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COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE
V.C.S.G UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY OF
HORTICULTURE & FORESTRY
BHARSAR, PAURI GARHWAL, UTTARAKHAND – 246
123
COURSE TITLE - Insect Pest of vegetables , ornamental &
spice crops
COURSE CODE - HPI (203 )
CREDIT HOUR - ( 2+1 )
 Economic Importance of
Insects -:
1) MEDICINE
 Insects have been invaluable as research
models to discover key scientific principles.
 Examples:
• Genetics : fruit flies, Madagascar hissing
cockroaches
• Bio prospecting sources of new
pharmaceuticals
• First an esthesia ; flies during WWII used to
clean wounds
2) SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH : Drosophila and mosquito are usefull in
genetic and toxicological study.
 How the world works; flight,
miniaturization, neural networks,
biomimetics, genetics , population
biology
• Insects pollinate the rosy periwinkle plant
which was an important drug to treat childhood
leukemia .
• Sources of bioluminescent chemicals used in
medical diagnostics.
4) POLLINATION OF HUMAN
CROPS
 Approximately on third of the world’s
crop production depend directly or
indirectly on pollination by insects.
 About 80% of the flowering plants on
Earth are pollinated by insects.
 Examples of crops:
• coffee, tea cacao (chocolate), vanilla
citrus fruits, nuts (almonds), vegetables,
other fruit (figs, cranberries, cherries,
mangos), clover to name a few.
 Examples of pollinators:
• bumble bees, solitary bees, squash bees,
beetles, butterflies, flies and ants.
5) BIOLOGICAL CONTROL:
• Natural biological control provided mostly by
insects is valued at over $400 billion per year,
according to Constanza (1997). As pests and
human competitors insects can destroy or eat
$5 billion worth of domestic crops.
6) COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS:
 Silk production, the silk worm (Bombyx
mori) is the sole sources of commercial
silk.
 Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) can self
pollinate but can cross pollinate with
services of bees: bumble bee (Bombus
spp.) Melissodes bees, and honey bees
(Apis mellifera MfGregor 1976).
 Red cochineal dye for textiles and cosmetics is
produced by the scale insect Datylopius coccus
(Dactylopiidae ) native to Mexico and Kermes
vermilio (Kermidae) native to Europe.
 Honey is produced by bees and harvested
 Beeswax: candles, cosmetics, soap
 Shellac: the scale insect Laccifer lacca
(Lacciferidae), native to India, is used to make
phonograph records and varnish
 Salt production: Brine shrimp cleaned salt is
better tasting than salt containing the organism
 that the brine shrimp eat. The price of the salt is
affected.
7) ECOLOGICAL MONITORING:
 Insects are excellent indicators of ecosystem
health.
 The numbers of species and kinds of species
of insects can tell scientists if a particular
ecosystem is healthy or disturbed.
8) As Food:
Used as food for human and animals. Aquatic insect
are used as fish food.
 Example: Grasshopper, Beetle, Silkworm, Bug,
Termites etc used as food in different part
of world.
9) AESTHETICS:
 Used as ornamental purpose such as Beetle are use
as necklace or using in jewellery.
10) DECOMPOSITION & NUTRIENT
CYCLING:
 Insects and their arthropod relatives are responsible
for much of the nutrient cycling, conditioning and
aeration of the soil.
 The value of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems
is estimated to be over $3 trillion per year (Costanza
et al. 1997).
 Insects and related arthropods make up half the
animal biomass in some tropical forests (Fittkau and
Linge 1973).
 Examples of reducers and recyclers: dung
beetles, flies, carrion beetles, millipedes,
cockroaches, ants termites.
11) FOOD FOR WILDLIFE:
 Many different kinds of animals eat insects
making them essential parts of the food chain.
 Examples: amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish,
arthropods and other invertebrates, mammals
(primates including humans, insectivores focus
almost exclusively on insect prey (hedgehogs,
shrews, tenrecs, moles).
12) PREDATORS, PARASITES &
PARASITOIDS:
 Some insects provide natural population control
of other insects, arthropods and vertebrates.
 Examples: ladybird beetles, lacewings, parasite
wasps.
13) DISEASE AGENTS OR VETORS:
 Diseases provide natural population control ,
helping to control overpopulation or
overexploitation of natural resources.
14) Other importance:
I. Weed killer: Parthenium beetle
II. Soil builders: Ant , Beetle , Larva of
cutworm etc.
III. Scavengers : Carrion beetle , Rover
beetle
 Pest Monitoring -:
 Monitoring phytophagous insects and
their natural enemies is a fundamental
tool in IPM for taking management
decision.
 Monitoring -:
estimation of changes in insect
distribution and abundance
information about insects, life history
influence of biotic and abiotic factors on
pest population
 Approaches to monitoring -:
Various methods:
 Direct counts
 Traps
 Damage estimates
 Prediction: degree-days
 Benefits of monitoring -:
 Track numbers of pests and natural
enemies.
 Able to target insecticide applications at
the correct time.
 Enhances conservation of natural
enemies.
 Indicate efficacy of treatments.
 Survey -:
• Survey is a planned activity to collect
some data. Or
• Conducted to study the abundance of a
pest species.
 Types of survey :
Qualitative: To identify the different
insect species present over an area or
their density whether abundant, common,
rare, in traces, etc
Quantitative: To estimate the exact
number of one or more species of insects
in time and space.
 Pest Surveillance -:
 Pest surveillance is the systematic
monitoring of biotic and abiotic factors of the
crop ecosystem in order to predict the pest
outbreak or it is the study of the ecology of
the pest which provides the necessary
information to determine the feasibility of a
pest management programme.
1) One can know how a pests /diseases are multiplying
in an area and when it is expected.
2) Minimize the cost of plant protection by reducing the
amount of pesticides used and in turn reduce
environmental pollution.
3) Pest control measures can be initiated in time due to
advance forecasting.
4) Useful for pest forecasting.
5) To find out natural enemy population
6) To study the influence of weather parameters on
pests
7) Mark endemic areas
8) Maintain the stability of the agro ecosystem.
 Advantages :
 Components of pest surveillance
-:
1. Identification of the pest.
2. Distribution and prevalence of the insect -
pest and its severity.
3. The different levels of insect - pest incidence
and the loss due to the incidence.
4. Pest population dynamics.
5. Assessment of weather.
6. Assessment of natural enemies etc.
 Objectives of Pest Surveillance
-:
 Detect species of pest or pathogen present
 Assess levels of population / damage /
infection.
 Study the influence of weather and seasonal
parameters on pests and diseases.
 Know new species of pests and diseases.
 Monitor the behaviour of pests under
changing cropping pattern / new varieties.
 Find out natural enemy population.
 Watch the behaviour of pests under changing
cropping pattern/new varieties.
 Assess resistance / susceptibility / break-
down of resistance in crops to pests and
diseases.
 Monitor build-up of resistance in pests and
pathogens to pesticides.
 Mark endemic areas/pest calendar.
 Launch timely plant protection measures on
need-basis.
 Reduce cost of cultivation.
 Avoid contamination to eco-system.
 To forewarn farmers.
Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance

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Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance

  • 2. COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE V.C.S.G UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY OF HORTICULTURE & FORESTRY BHARSAR, PAURI GARHWAL, UTTARAKHAND – 246 123 COURSE TITLE - Insect Pest of vegetables , ornamental & spice crops COURSE CODE - HPI (203 ) CREDIT HOUR - ( 2+1 )
  • 3.  Economic Importance of Insects -: 1) MEDICINE  Insects have been invaluable as research models to discover key scientific principles.  Examples: • Genetics : fruit flies, Madagascar hissing cockroaches • Bio prospecting sources of new pharmaceuticals • First an esthesia ; flies during WWII used to clean wounds
  • 4. 2) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH : Drosophila and mosquito are usefull in genetic and toxicological study.  How the world works; flight, miniaturization, neural networks, biomimetics, genetics , population biology • Insects pollinate the rosy periwinkle plant which was an important drug to treat childhood leukemia . • Sources of bioluminescent chemicals used in medical diagnostics.
  • 5. 4) POLLINATION OF HUMAN CROPS  Approximately on third of the world’s crop production depend directly or indirectly on pollination by insects.  About 80% of the flowering plants on Earth are pollinated by insects.  Examples of crops: • coffee, tea cacao (chocolate), vanilla citrus fruits, nuts (almonds), vegetables, other fruit (figs, cranberries, cherries, mangos), clover to name a few.
  • 6.  Examples of pollinators: • bumble bees, solitary bees, squash bees, beetles, butterflies, flies and ants. 5) BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: • Natural biological control provided mostly by insects is valued at over $400 billion per year, according to Constanza (1997). As pests and human competitors insects can destroy or eat $5 billion worth of domestic crops.
  • 7. 6) COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS:  Silk production, the silk worm (Bombyx mori) is the sole sources of commercial silk.  Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) can self pollinate but can cross pollinate with services of bees: bumble bee (Bombus spp.) Melissodes bees, and honey bees (Apis mellifera MfGregor 1976).
  • 8.  Red cochineal dye for textiles and cosmetics is produced by the scale insect Datylopius coccus (Dactylopiidae ) native to Mexico and Kermes vermilio (Kermidae) native to Europe.  Honey is produced by bees and harvested  Beeswax: candles, cosmetics, soap  Shellac: the scale insect Laccifer lacca (Lacciferidae), native to India, is used to make phonograph records and varnish  Salt production: Brine shrimp cleaned salt is better tasting than salt containing the organism  that the brine shrimp eat. The price of the salt is affected.
  • 9. 7) ECOLOGICAL MONITORING:  Insects are excellent indicators of ecosystem health.  The numbers of species and kinds of species of insects can tell scientists if a particular ecosystem is healthy or disturbed. 8) As Food: Used as food for human and animals. Aquatic insect are used as fish food.  Example: Grasshopper, Beetle, Silkworm, Bug, Termites etc used as food in different part of world.
  • 10. 9) AESTHETICS:  Used as ornamental purpose such as Beetle are use as necklace or using in jewellery. 10) DECOMPOSITION & NUTRIENT CYCLING:  Insects and their arthropod relatives are responsible for much of the nutrient cycling, conditioning and aeration of the soil.  The value of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is estimated to be over $3 trillion per year (Costanza et al. 1997).  Insects and related arthropods make up half the animal biomass in some tropical forests (Fittkau and Linge 1973).
  • 11.  Examples of reducers and recyclers: dung beetles, flies, carrion beetles, millipedes, cockroaches, ants termites. 11) FOOD FOR WILDLIFE:  Many different kinds of animals eat insects making them essential parts of the food chain.  Examples: amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, arthropods and other invertebrates, mammals (primates including humans, insectivores focus almost exclusively on insect prey (hedgehogs, shrews, tenrecs, moles).
  • 12. 12) PREDATORS, PARASITES & PARASITOIDS:  Some insects provide natural population control of other insects, arthropods and vertebrates.  Examples: ladybird beetles, lacewings, parasite wasps. 13) DISEASE AGENTS OR VETORS:  Diseases provide natural population control , helping to control overpopulation or overexploitation of natural resources.
  • 13. 14) Other importance: I. Weed killer: Parthenium beetle II. Soil builders: Ant , Beetle , Larva of cutworm etc. III. Scavengers : Carrion beetle , Rover beetle
  • 14.  Pest Monitoring -:  Monitoring phytophagous insects and their natural enemies is a fundamental tool in IPM for taking management decision.
  • 15.  Monitoring -: estimation of changes in insect distribution and abundance information about insects, life history influence of biotic and abiotic factors on pest population
  • 16.  Approaches to monitoring -: Various methods:  Direct counts  Traps  Damage estimates  Prediction: degree-days
  • 17.  Benefits of monitoring -:  Track numbers of pests and natural enemies.  Able to target insecticide applications at the correct time.  Enhances conservation of natural enemies.  Indicate efficacy of treatments.
  • 18.  Survey -: • Survey is a planned activity to collect some data. Or • Conducted to study the abundance of a pest species.  Types of survey : Qualitative: To identify the different insect species present over an area or their density whether abundant, common, rare, in traces, etc Quantitative: To estimate the exact number of one or more species of insects in time and space.
  • 19.  Pest Surveillance -:  Pest surveillance is the systematic monitoring of biotic and abiotic factors of the crop ecosystem in order to predict the pest outbreak or it is the study of the ecology of the pest which provides the necessary information to determine the feasibility of a pest management programme.
  • 20. 1) One can know how a pests /diseases are multiplying in an area and when it is expected. 2) Minimize the cost of plant protection by reducing the amount of pesticides used and in turn reduce environmental pollution. 3) Pest control measures can be initiated in time due to advance forecasting. 4) Useful for pest forecasting. 5) To find out natural enemy population 6) To study the influence of weather parameters on pests 7) Mark endemic areas 8) Maintain the stability of the agro ecosystem.  Advantages :
  • 21.  Components of pest surveillance -: 1. Identification of the pest. 2. Distribution and prevalence of the insect - pest and its severity. 3. The different levels of insect - pest incidence and the loss due to the incidence. 4. Pest population dynamics. 5. Assessment of weather. 6. Assessment of natural enemies etc.
  • 22.  Objectives of Pest Surveillance -:  Detect species of pest or pathogen present  Assess levels of population / damage / infection.  Study the influence of weather and seasonal parameters on pests and diseases.  Know new species of pests and diseases.  Monitor the behaviour of pests under changing cropping pattern / new varieties.  Find out natural enemy population.  Watch the behaviour of pests under changing cropping pattern/new varieties.
  • 23.  Assess resistance / susceptibility / break- down of resistance in crops to pests and diseases.  Monitor build-up of resistance in pests and pathogens to pesticides.  Mark endemic areas/pest calendar.  Launch timely plant protection measures on need-basis.  Reduce cost of cultivation.  Avoid contamination to eco-system.  To forewarn farmers.