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Documents Governing Welding Inspection and Qualification

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Documents Governing Welding Inspection and Qualification

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Documents Governing Welding Inspection and Qualification

  1. 1. DOCUMENTS GOVERNING WELDING INSPECTION AND QUALIFICATION
  2. 2. DOCUMENT TYPES • Purchase orders • Contract documents • Codes • Standards • Specifications • Recommended Practices • Drawings
  3. 3. DRAWINGS • Dimensions in U.S. Customary or S.I. • When both are used, second system is usually shown after the first in ( ) • Tolerances must be stated as a : + or -, maximum, minimum, or a range • All drawing notes must be reviewed • List of materials usually given
  4. 4. EXAMPLE OF FABRICATION DRAWING
  5. 5. DIMENSIONS
  6. 6. TOLERANCES
  7. 7. NOTES
  8. 8. WELDING DETAILS • Location • Size • Length • Joint configurations • Material call-outs • NDE requirements • Processing requirements
  9. 9. HOLD POINTS • Specific prearranged steps • Inspection required • Acceptance required • Fabrication continued
  10. 10. INSPECTION INFORMATION • Visual or other NDE • Test method • Test procedure • Location for testing • Extent of testing • Acceptance/rejection criteria • Personnel qualifications
  11. 11. CODE “A body of laws, as of a nation, city, etc., arranged systematically for easy reference”
  12. 12. TYPES OF CODES • Building codes • Electrical codes • Plumbing codes • Fabrication codes
  13. 13. CODES: • Have legal status • Use “Shall” and “Will” • Mandatory • Methods to determine compliance
  14. 14. CODE PRODUCERS • AWS • ASME • API • ABS • DOT • Others
  15. 15. STANDARD “Something established for use as a rule or basis of comparison in measuring or judging capacity, quantity, content, extent, value, quality, etc.”
  16. 16. WELDING CODES AND STANDARDS
  17. 17. ASME CODE BY SECTIONS • I - Const - Power Boilers • II - Materials • Part A - Ferrous • Part B - Nonferrous • Part C - Filler Metals • Part D - Properties • III - General Requirements • IV - Const - Heating Boilers • V - NDE • VI - Operations of Power B. • VII - Care of Power Boilers • VIII - Unfired Pres.Vessels • Divisions 1, 2, and 3 • IX - Welding Qualifications • X - FRP PressureVessels • XI - Nuclear Inspections
  18. 18. SPECIFICATION “A detailed description of the parts of a whole: statement or enumeration of particulars as to actual or required size, quality, performance, terms, etc.”
  19. 19. AWS FILLER METAL SPECIFICATIONS
  20. 20. AWS WELDING SPECIFICATIONS
  21. 21. RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
  22. 22. OTHER STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS • ANSI • ASTM • ISO • IIW • NACE
  23. 23. CONTROL OF MATERIALS “The identification and traceability of materials”
  24. 24. MATERIAL TEST REPORT (MTR) The starting point for material control
  25. 25. MTR • Review: • Product Form • Heat Number • Chemistry • Mech. Properties
  26. 26. MATERIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS • Should be simple • Contain checks and balances • Specify marking methods
  27. 27. MATERIAL CONTROL METHODS • Segregation • Color coding • Alphanumeric • Bar coding • Tagging • Stamping
  28. 28. ALLOY IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS • Industry associations • SAE • AISI • CDA • Castings • Tool steels • UNS • ASTM
  29. 29. ASTM STANDARDS
  30. 30. ASTM A514 “Standard specification for high yield strength, quenched and tempered alloy steel plate, suitable for welding”
  31. 31. TYPICAL ASTM SPECIFICATION • Scope • Applicable Documents • General Delivery Requirements • Process • Heat Treatment • Chemical Requirements • Mechanical Requirements • Hardness Requirements • Test Specimens • Number of tests • Retest • Marking • Supplemental Requirements
  32. 32. AWS A5.1 “Specification for covered carbon steel arc welding electrodes”
  33. 33. TYPICAL AWS FILLER SPECIFICATION • Scope • General Requirements • Classification • Acceptance • Certification • Retests • Method of manufacture • Marking • Packaging, Rounding-off • Required Tests, Methods • Manufacturing, Packaging, Identification • Details of Tests • Appendix
  34. 34. QUALIFICATION FABRICATORS’ RESPONSIBILITY • Procedures • Welders • Welding operators • Tack welders
  35. 35. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION Determines compatibility of: • Base metal(s) • Filler metal(s) • Process(es) • Techniques
  36. 36. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION Three methods: • Prequalified procedures • Procedure qualification testing • Mock-ups
  37. 37. PREQUALIFIED PROCEDURES • Used by AWS D1.1 & D1.5 • No need for testing • Saves time and money
  38. 38. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION TESTING • ASME,API,AWS, & most Codes & Standards • Welding and brazing • Defines essential welding variables • Testing required
  39. 39. ESSENTIAL WELDINGVARIABLES “Those variables, that if changed beyond certain limits, require a new procedure qualification”
  40. 40. ASME QUALIFICATION • Section IX • Welding procedure specification (WPS) • Lists essential welding variables • Procedure qualification record (PQR) • Notes actual test conditions
  41. 41. MOCK-UPS “Used for special joint configurations”
  42. 42. REQUIRED SPECIMENS Prior to qualifying a procedure: • Determine test specimen requirements for selected Code • Make test weldment large enough to obtain proper number and type of samples • Consider making it large enough for an extra test specimen or two • Maintain test weldment and specimen orientation per Code
  43. 43. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION STEPS - 1 OF 2 • Select welding variables • Check equipment and materials • Monitor fitup & welding - document! • Identify test specimens • Test and evaluate specimens
  44. 44. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION STEPS - 2 OF 2 • Review results for compliance • Release approved procedure • Qualify other welders • Monitor production welding
  45. 45. WELDER QUALIFICATION “Determines if individual welders have sufficient skill to produce satisfactory welds using a qualified procedure”
  46. 46. WELDINGVARIABLES Examples of essential variables in some codes: • Welding position • Joint configuration • Electrode type and size • Base metal type, thickness • Welding techniques • Use of backing
  47. 47. TYPE & POSITION LIMITATIONS • Depends on Code used • Refer to Code for test weldment thickness requirements and limitations on welder qualification • Use Module 5, Figure 5.19, as example for review
  48. 48. WELD POSITION DESIGNATION Position Designations: • Different for Plate and Pipe • Different for Groove and Fillet welds • Must know positions and designations • See Module 5, Figures 5.20 - 5.23
  49. 49. THICKNESS RANGE QUALIFIED • Depends on Code used • Depends on test specimen thickness • See Figure 5.24 for D1.1 requirements
  50. 50. BACKED AND NON-BACKED JOINT
  51. 51. FILLET WELD TEST SPECIMEN
  52. 52. 6GR TEST WELDMENT
  53. 53. ELECTRODE CLASSIFICATION GROUPINGS Group Designation AWS Electrode Classification F4 EXX15, EXX16, EXX18, EXX15-X, EXX16-X EXX18-X F3 EXX10, EXX11, EXX10-X, EXX11-X F2 EXX12, EXX13, EXX14, EXX13-X F1 EXX20, EXX24, EXX27, EXX28, EXX20-X, EXX27-X
  54. 54. QUALIFYVS CERTIFY Qualify - Welder has skill to weld Certify - Documents support above
  55. 55. WELDING INSPECTION REQUIRES: • Availability of documents • Knowledge of documents • Use of documents • Materials control • Qualifications
  56. 56. QUALITY IS: ...conformance to specifications. so….. KnowYour Specifications!

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