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Nutrition in old age

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Geriatric Nutrition

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Nutrition in old age

  1. 1. Nutrition in Old Age Food biochemistry Presented by: Arijit Acharjee FPB15015
  2. 2. Introduction • Gerontology: The medical study of the ageing process. • Geriatrics: The study of diseases that afflict the elderly. • Geriatric nutrition: Nutrition for the elderly.
  3. 3. What is old age? • Old age is best defined as age of retirement that is 60+ years and above. • The organic process of ageing is called senescence. • Ageing brings physiological, psychological and immunological changes which influence the nutritional status of a human being.
  4. 4. Physiological changes • Loss of teeth • Decreased Neuromuscular coordination • Impaired hearing and failing vision. • Anorexia. • Change in body composition. • Change in gastro-intestinal tract. • Change in cardiovascular system. • Change in respiratory function. • Change in renal function. • Change in skeletal tissue.
  5. 5. Changes in organ functions • Decrease in sense of taste and smell. • Decrease in saliva secretion. • Mouth and teeth problems. • Swallowing difficulties • Decrease in stomach functions • Decrease in function of liver and gallbladder • Decrease in function of intestine. • Decrease in function of immune system. • Decrease in the function of nervous system. • Energy metabolism.
  6. 6. Socio psychological changes • Food habit. • Economic aspects. • Loneliness. • Lack of nutritional knowledge. • Depression. • Anxiety. • Loss of self esteem. • Loss of independence.
  7. 7. Nutrition • Prevention, retardation and treatment of diseases affiliated with ageing. • Adequate and balanced nutrition is important with respect to the perpetuation of the
  8. 8. Nutritional requirements • Energy • Carbohydrate • Protein • Lipid • Minerals • Vitamins • Fats • Water • Fibre • Phytochemicals
  9. 9. Energy • Energy requirement reduces. • Reduced physical activity. • Basal metabolic rate decreases(15-20%) due to reduced muscle mass and other metabolically active tissue mass. • Increase in fatty tissue. Sex Sedentary Moderate male 1883 kcal 2216 kcal Female 1706 kcal 2007 kcal
  10. 10. Carbohydrate • Requirement reduces. • Impaired glucose intolerance can lead to hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and type II diabetes mellitus. • Insulin sensitivity can be enhanced by balance energy intake, weight management and regular physical activity. • 50 percent energy should derive from carbohydrate.
  11. 11. Protein • Production of body organs. • Restoration of cells. • 1g = 4 calories • Protection of body from external effects. • Facilitating recovery in conditions of fracture. • Protection and strengthening of muscles. • Development of resistance to diseases by strengthening of the immune system. Foods comprising Protein Protein amounts Leguminous seeds 20-25g Soya beans 30-35g Meat, chicken,fish 15-22g Cheese 15-25g Egg 12-13g Cereals 8-12g Milk 3-4g
  12. 12. Lipid • Dementia and CVD may share risk factors like high intake of dietary intake & total fat. • Emphasis should be placed on reducing the intake of saturated fat and choosing mono saturated or poly saturated fat sources. • Sufficient intake of ω-3 fatty acids helps in visual acuity, hair loss, tissue inflammation, improper digestion, poor kidney function and mental depression.
  13. 13. Fats • Source of energy(1g=9 calories). • Essential for production of some hormones which ensure functions of the body. • Omega 3 fatty acids reduce risk of heart attacks and strengthen immune system and protect people from depression. • Fat sources:  Milk and Yolk  Meat
  14. 14. Fat requirements in old age • Minimum 25% of daily energy intake should be provided from fats. • If not much limitations caused by diseases the amount to be consumed is 35-40g. • Half from vegetative liquid oils and the other half from olive oil. • Since too much causes obesity and cancer, cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to avoid excessive consumption.
  15. 15. Minerals • Calcium: 800mg/day • To compensate age related bone loss, to improve calcium balance and to decrease prevalence of fracture. • Ca absorption efficiency decreases, vitamin D level decreases so need more Ca. • Total food consumption decrease so Ca supplements needed. • Iron: 30mg/day • Deficiency is seen in elderly due to inadequate iron intake, blood loss due to chronic disease or reduced non-heam iron absorption. Vitamin C deficiency also reduce iron absorption. • Mild anemia affect health due to less efficient circulation of blood. • Zinc • Some features like delayed wound healing, decreased taste sensitivity and anorexia are associated with zinc deficiency. • But healthy elderly don’t show zinc deficiency.
  16. 16. Vitamins • Low vitamin D levels- Parkinson disease. • 200 mg of vitamin E to improve immune system. • Calcium and vitamin D improves bone density and prevent fractures. • Vitamin E, carotenoids and vitamin C enhances health of elderly. • Vitamin C intake level of 150-250 mg/day to fight against cataract. • Requirement of vitamin B6 increases due to atrophic gastritis. • Deficiency of folic acid may result anemia and elevated serum homo- cysteine level which is a risk for cardiac diseases. • Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia.
  17. 17. Water • While 70% of the body is water in the adult period, this amount decreases to 50% in elderly. • Loss of 15% of body water cause loss of life. • Helps in:  Digestion, absoption, transportation of food eaten.  Operation of cells, tissues and organs  Monitoring of body heat  Slickness of the joints  Removal of harmful substances from the body.
  18. 18. Fibre • Prevention of overweight problems • . • Protection from intestinal cancer. • Lowering blood cholesterol. • Increases activities of intestine and prevention of constipation. • Regulation of blood sugar and protection from the diabetes. • Sources: Legumes, grains, vegetables and fruits • 25-30g of fibre consumption per day is sufficient.
  19. 19. Phytochemicals • Chemical substances found in vegetables and fruits have preventive features against health problems. These substances are phytochemicals.
  20. 20. Nutrition related problems of the elderly • Obesity • Malnutrition and Under nutrition. • Osteoporosis • Cardiovascular diseases • Diabetes • Cancer • Hypertension • Mental insufficiency, • loss of memory, brain damage • Constipation • Immune system weakness
  21. 21. Principles of nutrition in old age period • No. of daily meal should be regulated as 3 main and 3 interim meals. • High amount of fibre as legumes & wholegrain must be consumed. • 8-10 glasses of water (1500ml) should be consumed. • High level of calcium should be consumed. • Fish should be consumed atleast twice a week(omega 3 fatty acids). • Salt and sugar consumption should be limited.
  22. 22. Conclusion • Healthy ageing begins from childhood itself. • Eat well to age well. • Old age is second childhood- Aristophanes
  23. 23. References • http://beslenme.gov.tr/content/files/yayinlar/ ingilizce_yayinlar/books/yaslilik.pdf • World Health Organisation- http://www.who.int/en/ • Geriatric Nutrition- ebook by Tom Brody