEL NISHANT (150990109008) ANKIT PATIL (150990109009) RAVIJEET VASHI (150990109010) RAVIRAJ SOLANKI (150990109011)
  • 2. CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF TRANSFORMERS
  • 3. CONTENT  What is transformer  Structure and working principle  Construction of transformer  1) Magnetic core  2)Windings or coils  Comparision between core type and shell type transformer
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field.  There are two or more stationary electric circuits that are coupled magnetically.  It involves interchange of electric energy between two or more electric systems  Transformers provide much needed capability of changing the voltage and current levels easily.  They are used to step-up generator voltage to an appropriate voltage level for power transfer.  Stepping down the transmission voltage at various levels for distribution and power utilization.
  • 5. WHAT IS TRANSFORMER  A transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which an electrical power is transferred from one alternating current circuit to another electrical circuit  There is no electrical contact between them  The desire change in voltage or current without any change in frequency  Symbolically the transformer denoted as NOTE : It works on the principle of mutual induction
  • 6.
  • 7. STRUCTURE OF TRANSFORMER  The transformer two inductive coils ,these are electrical separated but linked through a common magnetic current circuit  These two coils have a high mutual induction  One of the two coils is connected of alternating voltage .this coil in which electrical energy is fed with the help of source called primary winding (P) shown in fig.  The other winding is connected to a load the electrical energy is transformed to this winding drawn out to the load .this winding is called secondary winding(S) shown in fig.
  • 8.  The primary and secondary coil wound on a ferromagnetic metal core  The function of the core is to transfer the changing magnetic flux from the primary coil to the secondary coil  The primary has N1 no of turns and the secondary has N2 no of turns the of turns plays major important role in the function of transformer
  • 9. WORKING PRINCIPLE  The transformer works in the principle of mutual induction  When the alternating current flows in the primary coils, a changing magnetic flux is generated around the primary coil.  The changing magnetic flux is transferred to the secondary coil through the iron core  The changing magnetic flux is cut by the secondary coil, hence induces an e.m.f in the secondary coil “The principle of mutual induction states that when the two coils are inductively coupled and if the current in coil change uniformly then the e.m.f. induced in the other coils. This e.m.f can drive a current when a closed path is provide to it.”
  • 10.  Now if load is connected to a secondary winding, this e.m.f drives a current through it  The magnitude of the output voltage can be controlled by the ratio of the no. of primary coil and secondary coil The frequency of mutually induced e.m.f as same that of the alternating source which supplying to the primary winding b
  • 11.
  • 12. CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMER  These are two basic of transformer construction  Magnetic core  Windings or coils  Magnetic core  The core of transformer either square or rectangular type in size  It is further divided into two parts vertical and horizontal  The vertical portion on which coils are wounds called limb while horizontal portion is called yoke. these parts are  Core is made of laminated core type constructions, eddy current losses get minimize.  Generally high grade silicon steel laminations (0.3 to 0.5mm) are used
  • 13. WINDING  Conducting material is used in the winding of the transformer  The coils are used are wound on the limbs and insulated from each other  The two different windings are wounds on two different limbs  The leakage flux increases which affects the performance and efficiency of transformer  To reduce the leakage flux it is necessary that the windings should be very close to each other to have high mutual induction
  • 14. CORE TYPE CONSTRUCTION  In this one magnetic circuit and cylindrical coils are used  Normally L and T shaped laminations are used  Commonly primary winding would on one limb while secondary on the other but performance will be reduce  To get high performance it is necessary that other the two winding should be very close to each other
  • 15.
  • 16. SHELL TYPE CONSTRUCTION  In this type two magnetic circuit are used  The winding is wound on central limbs  For the cell type each high voltage winding lie between two voltage portion sandwiching the high voltage winding  Sub division of windings reduces the leakage flux  Greater the number of sub division lesser the reactance  This type of construction is used for high voltage
  • 17.
  • 18. VIDEO OF CORE TYPE AND SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMER
  • 19. COMPARISON Core type Shell type Winding encircles the core Core encircles most of the winding. Cylindrical type Multilayer type or Sandwich Type Natural Cooling is provided Natural Cooling not possible. Cooling Fans are used Coils are easily removed for maintenance Coils are not easily removed for maintenance For Low Voltage transformers For High Voltage transformers