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Ecosystem Services Provided By Pollinators And Their Crisis.pptx

  1. 11240, 11237 &11242 IARI, Ph.D Scholars Division of Entomology New Delhi-110012 Welcome EcosystemServices ProvidedBy Pollinators AndTheir Crisis Credit seminar on
  2. Contents Introduction History Ecosystem services Pollinators and their role Causes for pollinator decline Case studies Summary Conclusion and Future prospects
  3. Ecosystem Ecosystem services pollinators Introduction
  4. Ecosystem services??? A wide range of conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems and the species that are part of them, help sustain and fulfill human life (Daily et al., 1997) Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems. “The benefits people obtain from ecosystems”
  5. Modern history of ecosystem services  1970-1980s/ origin and early development  Silent spring by Carson (1962)  Functions of nature “as farming ecological concerns in economic terms to stress societal dependence on natural resources”  “Natural capital” by Schmacher (1973)  “Ecosystem services” by Westman (1977)  “Concept of ES” firstly defined by Ehrlich and Ehrlich (1981)
  6.  Animals that transfer pollen from the anthers to the stigma of a flower, enabling the flower to set seed and fruit (fertilization) and, through cross-fertilization, they play an important role in maintaining plant diversity Eg., Bees, flies, butterflies, moths, wasps, beetles, thrips Vertebrate pollinators: bats, non-flying mammals (monkey, lemur, rodents, tree squirrel, coati, olingo and kinkajou) and birds (humming birds, sunbirds, honeycreepers and parrot) Two basic types of pollination : Abiotic pollination and Biotic pollination  Abiotic pollination  Anemophily:  Hydrophily: Pollinators
  7.  Cross pollination aided by  Bees (Honeybees, bumble bees,orchid bees, etc) - Melittophily  Hawk moths - Sphingophily  Small moths - Phalaenophily  Flies (Syrphid flies) - Myophily  Butterflies -Psychophily  Beetles - Cantharophily  Ants - Myrmecophily  Wasp - Sphecophily  Carrion fly - Saprophily  Bats - Chiropterophily  Snails and slugs - Melacophily  Birds - Ornithophily Biotic pollination
  8. Pollinator insects Allotrophous:visit flowers but donot play any part in pollination Thrips Ants Eutrophous: important role in pollination Hemitrophous:visit flowers & participate in pollination to some extent Syrphids Honey bee Sphingids
  9.  85% are flowering plants  Crops: Fruits and nuts, Vegetable and Vegetable seed crops, Oil seed crops & Forage seed crops  Globally animal pollination supports 2/3rd of crops & constitute 1/3rd of human diet  It is estimated that 5-8 per cent of current global crop production, with an annual market value of US$ 235 billion - 577 billion (in 2015) worldwide, (Klein et al., 2007: Nicholson & Ricketts, 2019) Important: Quality and Quantity Seed production and Viability Genetic diversity Why pollination is important?
  10. (McGregor ,1976 & Buchmann and Nabhan ,1997)
  11. Crops benefited by bee pollination in India Fruits and nuts Almond, apple, apricot, peach, strawberry, citrus and litchi Vegetable and Vegetable seed crops Cabbage, cauliflower, carrot, coriander, cucumber, melon, onion, pumpkin, radish and turnip Oil seed crops Sunflower, niger, rape seed, mustard, safflower, gingelly Forage seed crops Lucerne, clover (TNAU, agritech portal)
  12. No Pollinator – No plant :  In order for most plants to make seeds, pollen from one plant must be transferred to another plant. Butterflies, bees and other insects often suck sweet nectar from flowers for food and pick up pollen as they do so.  Strawberry, apples and oilseed rape – Bees, bumble and solitary bee  Symbiosis of Yucca Moths (Tegeticula spp.) & Yucca Plant Trees  The fig provides a home for the fig wasp and the wasp provides the pollen that the fruit needs to ripen - Caprification  Lucern crop - Tripping
  13. Pollinators??? Managed pollinators Apis mellifera Apis cerana indica
  14. Honey bee products and their uses
  15. Pollinators???... Wild pollinators Humming birds Bats Moths Butterflies Bumblebees Wild bees (Apis sp.)
  16. Different pollinators which play vital role in pollination POLLINATORS %CONTRIBUTION Bees 73% Flies 19% Bats 6.5% Wasps 5% Beetles 5% Birds 4% Butterflies 4% (Abrol, 2009)
  17. Number of genera and species in six families of bees in India. (Source: Ascher and Pickering, 2010; Gupta, 2010; Saini and Rathor, 2012)
  18. Crop/ Commodity Crop product value (crores) Economic value of pollination (crores) Increase due to animal pollination (%) Cereals 365 793.00 0.00 0.00 Oilseeds 129 143.00 43 993.08 34.07 Fruits 129 030.05 17 142.27 13.29 Vegetables 175 777.81 1 9498.20 11.09 Fibers 73 917.05 17 290.66 23.39 Condiments and spices 39 684.57 10 121.19 25.47 Pulses 67 574.00 1 236.13 1.83 (Modified from Chaudhary and Chand, 2017) Economic value of animal pollination services to Indian agriculture
  19. Role of pollinators beyond agriculture Pollinators enhance the reproduction and genetic diversity of 80% of the plant species. >50% plant species - self-incompatible or dioecious Eg: mangroves which is an obligate out breeder (Mukherjee et al., 2014)
  20.  China: Hand pollination in China (Maoxian county in Hengduan Mountains of China) – e.g. apples and pears.  Provides employment & income generating opportunities to many people during apple flowering season.  Expensive, time consuming and highly unsustainable option for crop pollination due to increasing labour scarcity and costs.  A large part of farmers’ income is used in managing pollination of their crop.  Bee-keepers do not rent out their hives, even during the flowering season, due to excessive use of pesticides India  Bees (Apis cerana or A. mellifera) used in India (Himachal Pradesh in NW Himalayas) for apple pollination: fees for renting bee colonies Indian rupees 800/- (US$ 16) per colony for two weeks. (Partap, 98).
  21.  A pilot project -- Madhu Sandesh -- initiated by association of pesticide firms Crop Life India, ICAR and Agriculture Development Trusts (KVK), Baramati, in November 2015  The success stories of pomegranate growers and onion seed producers associated with this project have encouraged many farmers in Baramati to pollinate their crops using honeybees and harvest better yield.  In fact, they are now willing to pay more for honeybee hives.  Pomegranate grower from Daund village, D D Baravkar, who has received training under the project, said: "Pomegranate yields have almost doubled after the crops were pollinated by bees. Even the quality of fruit has improved to an extent that there is more demand from exporters." Honeybee hives in great demand for pollination in Baramati
  22.  Four honeybee hives – three acres Anar + half acre onion  The hive rent was Rs 1,500 for each bee hive. I have decided to keep more hives but there is not much supply. I am even willing to pay more for them," he said.  Baravkar said that he harvested 7.5 tonnes pomegranate on three acres this year as against 4 tonnes last year. Even the cost on pesticide spray has come down.  Another pomegranate farmer Mahesh Bhagat from Korhale Bk village up to 12 tonnes from 7-8 tonnes from 2.5 acres.
  23.  The pilot project started with 250 beehives supplied by Crop Life India to Baramati KVK to support 150 pomegranate growers and 34 onion seed producers, Baramati KVK Head Scientist Syed Ali told PTI.  "Making available more beehives is not a problem, but the issue is about providing hands on training to farmers and helping them to follow good management practices to ensure beehives are kept in good hygienic conditions. For this, more extension staff is required," Ali said. At present, only four young professionals are travelling across 46 villages to help farmers on beekeeping.
  24. Global map of pollination service to direct crop market output in terms of US$ per hectare of added production on a 5’ by 5’ latitude longitude grid Lautenbach et al. (2012)
  25. Animal pollination plays a vital role as a regulating ecosystem service in nature: Globally 90 % of wild flowering plants depend on animal pollination >3/4th of global food crops rely on animal pollination for yield and/or quality: Pollinator dependent crops contribute to 35% of global crop production volume •Pollinators serve as spiritual symbols in many cultures. Sacred passages about bees in all the worlds’ major religions highlight their significance to human societies over millennia. Value of Pollinators and Pollination
  26. Value of honeybee pollination to crop production  US agriculture: US$ 14.6 billion (Rs.1034 billion) (Morse & Calderone 2000)  Canadian agriculture: CDN 1.2 billion (Rs.64 billion) (Winston & Scott 1984)  European agriculture: US$ 3 billion (Rs.212 billion) (Williams, 1992)  New Zealand agriculture: US$ 2.3 billion (Rs.162 billion) (Matheson and Schrader, 1987)  China agriculture: US$ 0.7 billion (Rs.49 billion) (Partpap, U. 2002)
  27. Determination of economic value of Ecosystem Service Types of economic values  Direct use value- sales and consumption  Indirect use value- pollination  Option value- risk  Nonuse value- right to exist (FAO, 2006)
  28. Determination of economic value of pollination  Economic value (EV)= Production x Price of commodity  Economic Value of Pollination Service(EVP)= EV x DR  DR- dependence ratio  Vulnerability to pollinator decline = EVP/ EV (Chaudhary and Chand, 2017) (Gallai et al., 2009)
  29. DR- dependence ratio… Grouping of crops based on dependence on animal pollination Groups Range of yield reduction (%) without flower visitors (pollinators) Dependence rate (DR) Klein et al., 2007 Eilers et al., 2011 (mean value) Gallai and Vaissiere, 2009., Vaissiere et al., 2011. Essential 90-100 95 0.95 Great 40-90 65 0.65 Modest 10-40 25 0.25 Little 0-10 5 0.05 No increase 0 0 0
  30. Sl no. Crops Dependenc e on animal pollination Dependen ce rate Product ion (kg/ha) Price(Rs ./kg) EV(Rs) EVP (Rs) Vulnerab ility to pollinator decline 1 Rice No increase 0 38480 28.4 1092832 0 0 2 Areca nut Little 0.05 15890 256.19 4070859 203543 5 3 Okra Modest 0.25 118402 70 8288140 2072035 25 4 Apple Great 0.65 74262 100 7426200 4827030 65 5 Cocoa Essential 0.95 2289 155.8 356626. 2 338794.995 vulnerability Rice Arecanut Okra Apples Cocoa
  31.  Coffee production 11mha (world) (Guadarrama et al., 2019) Ecosystem services by birds and bees in coffee ecosystem Case study
  32. • Intensification of coffee cultivation & its effect on ES Pollination by bees Pest control by birds Worldwide annual losses – US$500 million (Vega et al., 2017)  Market volatility  Climate change  Pest and diseases CBB- Hypothenemus hampei (Guadarrama et al., 2019) Case study
  33. Climate and landscape patterns Farm management Pollination Pest management Coffee production (Guadarrama et al., 2019)
  34. Fruit set in relation with pollinators and vertebrates (Classen et al., 2014) HOM SUN SHA
  35. Fruit weight in relation with pollinators and vertebrates (Classen et al., 2014)
  36. Herbivory and pollinator visitation rates in Arabica coffee with different production systems (Classen et al., 2014)
  37. Khadi and village industries commission Beekeeping plays a vital role in the livelihoods of the rural communities in four dynamics; (i) it is an income generating activity; (ii) provides food and medicine - value of honey and other hive products are invaluable; (iii) it supports agricultural activities through cross pollination and increase in yield of crops (iv) it contributes to forest conservation (No. FBI/Honey Mission /2017 -18)
  38. Pollination service- as an industry
  39. Honeybee populations in countries ( CBD, 2018)
  40. ( tat/en/#data/TP) 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Honey honey import qty honey import value honey export qty honey export value International Trade of Honey
  41. •A wealth of observational, empirical and modelling studies worldwide pointed many drivers have affected, and are affecting, wild and managed pollinators negatively •Habitat destruction, fragmentation and degradation •Conventional intensive land management practices •Climate change •Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) Pollinators crisis/decline
  42. • Phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees and the queen Large-scale losses are not new to the beekeeping industry; since 1869: May disease, in Colorado (Aikin, 1897) Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)
  43. Materials and Methods •Florida and California: 13 apiaries owned by 11 different beekeepers • Colony strength and sample collection • Physiological and morphological measures •Macro-parasite and pathogen quantification •Pathogen analyses •Pesticide analyses “Attempt to identify the potential cause(s) of CCD”
  44. Results Colony Strength •CCD-affected apiaries contained 3.5 times the number of dead colonies compared to control apiaries •CCD apiaries contained 3.6 times more weak colonies compared to control apiaries Protein and mass, morphometric measurements •No difference between control and CCD colonies Disease •6%of colonies from CCD apiaries had infections of chalkbrood disease (Ascosphaera apis) and 8% had infections of European foulbrood (Melissococcus pluton) (VanEngelsdorp et al., 2009)
  45. •55% of CCD colonies were infected with 3 or more viruses as compared to 28% of control colonies •34% of CCD colonies were found to be co-infected with both Nosema species (N. apis & N ceraneae) as compared to 13% of control colonies • IAPV (Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus) was identified as highly correlated to CCD • Co-infection with both Nosema species was 2.6 times greater in CCD colonies and colonies co-infected with 4 or more viruses were 3.7 times more frequent in CCD colonies
  46. EFB (Melissococcus pluton) - infected larvae (A)Corn Yellow - CCD-affected colonies were (B) Beige yellow – healthy colony (VanEngelsdorp et al., 2009)
  47. Pesticide prevalence and residue levels •50 different pesticide residues and their metabolites were found in the 70 wax samples tested, 20 were found in the 18 pollen (beebread) samples tested, 5 in the 24 brood sampled tested, and 28 in the 16 adult bees tested (chlorothalonil, amitraz metabolites, and the coumaphos metabolite, chlorferone) (VanEngelsdorp et al., 2009)
  48. Conclusion •CCD colonies had higher virus loads and were co-infected with a greater number of disease agents than control colonies •CCD colonies had higher pesticide residues • Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co- infected with more pathogens than control populations •No single pathogen or parasite was found with sufficient frequency to conclude a single organism was involved in CCD, pathogens seem likely to play a critical role (VanEngelsdorp et al., 2009)
  49. Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Bees Neonicotinoid Insecticides: •Introduced in the late 1980s • Systemic mode of action •Against sucking, chewing insects (aphids, beetles, etc) •Sprays, soil treatments, trunk injections, or seed coatings • Can be persistent over time in plants and soil • Less toxic to mammals than some other insecticides
  50. (The xerces society for invertebrate conservation)
  51. Route of exposure to bees
  52. Effects on Honey Bees Acute lethal toxicity: One dose of ~142+ppb Chronic lethal toxicity: Multiple doses of 20+ ppb Sublethal effects: Impaired memory, activity, foraging, ability to return to the hive, increased susceptibility to pathogens (Henry et al., 2012)
  53. Reducing risk to bees from neonicotinoids •Avoid application before or during bloom •Use less toxic neonicotinoids: acetamiprid or thiacloprid •Avoid treating plants with continuous blooms •If you must treat, applications at planting had lower residue levels
  54. Crops % pollination dependency Production (kg/ha) with pollinators service Loss in production (kg/ha) @ 100 %pollinato r service decline Loss in production (kg/ha) @ 50% pollinator service decline Loss in production (kg/ha ) @ 25% pollinator service decline Rice 0 38480 0 0 9620 Arecanut 5 15890 794.5 397.25 198.625 Okra 25 118402 29600.5 14800.25 7400.125 Apples 65 74262 48270.3 24135.15 12067.58 Cocoa 95 2289 2174.55 1087.275 543.6375 Impact of pollinators (Pollinators service) decline on crop production (Self analysis)
  55. How to protect…..????? •Three complementary strategies are envisaged for producing more sustainable agriculture that address several important drivers of pollinator decline 1. Ecological intensification: land, water, nutrient and biodiversity 2. Strengthening existing diverse farming systems: IFS, IPM, IDM 3.Investing in ecological infrastructure: fresh water, climate regulation, disasters. FAO, 2011
  56. Bee garden @ Division of Entomology, IARI, New Delhi
  57. Summary •Pollinators •Types of pollinators •Importance of pollinators •Case studies •Pollinators crisis
  58. Conclusion  Animal pollination plays a vital role as a regulating ecosystem service in nature  The importance of animal pollination varies substantially among crops, and therefore among regional crop economies  Pollinator-dependent food products are important contributors to healthy human diets and nutrition  A good quality of life for many people relies on ongoing roles of pollinators
  59. Future Prospects  Development of new insecticide chemistries safer to pollinators Judicious use of pesticides Creating awareness among people of about importance of pollinators and its role Provide a range of locally native flowering plant that bloom throughout the growing season Pollinators crisis should be top priority of concern
  60. Please save “ME” “If the bee disappeared off the globe then man would only have four years of life left” – Einstein No more bees, no more pollination, no more plants, no more animals, no more Man.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. What are the possible benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems???
  3. India-4.3 lakh ha
  4. Because mobile organisms respond strongly to landscape composition and configuratio
  5. The exclusion of birds and bats resulted in an increase in herbivory and, importantly, also in a reduction of fruit set by an average of 9.0%.
  6. The exclusion of birds and bats resulted in an increase in herbivory and, importantly, also in a reduction of fruit set by an average of 9.0%. The exclosure of predators resulted in ca. 9% reduction in fruit set, while pollinators significantly increased fruit weight by 7.4% To our surprise, pollinators did not affect fruit set, which is inconsistent with the results of other studies investigating pollinator dependencies of coffee [39,41], though not uncommon for self Compatible plants like C. arabica
  7. Pest control and pollination service were thus complementary, contributing to coffee production by affecting the quantity and quality
  8. A wealth of observational, empirical and modelling studies worldwide point to a high likelihood that many drivers have affected, and are affecting, wild and managed pollinators negatively Habitat destruction Fragmentation and degradation Conventional intensive land management practices Climate change CCD
  9. Making honey isn't always a sweet business (large clusters of bees completely disappeared or significantly declined over a short period of time)
  10. None of the measurements of soluble protein, mass, or proteinto- mass ratio were different when colonies from CCD apiaries were compared to colonies from control apiaries
  11. Coumaphos is a product used by beekeepers to control varroa mites. Elevated levels of this product in control apiaries suggest that beekeepers managing those apiaries had more aggressively controlled for this parasitic mite than beekeepers managing CCD apiaries. Coumaphos, an organophosphate, is lipophilic, and so accumulates in wax Chronic or sub-lethal exposure to agricultural- or beekeeperapplied pesticides can weaken the honey bee immune system [48], hampering the ability of bees to fight off infection Coumaphos, an organophosphate, is lipophilic, and so accumulates in wax
  12. Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV), Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV), and Sacbrood Virus (SBV
  13. ecological intensification”—using land, water, biodiversity and nutrients efficiently and in ways that are regenerative, minimizing negative impacts. Ecological intensification may be formally defined as a knowledge-intensive process that requires optimal management of nature’s ecological functions and biodiversity to improve agricultural system performance, efficiency and farmers’ livelihoods. A wealth of observational, empirical and modelling studies worldwide point to a high likelihood that many drivers have affected, and are affecting, wild and managed pollinators negatively Habitat destruction, fragmentation and degradation, along with conventional intensive land management practices, often reduce or alter pollinators’ food (well established) and nesting resources Three complementary strategies are envisaged for producing more sustainable agriculture that address several important drivers of pollinator decline: ecological intensification, strengthening existing diverse farming systems and investing in ecological infrastructure Greater landscape-scale habitat diversity often results in more diverse pollinator communities (well established) and more effective crop and wild plant pollination Managing and mitigating the impacts of pollinator decline on people’s good quality of life could benefit from responses that address loss of access to traditional territories, loss of traditional knowledge, tenure and governance, and the interacting, cumulative effects of direct drivers Managing urban and recreational green spaces to increase the local abundance of nectar providing and pollen-providing flowering plants increases pollinator diversity and abundance (established but incomplete), although it is unknown whether this has long-term benefits at the population level The risk to pollinators from pesticides arises through a combination of toxicity (compounds vary in toxicity to different pollinator species) and the level of exposure
  14. Neonicotinoids, which are nerve agents, have been shown to cause a wide range of harm to individual bees, such as damaging memory and reducing queen numbers.