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Unit 1 Describing learners.pptx

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Describing learners
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Unit 1 Describing learners.pptx

  1. 1. Teaching Methodology Semester 1 Course commencement: 14 October 2023 Instructed by: Ngin Sovann, MA in TESOL
  2. 2.  Yy u r yy u b  Too wise you are, too wise you be.  I c u r yy 4 me.  I see you are too wise for me.  What begins with T, ends with T, and has the T in it?  teapot
  3. 3.  Can you read the following? Yy u r yy u b I c u r yy 4 me Too wise you are, too wise you be. I see you are too wise for me. - What begins with T, ends with T, and has the T in it? - Teapot - What always goes up and down but doesn’t move? - Staircase - It’s black before we use it, red while using it, and grey after it is used. What is it? - Charcoal
  4. 4. UNIT 1: DESCRIBING LEARNERS Instructor: Ngin Sovann, MA in TESOL
  5. 5. A. Age: The age of our students is a major factor in our decision about how and what to teach. People in different ages have different needs, competence and cognitive skills; we might expect children of primary age to acquire much of a foreign language through play, for example, whereas for adults we can reasonably expect a greater abstract thought.
  6. 6.  Four stages of learners’ cognitive development (Piaget’s theory) - Sensori-motor stage or Preoperational Stage: refers to the infants from birth to two years old and that are busy discovering relationships between their bodies and the environment.
  7. 7. - Intuitive stage : usually occurs between 2 to 7 years of age, in which a child's thought processes are determined by the most prominent aspects of the stimuli to which he or she is exposed, rather than by some form of logical thought.
  8. 8.  Concrete-operational stage: ages 7 to 11 - During this stage, children begin to think logically about concrete events. - Their thinking becomes more logical and organized, but still very concrete. - Children begin using inductive logic, or reasoning from specific information to a general principle.
  9. 9.  Formal operational stage: ages 12 and up - At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and reason about hypothetical problems. - Abstract thought emerges. - Teens begin to think more about moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and political issues that require theoretical and abstract reasoning. - Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific information.
  10. 10. A1. Young children (ages of 9 to 10): Young children learn differently from children, adolescents and adults in the following ways: - They respond to the meaning even if they do not understand individual words. - They often learn indirectly rather than directly. - Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, have a chance to touch and interact with.
  11. 11. - They find abstract concepts such as grammar rules difficult to grasp. - They generally display an enthusiasm for learning and a curiosity about the world around them. - They have a limited attention span; unless activities are extremely engaging, they can get easily bored, losing interest after ten minutes or so.
  12. 12. A2: Adolescents/ teenagers (12 to 17 years of age) - Adolescents are often seen as problem students. - Adolescents may be the most exciting students of all while they get engaged to what they are doing. - Most of them understand the needs for learning and, with the right goals, can be responsible enough to do what is asked of them.
  13. 13.  Adult learners (18 over) Adult language learners are notable for a number of special characteristics: - They can engage with abstract thought. - They have a whole range of life experiences to draw on. - They have expectations about the learning process, and they already have their own set patterns of learning. - Adult tend to be more disciplined than other age group, and crucially, they are often prepared to struggle on despite boredom.
  14. 14. - They come into classroom with a rich range of experiences which allow teachers to use a wide range of activities with them. - Unlike young children and teenagers, adult learners often have a clear understanding of why they are learning and what they want to get out of it.
  15. 15.  However, adults are never entirely problem-free learners, they have a number of characteristics which can sometimes make learning and teaching problematic. - They can be critical of teaching methods. Their previous learning experiences may have predisposed them to one particular methodological style which makes them uncomfortable with unfamiliar teaching patterns.
  16. 16. - They may have experience failure or criticism at school which makes them anxious and under-confident about learning a language. - Many older adults worry that their intellectual powers may be diminishing with age.
  17. 17. B1. Aptitude and intelligence The term Intelligence refers to the person's ability to gain and use knowledge, but not what knowledge they already have. Aptitude: An aptitude is directly connected to intelligence, but is commonly believed to be a specific set of skills where intelligence is a broad generalization.
  18. 18.  Good learners characteristics (Lightbown and Spada 2006: 55) A good language learner: - is a willing and accurate guesser. - tries to get a message across even if specific language knowledge is lacking. - is willing to make mistakes. - constantly looks for patterns in the language - Practices as often as possible
  19. 19. - analyses his or her speech and the speech of the others. - attends to whether his or her performance meets the standards he or she has learned - enjoys grammar exercises - begins learning in childhood - has an above-average IQ - has good academic skills - has a good self-image and lots of confidence
  20. 20. Learning styles based on Willing (1987) who suggested four learner categories: - Convergers: these are students who are by nature solitary, prefer to avoid groups, and who are independent and confident in their own abilities.
  21. 21. - Conformists: these are students who prefer to emphasize learning ‘about language over learning to use it. They tend to be dependent on those are in authority and are perfectly happy to work in non-communicative classrooms, doing what they are told.
  22. 22. - Concrete learners: though they are like conformists, they also enjoy the social aspects of learning and like to learn from direct experience. They like games and groups work in class. - Communicative learners: these are language use oriented. They are comfortable out of class and show a degree of confidence and a willingness to take risks which their colleagues may lack.
  23. 23.  Silly Questions - What three words do students usually use the most? - I don’t know - What belongs to you but used most by the others? - Your name - What grows bigger, the more you get from it? - A hole - What always goes up but never comes down? - Your age - It’s black before we use it, red while using it, and grey after it is used. What is it? - Charcoal
  24. 24.  Nought and Cross beautiful famous lazy excited curious happy crazy busy handsome tall short interested nasty confident ashamed cruel important naughty popular rude modern sophisticated nice brave smart Note: Create the sentences by using superlative degree.
  25. 25. If some people are better at some things than others – better at analyzing, for example – this would indicate that there are differences in the ways individual brains work.  Neuro – Linguistic Programming: according to practitioners of Neuro – Linguistic Programming (NLP), we use a number of “primary representation systems’ to experience the world.
  26. 26. These systems are described in the acronym ‘VAKOG’ which stands for Visual (we look and see), Auditory (we hear and listen), Kinaesthetic (we feel externally, internally or through movement), Olfactory (we smell things) and Gustatory (we taste things).
  27. 27.  MI theory: MI stands for Multiple Intelligences, a concept introduced by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner. - In his book, Frame of Mind, he suggested that we do not posses a single of intelligence, but a range of intelligences (Gardner, 1983).
  28. 28. - Gardner listed seven of these: oMusical/ rhythmical/ auditory o Verbal/ linguistic o Visual/ spatial o Bodily/ kinesthetic o Logical/ mathematic o Intrapersonal/ Solitary and oInterpersonal/ Social
  29. 29. Students are generally described in three levels, beginner, intermediate and advanced. Advanced Upper intermediate Mid-intermediate Lower intermediate/ pre-intermediate Elementary Real beginner false beginner
  30. 30. Teachers should give students more support when they are at beginner or intermediate levels than we need to do when they are more advanced.
  31. 31. Students acquire language partly as a result of the comprehensible input they receive – especially from their teachers. We have to adjust the language we use to the level of the students we are teaching. - Students’ Norm:
  32. 32. D1. Defining motivation Marion Williams and Robert Burden suggest that motivation is a ‘state of cognitive arousal’ which provokes a ‘decision to act’, as a result of which there is ‘sustained intellectual and/ or physical efforts’ so that the person can achieve some ‘previously set goal’ (Williams and Burden 1997: 120).
  33. 33.  In discussion of motivation an accepted distinction is made between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, that is motivation which comes from ‘outside’ and from ‘inside’. - Extrinsic motivation = External motivation - Intrinsic motivation = internal motivation
  34. 34. • Extrinsic motivation is the result of any number of outside factors, for example the need to pass an exam, the hope of financial reward or the possibility of future travel. • Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual. Thus a person might be motivated by the enjoyment of the learning process itself or by a desire to make themselves feel better.
  35. 35.  The goal: one of the strongest outside sources of motivation is the goal which students perceive themselves to be learning for.  The society they live in: Outside any classroom there are attitudes to language learning and English language in particular.
  36. 36.  The people around us: in addition to the culture of the world around them, students’ attitudes to language learning will be greatly influenced by the people who are close to them. The attitude of parents and older siblings will be crucial.  Curiosity: At the beginning of a term or semester, most students have at least a mild interest in who their new teacher is and what it will be like to be in his or her lessons.
  37. 37. - Teachers need to be able to build our own ‘motivation angel’ to keep students engaged and involved as lesson succeeds lesson, week succeeds week. - The angel needs to be built on the solid base of the extrinsic motivation which the students bring with them to class. And on this base we will build our statue in five distinct stages:
  38. 38.  Affect: is concerned with students’ feelings, and here we as teachers can have dramatic effect. Students are far more likely to stay motivated over a period of time if they think that the teacher cares about them. This can be by building good teacher- student rapport.
  39. 39. - Achievement: nothing motivates like success. Nothing demotivates like continual failure. Part of a teacher’s job is to set an appropriate level of challenge for the students in learning tasks they can succeed in.
  40. 40.  Attitude: Students need to believe that we know what we are doing. They also need to feel that we know about the subject we are teaching. In addition, they also need to feel that we are prepared to teach them. Even the way we dress, where we stand and the way we walk to the class are all a bearing.
  41. 41.  Activities: our students’ motivation is far more likely to remain healthy if they are doing things they enjoy doing, and which they can see the point of.  Agency: agency is a term borrowed from social sciences which means a person or thing ‘that does’ or the ‘doer’.