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Female reproductive system Presentation (5) Rahul.pptx

  2. INTRODUCTION  Mammary gland or female Breast is the Secondary Or Accessary Organ Of FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.  The mammary gland is a highly evolved and specialized organ present in pairs, one on each side of the anterior chest wall.  The organ's primary function is to secrete milk.
  3. SHAPE, STRUCTURE, POSITION OF THE GLAND SHAPE:- it is conical in shape. SITUATION:- (I) Breast lies in the superficial fascia of pectoral region. (ii) It vertically extend from 2nd rib to 6th rib. •It horizontally extend from lateral Border of sternum to Midaxillary Line.
  4.  •It is divided into 4 Quadrants:- (I) Upper Inner (ii) Upper outer (iii) Lower inner (iv) Lower outer •A small extension of upper outer quadrant called Axillary tail Of Spence, Passes through an opening in deep fasc
  5. DEEP RELATIONS :-  Breast lies on deep fascia (pectoral fascia) covering pectoris major muscle.  Breast is separated from pectoral fascia by Loose Aerolar tissue Called Retromammary Space. (NOTE:-Due to this loose tissue normal breast can be moved freely over Pectoralis major)
  6.  STRUCTURE OF BREAST:- (Skin)  NIPPLE:- •it is conical projection, present just below the centre of breast, at the level of 4th intercoastal space. •Pierced by 15 -20 Lactiferous ducts. • Contain circular and longitudinal smooth muscle fibres which can make nipple stiff, flatten it, respectively.
  7.  AEROLA:- •Skin Surrounding base on nipple is pigmented and forms a circular area called Aerola.  •Rich in modified sebaceous gland.  •These gland become enlarge during pregnancy and lactation to form Raised Tubercles of Mantgomery.  •Oily secretions of these gland lubricate the nipple and aerola and prevent them from cracking during lactation.  •Below the aerola, Lactiferous sinus is present where stored milk is seen
  8. PARENCHYMA:-  It is a Compound tubulo-Alveolar gland which secrete milk.  Gland consist of 15 to 20 lobes.  Each love is a cluster of Alveoli and drained by a lactiferous ducts.  Lactiferous ducts converge towards Nipple and open on it.  Near it’s termination, Each duct has a dilation called Lactiferous sinus.
  9. STROMA:-  Stroma forms Supporting frame of Gland.  It is partly fibrous and partly fatty.  Fibrous stroma forms septa known as suspensory ligament of Cooper.  (Note:- Suspensory ligament of Cooper anchors skin and gland to pectoral fascia.  Fatty Stroma form main bulk of Gland.  Fatty Stroma is distributed all over breast except Nipple and Aerola
  10. BREAST CANCER • Breast cancer is a form of cancer that forms in the cells of Breast. •Breast Cancer develops in the cells of the acini lactiferous ducts and lobules of the breast. •Cancer growth and spread depends on the exact cellular site of origin of the cancer. •Breast Cancer spread via the lymphatics and veins.
  11. ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS  ETIOLOGY:- •Exact cause is Unknown.  RISK FACTORS:-  •Early Menarche (Under age 12)  • Late Menopause (After age 50)  •Radiation exposure (Chest X-ray)  •Excessive alcohol intake  •Smoking  •Breast Trauma
  12. CLINICAL FEATURES •Breast Mass Or Thickening. •Unusual lump in the under arm or above the colar bone. •Abnormal Nipple Discharge •Changes in Nipple Position •Burning , Stinging or Pricking Sensation.
  13. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION  History collection  Physical Examination  Mammogram  Breast Ultrasound  Biopsy  M.R.I.
  14. MANAGEMENT  Radiation Therapy  Chemotherapy  Harmonal Therapy  Surgical Management:-  •Lumpectomy  •Mastectomy
  15. BREAST SELF EXAMINATION  A breast self-exam is a step-by-step method women can use to examine their breasts. By looking at and feeling your breasts regularly, you can notice anything that seems abnormal.  Monthly breast self-exams can help you detect detect changes that may be signs of infection infection or BREAST CANCER .  Regular breast exams can help you maintain breast health and detect cancer early, when it is easier to treat and more likely to be cured.
  16. STEPS OF A SELF BREAST EXAM 1. Visual inspection: (i)stand in front of a mirror. Put your arms down by your sides. Look for any changes in breast shape, breast swelling, dimpling in the skin or changes in the nipples.
  17. •VISUAL INSPECTION:-  (ii)Next, raise your arms high overhead and look for the same things.
  18.  2. Manual inspection while standing up :- (I) use your right hand to examine your left breast, then vice versa. With the pads of your three middle fingers, press on every part of one breast. Use light pressure, then medium, then firm. Feel for any lumps, thick spots or other changes. A circular pattern may help you make sure you hit every spot.
  19.  2. Manual inspection while standing up: (ii) press the tissue under the arm. Be sure to check under the areola and then squeeze the nipple gently to check for discharge. Repeat the steps on the other side of your body.
  20.  3. Manual inspection while lying down: Lie down and put a pillow under your right shoulder. Place your right arm behind your head. Using your left hand, apply the same technique as step 2, using the pads of your to press all parts of the breast tissue and under your arm. (ii)Be sure to check under the areola and then squeeze the nipple gently to check for discharge.
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