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Good
Morn
ing
W
E
L
C
O
M
E
Keeping watch across the bay,
The light house tower stands
It shines so bright so other
boats
Will know where there is lan...
M.RAMAIAH
11240
Introduction and History
Mechanisms involved in insect navigation
Navigation strategies in Monarch butterflies
Navigation ...
Introduction
 The process of an organism directing its movement from its
current location to another fixed location using...
History
 Insect navigation studies started in 1911 Santchi reported
some myrmicine species ants used the sun as a referen...
 Hymenopteran insects use Sky compass information not only from
 Sun (Santschi, 1911)
but also from
 Small patches of b...
Current interest in insect navigation derives
mainly from two sources:
1. Neurobiology
2. Behavioral Ecology
Mechanisms involved in
Insect Astronavigation
Use of Skylight cues in Orientation
Insects seem to be
specially predisposed to
use skylight cues for one
kind of orienta...
Selecting and Maintaining Direction
Visual stabilization of course:
Even if an animal does not select a course by celesti...
 Example: Tethered flying fruit flies, Drosophila are illuminated
from above with linearly polarized light, they fly stra...
Establishing geographical position
 Animals, birds and insects alike-have been displaced from
home so that they had to na...
 Bee or ant is obviously able to form of its foraging area in the form
of fascinating "mental map“ .
 Celestial and non-...
 First the ants were trained to visit a single feeder located 15 m
southeast of the nest
Ants that were released in the ...
Skylight compass
If the insect is able to associate particular retinal
images of the sky with corresponding directions in...
 Bees and ants forage over distances of several hundreds or
thousands of meters, must return repeatedly to the same point...
 Spiders, Crabs , Isopods perform path integration by referring
exclusively to non-visual (e.g. Idiothetic) stimuli inclu...
 Ex:- 20 wasps of Polistes gallicus were displaced passively over a
distance of 1 km and then released within an arena wh...
Daytime compass
 In the daytime sky the celestial hemisphere displays a set of
conspicuous visual cues:
 The direct (un-...
Wehner, R. 1989.
Polarized light indicates solar position on a
partially cloudy day
Light is scattered much more effectively in the short
wavelength than in the long wavelength range of the
spectrum.
Ligh...
 Pattern of e-vector directions : most reliable criterion under
atmospheric disturbances haze, fog, or clouds.
That insec...
Time compensation
 During the course of the day, sun and e-vector pattern
move across the sky. The movement of the sun al...
 Relation between Arc, time and distance, in a great circle context
Earth’s circumference
24hrs 360 degrees of rotation
1...
 Sun-azimuth/time curve, varies with latitude and time of year.
 Bees trained at one longitude, then tested at another d...
Navigation mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies
Michoacan, Mexico
300 million
(Reppert et al., 2010)
Case study
Monarch butterflies
 North American Monarch butterfly late august to early
September leave their breeding sites in Easter...
Model components and potential circuitry
involved in the TCSC
Time compensated sun
compass
Amazing antennae
Clock ells
...
Study at 10.00 AM
Study at 10.00 AM
Magnetic Compass
Magnetic particles are
found in the adult
Monarch; higher than
normal magnetic fields are
observed near ...
Wind direction
 During autumn butterflies selects flight altitude of up to
1250m above ground to take the advantage north...
South west ward moment of wind in Autumn and
North ward or North east ward wind movement in the
Spring
3600 km journey o...
Navigation strategies in Hymenoptera
I. Route following/Piloting
1.Trail marking
2. Route memory or land marks
II. Path in...
I. Route following
1. Trail marking pheromone in Ants
2. Route memory or land memory
Leaf cutter ant,
Atta sp.
Land marks / Snap shots
(Kohler and Wehner, 2005)
Australian desert ant,
Melophorus bagoti
Landmark orientation
One landmark provides
distance, but not direction
Animal must remember
location of goal relative to...
Ant navigation
 Desert ants forage to bring food
back to the nest
 They do not use chemical trails
but navigate individu...
II. Path integration
Desert ant,
Cataglyphis fortis
Navigation by dead reckoning/
path integration
Use the direction and distance of each successive leg
during the outbound ...
The Saharan desert an Cataglyphis fortis, travels
immense distances over sandy terrain, often
completely devoid of landma...
Odometry by stride integration
Desert ant,
Cataglyphis fortis
(Collett et al., 2006)
Ant odometer
3-D path integration by ants
(Wohlgemuth, 2001)
Trained uphill/downhill
with food source 8.7 m
Trained on flat track
with ...
Error compensation strategy, olfactory cues
(Wolf and Wehner, 2005)
Bee navigation strategies - Direction and Distance
Optic flow
Energy consumption
Direct sun light
Polarized light from...
The Dance Language and Orientation of
Honey bee
The dance language of honey bees
Described by Karl von Frisch in
1940s to...
When the food and sun are in the same
direction, the straight portion of the waggle
dance is directed upward.
When the f...
Compass cues
Part of the honey bee's compound eye contains a
group of 150 specialized ommatidia called POL
area or Dorsal...
Regular retinula is composed of 8 long receptors (R1–8)
and one short proximal receptor cell (R9), a dorsal rim
retinula ...
As studied in Cataglyphis, the UV-receptors, that mediate
polarization vision in the ant and form microvilli that are
ori...
(Thomas and Meyer, 1999)
Structural difference between regular and DRA ommatidia
Development of DRA in
different orders of
insects
III. Map like spatial representations
(Wolf, 2011)
Why some bees are active at night time?
Example: Megalopta atra (Halictidae) and Carpenter bee
 Pressure from predators a...
 Talitrid amphipods use the moon as a reference point in selecting
and maintaining their seaward courses.
 Amphipods hav...
The obstacles encountered in moon as a compass
 Moon is visible for only a part of the night and on successive
nights, fo...
Summary
 Piloting and Route following
 Use landmark to locate goal (nest, etc.)
 Path integration (dead reckoning)
 co...
Conclusions
 Insects are not true astronavigators; some other mechanisms like
magnetic field, wind direction, geographica...
Future Prospects
Studies on Honey bees behavioral ecology relating to
influence of skylight cues may pave the way for
comm...
Everyone has their own unique journey.
Astronavigation in Insects
Astronavigation in Insects
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Astronavigation in Insects Slide 1 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 2 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 3 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 4 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 5 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 6 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 7 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 8 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 9 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 10 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 11 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 12 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 13 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 14 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 15 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 16 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 17 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 18 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 19 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 20 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 21 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 22 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 23 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 24 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 25 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 26 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 27 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 28 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 29 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 30 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 31 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 32 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 33 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 34 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 35 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 36 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 37 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 38 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 39 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 40 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 41 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 42 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 43 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 44 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 45 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 46 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 47 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 48 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 49 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 50 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 51 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 52 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 53 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 54 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 55 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 56 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 57 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 58 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 59 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 60 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 61 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 62 Astronavigation in Insects Slide 63
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Astronavigation in Insects

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How insects directing its movement from its current location to another fixed location using external (allocentric) and/or internal (ideothetic) cues and returning to their home.
Also called 'Celestial navigation' is a technique for determining one’s geographic position by the observation of identified stars, planets, sun and the moon.
Here i took THREE model insects for this presentation such as Monarch butterfly, Social insects like Ants and Bees......

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Astronavigation in Insects

  1. 1. Good Morn ing W E L C O M E
  2. 2. Keeping watch across the bay, The light house tower stands It shines so bright so other boats Will know where there is land.
  3. 3. M.RAMAIAH 11240
  4. 4. Introduction and History Mechanisms involved in insect navigation Navigation strategies in Monarch butterflies Navigation strategies in Hymenoptera Case studies and Summary Conclusions and Future prospects CONTENTS
  5. 5. Introduction  The process of an organism directing its movement from its current location to another fixed location using external (allocentric) and/or internal (ideothetic) cues.  Celestial navigation is a technique for determining one’s geographic position by the observation of identified stars, planets, sun and the moon (Van Allena, 2004) American journal of physics. 72 (11) : 1418-1424.
  6. 6. History  Insect navigation studies started in 1911 Santchi reported some myrmicine species ants used the sun as a reference point in navigating their home for their forage grounds.  Bees used as polarized sunlight in day time  Nocturnal Arthropods (amphipod crustaceans) relied on the moon as a navigational aid.
  7. 7.  Hymenopteran insects use Sky compass information not only from  Sun (Santschi, 1911) but also from  Small patches of blue sky (Santschi, 1923), and  Polarized skylight (Von Frisch, 1949).
  8. 8. Current interest in insect navigation derives mainly from two sources: 1. Neurobiology 2. Behavioral Ecology
  9. 9. Mechanisms involved in Insect Astronavigation
  10. 10. Use of Skylight cues in Orientation Insects seem to be specially predisposed to use skylight cues for one kind of orientation or another. Because their large-field compound eyes often view the entire celestial hemisphere.
  11. 11. Selecting and Maintaining Direction Visual stabilization of course: Even if an animal does not select a course by celestial cues, it can use retinal images of the sky to maintain its course. This is because the retinal image of any celestial cue does not change as long as the animal moves along a straight line but does change when the animal rotates.
  12. 12.  Example: Tethered flying fruit flies, Drosophila are illuminated from above with linearly polarized light, they fly straight, but when the polarizers are removed and the flies are exposed to diffuse overhead illumination, they engage in tortuous flight maneuvers. (Wolf et al., 1980)
  13. 13. Establishing geographical position  Animals, birds and insects alike-have been displaced from home so that they had to navigate back by exploiting information collected on site rather than en route, they relay on earthbound cues.
  14. 14.  Bee or ant is obviously able to form of its foraging area in the form of fascinating "mental map“ .  Celestial and non-celestial systems of navigation are used simultaneously or successively in establishing and reading this map. (Wehner, 1983)
  15. 15.  First the ants were trained to visit a single feeder located 15 m southeast of the nest Ants that were released in the trained direction (SE) reach their home earlier than others ( SW,NW,NE). (Akesson and Wehner, 2002)
  16. 16. Skylight compass If the insect is able to associate particular retinal images of the sky with corresponding directions in space, it can use the sky as a compass. The skylight pattern moves during the course of the day, an earthbound reference system is required to set the compass.
  17. 17.  Bees and ants forage over distances of several hundreds or thousands of meters, must return repeatedly to the same point in two-dimensional space.  Skylight compass is used in the context of a dead reckoning (path integration) strategy. Sums the vectors of distance and direction travelled from a start point to estimate current position.
  18. 18.  Spiders, Crabs , Isopods perform path integration by referring exclusively to non-visual (e.g. Idiothetic) stimuli include.  Talitrid amphipods rely on y-axis orientation means the courses to be steered run simply at right angles to this body axis line, either landward or seaward, irrespective of the current position.
  19. 19.  Ex:- 20 wasps of Polistes gallicus were displaced passively over a distance of 1 km and then released within an arena which was shielded from wind and obscured all visual landmarks  the wasps headed towards home  It is attributed that the wasps could see the sky (when displaced in closed Plexiglass tubes, so they might have obtained some information about the direction of their displacement. (Ugolini, 1981)
  20. 20. Daytime compass  In the daytime sky the celestial hemisphere displays a set of conspicuous visual cues:  The direct (un-polarized) light from the sun  The scattered (polarized) light from the sky  Well-defined pattern by angle of polarization, degree of polarization, radiant intensity  All these parameters vary with the wavelength of light.
  21. 21. Wehner, R. 1989. Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day
  22. 22. Light is scattered much more effectively in the short wavelength than in the long wavelength range of the spectrum. Light is maximally polarized at an angular distance of 90° from the sun. Angles of polarization (e-vector directions) are oriented in such a way that they form concentric circles around the Sun. (Wehner,1983)
  23. 23.  Pattern of e-vector directions : most reliable criterion under atmospheric disturbances haze, fog, or clouds. That insects and many other arthropods can use both direct sunlight and scattered skylight as compass cues. (Brines et al.,1982)
  24. 24. Time compensation  During the course of the day, sun and e-vector pattern move across the sky. The movement of the sun along its arc is uniform (150/h).  Rotation of the whole e-vector pattern about the north (or south) pole of the sky.  The rate of movement is low at dawn and dusk, but high at noon.
  25. 25.  Relation between Arc, time and distance, in a great circle context Earth’s circumference 24hrs 360 degrees of rotation 1 degree 60 nautical miles 360 degrees 21,600 nautical miles 15 degrees 900 nautical miles (1 h) 1 nautical mile 1,852 metres (Wehner,1989)
  26. 26.  Sun-azimuth/time curve, varies with latitude and time of year.  Bees trained at one longitude, then tested at another do not orient in their true home direction.
  27. 27. Navigation mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies Michoacan, Mexico 300 million (Reppert et al., 2010) Case study
  28. 28. Monarch butterflies  North American Monarch butterfly late august to early September leave their breeding sites in Eastern US and Canada to migrate up to 3600 km to over wintering sites forest of central Mexico.  Some individuals migrate at least as far Maryland and Kansas and few they reach the northern US and majority stops after reaching gulf cost states (Texas and Louisiana)
  29. 29. Model components and potential circuitry involved in the TCSC Time compensated sun compass Amazing antennae Clock ells Dorsal rim area and main retina Central complex (Reppert et al., 2010)
  30. 30. Study at 10.00 AM Study at 10.00 AM
  31. 31. Magnetic Compass Magnetic particles are found in the adult Monarch; higher than normal magnetic fields are observed near the centre of the over wintering areas  so butterflies are attracted towards these areas by sensing strong areas. (Mac Fadden and Jones, 1985)
  32. 32. Wind direction  During autumn butterflies selects flight altitude of up to 1250m above ground to take the advantage northeasterly tail wind; they aggregate in staging areas when wind blows from South and starts nectar- searching.  This indicates that tail winds are most conspicuous in autumn migration of the Monarch butterfly. (Reppert et al., 2010)
  33. 33. South west ward moment of wind in Autumn and North ward or North east ward wind movement in the Spring 3600 km journey of a 0.5gm butterfly possible. (Wehner, 1989)
  34. 34. Navigation strategies in Hymenoptera I. Route following/Piloting 1.Trail marking 2. Route memory or land marks II. Path integration 1. Odometry by stride integration 2. Sensory inputs for path integration 3. Compass cues 4. Olfactory cues III. Map like spatial distribution (Wolf, 2011)
  35. 35. I. Route following 1. Trail marking pheromone in Ants
  36. 36. 2. Route memory or land memory Leaf cutter ant, Atta sp.
  37. 37. Land marks / Snap shots (Kohler and Wehner, 2005) Australian desert ant, Melophorus bagoti
  38. 38. Landmark orientation One landmark provides distance, but not direction Animal must remember location of goal relative to two or more landmarks
  39. 39. Ant navigation  Desert ants forage to bring food back to the nest  They do not use chemical trails but navigate individually  Good navigation is crucial to their own and the colony’s survival  They can do this over large distances (up to 1 km) and in complex cluttered terrain Desert ant, Cataglyphis sp
  40. 40. II. Path integration Desert ant, Cataglyphis fortis
  41. 41. Navigation by dead reckoning/ path integration Use the direction and distance of each successive leg during the outbound trip Compute net vector and use compass to return home Home
  42. 42. The Saharan desert an Cataglyphis fortis, travels immense distances over sandy terrain, often completely devoid of landmarks, as it searches for food. These creatures are able to return to their nest using a direct route rather than by retracing their outbound path.
  43. 43. Odometry by stride integration Desert ant, Cataglyphis fortis (Collett et al., 2006) Ant odometer
  44. 44. 3-D path integration by ants (Wohlgemuth, 2001) Trained uphill/downhill with food source 8.7 m Trained on flat track with food source 5.2 m Ant odometers record horizontal distance moved not actual distance traveled Thus, they do not use time or energy expended to determine distance
  45. 45. Error compensation strategy, olfactory cues (Wolf and Wehner, 2005)
  46. 46. Bee navigation strategies - Direction and Distance Optic flow Energy consumption Direct sun light Polarized light from sun
  47. 47. The Dance Language and Orientation of Honey bee The dance language of honey bees Described by Karl von Frisch in 1940s to explain the ability of honey bee foragers to recruit nest mates to food The Basic Facts Forager honey bees, on returning to nest, perform a "dance" which contains information about the distance and direction of food they have found
  48. 48. When the food and sun are in the same direction, the straight portion of the waggle dance is directed upward. When the food is at some angle to the right (blue) or left (red) of the sun, the bee orients the straight portion of her dance at the same angle to the right or left of the vertical. Bee language
  49. 49. Compass cues Part of the honey bee's compound eye contains a group of 150 specialized ommatidia called POL area or Dorsal rim area. In ommatidia microvillar directions of the photoreceptors are arranged in a way, that mimics the e-vector pattern in the sky which is called as matched filtering.
  50. 50. Regular retinula is composed of 8 long receptors (R1–8) and one short proximal receptor cell (R9), a dorsal rim retinula contains 9 long cells with R9 strongly increased in size. In Apis mellifera, this modification arises through three UV-receptors R-1, 5, 9 which mediate polarization vision, forming large rhabdomeres.
  51. 51. As studied in Cataglyphis, the UV-receptors, that mediate polarization vision in the ant and form microvilli that are oriented 90° to each other.
  52. 52. (Thomas and Meyer, 1999) Structural difference between regular and DRA ommatidia
  53. 53. Development of DRA in different orders of insects
  54. 54. III. Map like spatial representations (Wolf, 2011)
  55. 55. Why some bees are active at night time? Example: Megalopta atra (Halictidae) and Carpenter bee  Pressure from predators and parasites  Competition for limiting food source  Flowering pattern of local habitat  Minimize their loss of water The larger optical apertures provided by superposition compound eyes might allow for the detection of the brightest stars and moon , but the evidence that moths use such cues. (Hurd and Linsky, 1970)
  56. 56.  Talitrid amphipods use the moon as a reference point in selecting and maintaining their seaward courses.  Amphipods have a number of alternative strategies at their disposal depending on skyline cues  Earth's magnetic field,  Slope of the beach and  Direction of the prevailing winds.
  57. 57. The obstacles encountered in moon as a compass  Moon is visible for only a part of the night and on successive nights, for different parts of the night.  Moon-azimuth/time curve changes much more drastically from night to night than the sun-azimuth/time curve.  A lunar compass requires a timing mechanism (moon clock) that operates independently, but how they are used in navigation is not known.
  58. 58. Summary  Piloting and Route following  Use landmark to locate goal (nest, etc.)  Path integration (dead reckoning)  compute net vector by integrating distance traveled with compass direction  Accumulates errors, only good for short distances  True navigation  Use compass and map (cognitive) to plot route
  59. 59. Conclusions  Insects are not true astronavigators; some other mechanisms like magnetic field, wind direction, geographical positions etc also used by insects for their navigation.  Astronavigation is well developed in honey bees and ants: bees go for foraging and navigate back to their home by using both celestial and non celestial cues.  Insects have well developed compound eyes and nervous system to use polarized light cues as e - vector orientation pattern for navigating their home and forage places.
  60. 60. Future Prospects Studies on Honey bees behavioral ecology relating to influence of skylight cues may pave the way for commercialization of bee keeping.
  61. 61. Everyone has their own unique journey.
  • HARISANKAR48

    Mar. 19, 2019

How insects directing its movement from its current location to another fixed location using external (allocentric) and/or internal (ideothetic) cues and returning to their home. Also called 'Celestial navigation' is a technique for determining one’s geographic position by the observation of identified stars, planets, sun and the moon. Here i took THREE model insects for this presentation such as Monarch butterfly, Social insects like Ants and Bees......

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