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  2. 2. Introduction ►This presentation focuses on glass. ►It is designed to interpret the potential impacts of the processes associated with glass. It takes you through the cradle to grave lifecycle of glass, paying particular attention to the social, environmental and public health impacts of these processes.
  3. 3. 1) We start by looking at the natural resources for making glass. 2) We then go to the glass making processes and its utilization. 3) This is followed by the disposal of glass waste. 4) I will analyze the social, environmental and health impacts associated with each processes throughout my presentation. 5) I will talk about the importance of environmental justice in the life cycle of glass and discuss with you how can we address the problems. 6) Lastly I will mention about glass usage in defense industry. Presentation organization
  4. 4. What is Glass? ► Glass is a manufactured material formed when a mixture of sand, soda, and lime is heated to a high temperature and assumes a molten, or liquid, state.
  5. 5. Now, we start by looking at the natural resources for making glass. ►Distribution of natural resources ►Formation ►Purposes for utilization ►Extraction process ►Environmental and Social effects of extraction process
  6. 6. Natural Resources ► Silica sand 72% ► Soda Ash 17% ► Lime 5% Percentage of Ingredients in Glass silica sand soda ash lime other ingredients 72% 17% 5% 6%
  7. 7. Silica Sand
  8. 8. Silica Sand ► Three of most common rock forming minerals on earth ► Chemically named: quartz sand / rock crystal ► Properties:  Extremely heat durable  Chemical stack resistance
  9. 9. World resources of Silica Sand ► Silica sand resources is abundant on the world. ► Its extraction is limited by  geographic distribution  quality requirements for some uses  environmental restrictions ► Extraction of theses resources is dependent on whether it is economic and are controlled by the location of population centers Fig. 1
  10. 10. Purposes for the Utilize of Silica Sand ► History:  Glass making & metallurgical activities few thousands years BC ago  Key raw material in ceramics, foundry & glass industrial revolution ► Today:  Glass making, foundry casting, ceramics, filtration, specialist building applications, leisure ( e.g. golf course), filters in numerous products, plastics, the manufacture of chemicals, metal & refractory, as addictives in horticultural & agricultural products & simulating oil production
  11. 11. Soda Ash
  12. 12. Soda Ash ►Anhydrous sodium carbonate ►Texture: soft ►Color: grayish & white ►Appearance: lump / powder in nature
  13. 13. Location & Integration of Soda Ash ► Large soda ash deposits:  U.S, Mexico, Canada, Kenya, Botswana, Uganda, Peru, Germany, India, Egypt, S. Africa & Turkey ► World’s largest trona deposit:  Green River Basin of Wyoming  estimate to have 47 billion tons of soda ash
  14. 14. Purposes for the Utilize of Soda Ash ► History:  Early Egypt: make glass & soap  Early Roman: make glass, bread & pharmaceuticals (medicine) purpose to cure choric & skin rashes
  15. 15. Purposes for the Utilize of Soda Ash ► Glass manufacture (49%) ► Chemical production (27%) ► Mineral processing in mining ► Pulp & Paper manufacturing ► Sodium compounds manufacturing ► Soap & detergents (11%) ► Water treatment (2%) ► Textile processing ► Glass fiber manufacture ► Cleaning preparations ► Petroleum refining ► Metallurgical refining ► Removal of sulfur from smokestack emissions (3%) ► Distributors (5%) ► Metal refining
  16. 16. Lime
  17. 17. Lime ► Include hydrated lime & quicklime ► Only quicklime can use to make glass
  18. 18. Development of Glass Making ► First automated bottle machine was created in 1905 ► Nowadays, most of the glass containers are manufactured by technological machines at large, automated factories & control by computers  cheaper and better in quality A Float glass Plant
  19. 19. Historical Glass Manufacturing Process: Historical method: ► heating and blowing ► shape the glass products by hand ► requires high skills & is time consuming therefore using glass is considered as luxury in our old world
  20. 20. Today’s Glass Manufacturing Process: 1. Silica sand, limestone, soda ash and cullet (recycled glass or broken glass) are keep dry and cool in a batcher house in silos or compartments 2. Mixing and weighting into proper proportion 3. Send to furnaces in hoppers  operated by natural gas  heat the mixture at 1300- 1600 degrees Celsius into soften or molten state Fig.12
  21. 21. 4. Molding --- molten glass flows to forming machine to mold into desire shapes 5. Annealing --- reheating the glass in an oven  to ensure even cooling of glass for strengthening of the products 6. Cooling process --- Cool for 30 min to an hour for safe to handle. 7. Glass products are then decorated, inspected again and finally packaged and shipped to our customers. glass furnace cooling systems
  22. 22. Effects From Glass Manufacturing Process Workers:  Dangerous & harmful to workers if breakage occurs while glass holds heated or corrosive, can result in serious injuries ►Glass making process occurs at high temperature ►Glass can broke easily under pressure, impact or thermal shock  Prevention: wear protective clothing and gloves to prevent those injuries
  23. 23. Environmental Impact Environmental degradation: ► Air pollution:  raw materials used for glass making decompose at furnaces produce large volume of gas such as carbon dioxide  combustion of gas for energy production release large amount of pollutant gases, such as sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen ► Green house effect:  green house gases release from the plants increase global temperature and can form acid rain
  24. 24. Utilization of Glass ►History of glass ►How is the utilization of glass importance for communities? ►Global marketing and consumption status of glass ►The impacts of glass products
  25. 25. History of Human Using Glass: ► People have used glass dating back to 5000 B.C ► Ancient Egypt: earliest use of glass, for royalty and priest as luxuries ► Usually use as containers or for decoration purposes in human history
  26. 26. History of Glass ► In Byzantium Empire, glass was used extensively in buildings and many examples can be found today reminiscent of that era. Many glass centers in Syria and Egypt were well-known from the beginning of 7th century. ► The art of glass making in Turkey started with the Seljuks and improved after the conquer of Istanbul. In and around Istanbul, many glass workshops have been established. At the beginning of 14th century, a crystal glass factory has started in Çubuklu, Istanbul with a special design named Çeşm-i Bülbül ( The nightingale's fountain). The first modern glass factory in Turkey was established in Paşabahçe - Istanbul in 1934 and this factory renews itself with its new investments and developments.
  27. 27. Different type of glass: ► practical glass ► industrial glass ► inspiration glass ► glass of science and medicine
  28. 28. Examples of Today’s Glass Products:  Containers (jars and bottles)  Flat glass (windows, vehicle glazing, mirrors, etc.)  Lighting glass (fluorescent tubes, light bulbs, etc.)  Tableware (drinking glasses, bowls, lead crystal, etc.)  Laboratory equipments (test tubes, cylinders, measuring flasks, etc.)  TV tubes and screens  Decorative glass  Fiberglass  Optical glass  Vacuum flasks
  29. 29. Export & Import of Glass ►Largest Importer of past decades: Europe and Australia ►Today largest Importer : U.S. ►China and Indonesia has increased their import of glass dramatically
  30. 30. Glass Industries The World Glass Industry has a gross production value totaling $82.3 billion Fig. 14
  31. 31. First Ten Companies Company Name Year founded Total Sales ( Million $) Saint-Gobain 1665 11,480.00 Durand 1815 1,100.00 Pilkington 1826 4,700.00 Corning 1850 2,940.00 PPG 1883 6,021.00 Schott 1884 2,400.00 Asahi 1907 7,600.00
  32. 32. Glass Consumption in Europe Europe is one of the large importer of glass. Through observing the consumption pattern of glass in different countries of Europe, we can get an image of how large is the human consumption of glass is: Average glass consumption in kilo/annum 1990-1995/capita in different countries When considering the whole EU, projections suggest that glass consumption will increase between 24 and 53% up to the year 2010, using the year 1995 as a base year (European Topic Centre on Waste, 1998). Fig. 15
  33. 33. Disposal of Glass
  34. 34. Glass Waste ► Most of glass waste is generated from glass packaging ► Glass waste generated from packing is among the top forth in the world. Waste (mPEMwdk2000 per kg of packaging Fig. 17
  35. 35. How is glass waste treated? ►Landfill ►Recycle ►Vitrification
  36. 36. Example: Landfill at Seoul ►The Sudokwon landfill site at Seoul (S. Korea) covers 20,749,000 square meters Construction of the Sudokwon Landfill at Seoul Large area of sea is filled by land Fig. 18
  37. 37. Recycling of Glass ► Recycle of glass is mostly used for packaging ► Recycle process
  38. 38. Myths of Recycling Glass ► Refillable bottles require more energy to make as they are about 50% heavier than non-refillable bottles to prevent breakage, and to transport them over long distances to sparsely located processing facilities. Since the raw materials of glass are abundant and cheap, recycling glass only consumes and wastes the more valuable non-renewable fossil fuels (Warmer Bulletin November, 1993) ► It takes more energy to collect and recycle glass into another bottle than to make one from raw materials. However, the energy requirement to produce a refillable bottle will decrease with the number of returnable trips, and an eight-trip bottle can reduce the energy requirement by about two-thirds compared to a non-returnable bottle (Porteous, 1977)
  39. 39. Vitrification ► Definition: a new technology has been discovered to use recycle glass for radioactive waste management ► Process:  melt glass together with radioactive waste in barrels or some other container  glass will then bind up with radioactive contamination into a huge glass block  radioactive waste is bond by the glass and become immobilized  keep radioactive waste from interacting with water, stop spreading the waste Fig. 20
  41. 41. Glass in DEFENCE ► These are primarily silicates containing oxides such as Alumina (AL2O3), TiO2, LiO2, and others. ► In amorphous form, the glasses are transparent. Most glasses can be made to transform into a polycrystalline state by a suitable heat-treatment process, called devitrification. ► An initiator, such as TiO2, is added to begin the nucleation of ceramic crystals. The product is called a glass ceramic. ► Desirable properties include: high strength and thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, resistant to thermal shock, ease of fabrication. using conventional methods.
  42. 42. Composite Armor Projectile Outer hard skin Ceramic- Discontinuous Inner ductile skin Personnel and Equipment Ceramic Armor System
  43. 43. Glass in DEFENSE Here you see a sample of usage fiber-glass in defense industry. Wings and the Cover of missile is produced from fiber-glass.
  44. 44. Glass in DEFENSE A fiber-glass shipyard in assembly
  45. 45. References 1. Bolen, W. P. (1997, February). Sand and Gravel. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Commodity Summaries. Retrieved 05/19/2003, from http://minerals.er.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/silica/780397.pdf 2. Philips, T. Bishopwebworks. Retrieved 05/19/2003, from 3. science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ lms/owenslake.htm 4. Keith, John. Mineral Resource in Dessert. 10/29/97. Retrieved 05/19/2003, from pubs.usgs.gov/gip/ deserts/minerals/ 5. Petruccl, R. H. (2002). The Solvay process for the manufacture of NaHCO3. A Pearson Company. Retrieved 05/19/2003, from 6. cwx.prenhall.com/petrucci/medialib/ media_portfolio/22.html 7. Economic Development. (2001, Aug 21). New Zealand aggregate sources. Retrieved 05/19/2003, from www.med.govt.nz/crown_minerals/ minerals/gnsmaps 8. Henschel, Kira & Alsom, Rio. (May, 1995). Mining Impact Coalition of Wisconsin Inc. Retrieved 05/19/2003, from www.miningimpacts.net/ micpic3.html 9. Cable Sands & RZM. www.cablesands.com.au/cswa/ company-profile.asp 10. RockWare Glass. How is Glass Made? www.glassforever.co.uk/howisglassmade/ 11. http://www.bisnis.doc.gov/bisnis/country/000727glass_samara.htm 12. Bled, S. (2001, June 20-22). International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers’ Union. www.icem.org/events/ bled/matdocen.htm 13. http://www.mst.dk/project/NyViden/2000/08030000.htm 14. The citizens’ committee for green Seoul. Construction of the Sudokwon Landfill. smg.metro.seoul.kr:9000/ waste/part4.html 15. Vitrification International Technologies, Inc. (2002, March, 3).Schematic of waste vitrification transformations. www.vitrification.com/ vitrification.htm
  46. 46. ANY Q ? ► enjoy your life…….. Kerim GOZTEPE kerimgoztepe@yahoo.com