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Power electronics transformer(pet) based railway traction system

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Power electronics transformer(pet) based railway traction system

  1. 1. REDUCING THE SIZE OF ELECTRIC RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE BY USING POWER ELECTRONICS TRANSFORMER Submitted to: Dr. Shushma Gupta Professor EE Department Submitted by: Rajat Kumar Keshari 172113216 ED
  2. 2. CONTENT INTRODUCTION HISTORY BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A TRACTION SYSTEM FEATURES OF A TRACTION SYSTEM POWER ELECTRONICS TRANSFORMER(PET) COMPARISON BETWEEN PET AND LFT DIFFERENT PET BASED TRACTION SYSTEMS KEY CHALLENGES PROS AND CONS FUTURE SCOPE IN INDIA CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION RAILWAY is the one of the most popular and widely used ways for massive public transportation. The modern trends towards high speed, distributed propulsion by electrical multiple units and increased passenger comfort require traction system with higher efficiency lower weight and volume. One of the major obstructs in the conventional line frequency transformer are bulky and heavy due to the nature of low operating frequency even with its efficiency. Electric traction is meant for locomotive in which the driving (tractive) force is obtained from electric motors . For traction purpose mostly three phase induction motors and dc series motors are used.
  4. 4. HISTORY The year 1881 saw the birth of the first electric railway run by a German engineer Werner Van Siemens. In 1953 25 KV dc traction system adopted as standard in France but at that time Paris already electrified . In 1990 high speed trains began to use lighter , lower maintenance three phase AC induction motor. The world’s first AC locomotive in Valtelina in northern Italy. With 3 phase 15Hz 3KV AC motor. In 2012, ASEA Brown Boveri (ABB) successfully tested PET based Traction system on a locomotive in Switzerland.
  5. 5. CONT…. Electric traction was introduced on Indian Railway in year 1925 on 1.5KV DC and the first electric train ran between Bombay’s Victoria Terminus and Kurla along the Harbour line of CR on 3rd February 1925 In the year 1957 Indian Railways decided to adopt 25KV AC traction based on French Railway’s SNCF technology.
  6. 6. PET BASED LOCOMOTIVE Google Images
  7. 7. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF TRACTION (USING DC MOTOR) GOOGLE IMAGES
  8. 8. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF LOCO MOTIVE
  9. 9. FEATURES OF TRACTION SYSTEM High starting tractive effort to have rapid acceleration. Higher power but reduced weight and volume(high power density). Higher efficiency. Better reliability and reduced maintenance. Easy speed control.
  10. 10. POWER ELECTRONIC TRANSFORMER (PET)  Conventional transformer is a device which shift a voltage level to an other voltage level at same frequency both side. Induced EMF in a transformer is directly proportional to supply frequency. So in a power electronic transformer we increases the frequency more than line frequency in mid frequency range (400hz). The size of this type of conductor reduced much due to less use of cupper conductor. The efficiency of transformer also increases . By using cyclo convertors we can increases the frequency of line frequency.
  11. 11. COMPARISON BETWEEN PET AND LFT BASED TRACTION Line transformer based Power electronic transformer based Reference- 1
  12. 12. PET BASED TRACTION SYSTEM Transformer is operating with mid frequency range (100HZ-10KHZ) Since the front end convertor is directly connected to the catenary ,its need to withstand highest voltage so need high voltage power devices. Due to limited switching frequency of high voltage power devices the terminal voltage of MFT usually are pulsed but not sinusoidal.
  13. 13. PET BASED RAILWAY TRACTION SYSTEM DEVELOPED IN 1985 Reference- 4
  14. 14. CONT… This pet system is developed by the University of Leoben Austria for 15KV ,16.6Hz.  It consists of an input rectifier a matrix convertor , an MFT an output rectifier and DC –DC booster convertor. There is no dc bus capacitor after the input rectifier . Transformer operated at 400Hz and using thyristor.
  15. 15. MULTILEVEL PET BASED TRACTION SYSTEM 1998 Reference- 5
  16. 16. CONT….. This pet concept was developed by Siemens in which IGBTs are used at the place of thyristors . IGBT are fully controlled devices while thyristers are partially controlled device. However in order to withstand the catenary voltage ,the input power modules are connected in series and form a multilevel convertor. Whole system has input series and output parallel(ISOP) configuration.
  17. 17. 3-PHASE IGBT BASED MATRIX PET TRACTION SYSTEM 2001 Reference- 7
  18. 18. CONT……. In this PET system thyristors are replaced by high voltage IGBTs. So the drawback of naturally commutation thyristor convertor such as high switching losses, low switching frequecy and high line current harmonics can be greatly avoided . This system may be single phase or 3 phase ,but 3 phase preferred due to reduced line current harmonics . At that time 6.5KV IGBTs are only available.
  19. 19. MATRIXCONVERTORBASEDPET TRACTION SYSTEM 2008 Reference- 10
  20. 20. CONT…. This PET traction system was developed by the University of West Bohemia ,Czech. The MFT is operated 400Hz and has multiwinding . The voltage and current waveform during startup steady state operating and step change of load are validated the feasibility oh the control algorithm. It have good dynamic performance and is able to overcome unbalance voltage fault.
  21. 21. CURRENT SOURCE PET BASED TRACTION SYSTEM 2014 Reference- 2
  22. 22. Cont…….. This PET traction system is developed by North Carolina State University USA. It is a current source PET traction system. It consists of the front end and output full bridge convertors as well as high frequency fly-back inductor(transformer) and output convertor connected in parallel. The galvanic isolation and voltage adoption are realized by the high frequency fly- back invertor.
  23. 23. DIODE CLAMPED 3 LEVEL MULTIMODUL PET SYSTEM 2015 Reference- 5
  24. 24. Cont……. This PET based traction system developed by Laboratory of Magnetic Suspension Technology and Maglev Vehicle And Southwest Jiaoteng University china . Each module is composed of a 3 level H-bridge ac-dc rectifier and a half bridge bidirectional dc-dc convertor . For commercial high power multi level convertors ,CHB- based designed reach higher voltage and power level as well as more mature than diode clamped convertors.
  25. 25. KEY CHALLANGES High voltage power devices. High power MFT. System topologies.
  26. 26. PROS Greatly reduced the volume and weight of transformer . Higher transformer and system efficiency. Better power quality such as power factor, harmonics and transient performance. Improve power flow control, voltage swell and sag. Multi –voltage interface and fault isolation.
  27. 27. CONS High input voltage for front convertors. Higher system cost. Complex design and manufacturing. Reduced reliability.
  28. 28. FUTURE SCOPE IN INDIA • In India the total length of railway track 66000 km and 20460km (near about) are electrified tracks. • World position is 4th. • Research Design And Standards Organization(RDSO) Lucknow are tries to developed the model of locomotive with compact size and high speed. • But due to more costly PET transformer did not used in India till now.
  29. 29. CONCLUSION Various PET based railway traction system have been comprehensively reviewed . The pros and cons the state of art, future trends , challenges and opportunities of PET based traction system are highlighted. Although the PET based system are still developing but they are already superior than the LFT based traction system in term of power density, efficiency, power quality, and functionalities and hence will be the future for railway traction.
  30. 30. REFERENCES 1. Jiangua Feng, W.Q. Chu, senior member IEEE, Zixue Zang and Z. . Zhu, Fellow, IEEE “ POWER ELECTRONICS TRANSFORMER BASED RAILWAY TRACTION SYSTEM” September 2017. 2. P.Jain, M.Pahlevaninezhad,S.Pan and J. Drobnik “A review of high frequency power distribution systems for space, telecommunication and computer applications”, IEEE trans. Power electronics , vol. 29, no. 8, August 2014. 3. J.D. vam wyk and F.C. Lee, “ On a future for power electronics”’ IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topic power electronics, vol. 1,no. 2, June 2013. 4. W. McMurray, “ Power converter circuits having a high frequency link”, U.S. Patent .June 23 ,1990. 5. T. Strasser , “ A review of architectures and concepts for intelligence in future renewable electric energy systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron ,Apr. 2015. 6. K. Harada , F. Anan , K. Yamasaki , M. Jinno , Y. Kawata and T. Nakashima , “ Intellegent transformer,” in proc. IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conf. (PESC), June 1996.
  31. 31. Continu…. 7.R.K. Gupta , K.K. Mohapatra , and N. Mohan, “ A novel three-phase switched multi-winding power electronic transformer,” in Proc. IEEE Energy Conversions, September 2009. 8. M. Cacciato , A. Consoli, R. Attanasio, and F. Gennaro , “ Soft switching converter with Hf transformer for grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Vol. 57, May 2010. 9.J. Taufiq , “ Power electronic technologies for railway vehicles,” in Proc. Power Convers. Conf. (PCC) , Nagoya, Japan, Apr. 2007. 10. A.Prasai, J. S. Yim , D. Divan, A. Bendre, and S. K. Sul, “ A new architecture for offshore wind farms ,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , May 2008.

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