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“IOT Based smart bus tracking system”
Instead of referring to GPS-enabled location information, we resort to more generally
available and energy efficient sensing resources, including cell tower signals, movement
statuses, audio recordings, etc., which bring less burden to the participatory party and
encourage their participation.
We develop a prototype system with different types of Android-based mobile phones and
comprehensively experiment with the NTU campus shuttle buses as well as Singapore
public buses over a 7-week period.
The evaluation results suggest that the proposed system achieves outstanding prediction
accuracy compared with those bus operator initiated and GPS supported solutions.
We further adopt our system and conduct quick trial experiments with London bus system
for 4 days, which suggests the easy deployment of our system and promising system
performance across cities.
At the same time, the proposed solution is more generally available and energy friendly.
Block diagram explanation
• In this project PIC16F877A microcontroller is used for interfacing to various hardware
peripherals. The current design is an embedded application, which will continuously monitor a
moving Vehicle and report the status of the Vehicle on demand.
• For doing so a PIC16F877A microcontroller is interfaced serially to a ZigBee Modem and GPS
Receiver. A ZigBee modem is used to send the position (Latitude and Longitude) of the vehicle
from a remote place.
• The GPS modem will continuously give the data i.e. the latitude and longitude indicating the
position of the vehicle.
• The GPS modem gives many parameters as the output, but only the NMEA data coming out is
read and displayed on to the LCD.
• The same data is sent to the mobile at the other end from where the position of the vehicle is
demanded. An EEPROM is used to store the mobile number.
• The hardware interfaces to microcontroller are LCD display, GSM modem and GPS Receiver.
• The design uses RS-232 protocol for serial communication between the modems and the
• A serial driver IC is used for converting TTL voltage 12 levels to RS-232
• When the request by user is sent to the number at the modem, the system
automatically sends a return reply to that mobile indicating the position of the
vehicle in terms of latitude and longitude.
• As the Micro Controller, GPS and ZigBee take a sight of in depth knowledge,
they are explained in the next chapters.
1. ZigBee module.
2. Computer with rs232.
3. Power supply.
4. GPS module.
6. RFID reader.
7. Other Electronics Components.
1. Embedded ‘C’.
Hardware and Software Used
Power Supply – Circuit Description
• The operation of power supply circuits built using filters, rectifiers, and then voltage
regulators. Starting with an AC voltage, a steady DC voltage is obtained by
rectifying the AC voltage, Then filtering to a DC level, and finally, regulating to
obtain a desired fixed DC voltage. The regulation is usually obtained from an IC
voltage regulator Unit, which takes a DC voltage and provides a somewhat lower
DC voltage, Which remains the same even if the input DC voltage varies, or the
output Load connected to the DC voltage changes.
• PIC16F877A microcontroller is used for this project
• It is 8-bit Microcontroller
• System is RISC Architecture
• It has Small set of Instruction set
• It has 35-Instructions only
• Compatibility: avail 28/40 Pin ICs
• Operating Speed Max 20 MHz, Voltage-(2-5.5)v
Flash Program 8Kx14 Words,
RAM 368 Bytes,
EEPROM Data Memory 256 Bytes
• Low power, High speed Flash/EEPROM Technology
Features of Microcontroller
• It has 5 Ports for Internal and External usage
• It has on chip Timers. 3 Timers are avail
• It has in built Analog to Digital Converter
• In built Multiplexer availability for signal Selection
• It has serial as well as Parallel Communication facilities
• In built Capture, Compare and Pulse width modulation
• The XBee and XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules were engineered to meet IEEE 802.15.4 standards and support
the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless sensor networks. The modules require minimal power and
provide reliable delivery of data between devices.
• The modules operate within the ISM 2.4 GHz frequency band and are pin-for-pin compatible with each other
Data Flow diagram
• The XBee®/XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules interface to a host device through a logic-level asynchronous
serial port. Through its serial port, the module can communicate with any logic and voltage compatible
UART; or through a level translator to any serial device (For example: Through a Digit proprietary RS-232 or
USB interface board).
• We can use the EEPROM to store the previous Navigating positions up to 256 locations and we can
navigate up to N number of locations by increasing its memory.
• We can reduce the size of the kit by using GPS+GSM on the same module.
• We can increase the accuracy up to 3m by increasing the cost of the GPS receivers.
• We can use our kit for detection of bomb by connecting to the bomb detector.
• With the help of high sensitivity vibration sensors we can detect the accident.
• Whenever vehicle unexpectedly had an accident on the road with help of vibration sensor we can
detect the accident and we can send the location to the owner, hospital and police.
• We can use our kit to assist the traffic. By keeping the kits in the entire vehicles and by knowing the
locations of all the vehicles.
• If anybody steals our car we can easily find our car around the globe. By keeping vehicle
positioning vehicle on the vehicle.
1. Bus Transport in Singapore [Online].
1. EZ-Link [Online]. Available: http://www.ezlink.com.sg
1. Octupus[Online]. Available: http://www.octopus.com.hk/home/en
1. Oyster [Online]. Available: https://oyster.tﬂ.gov.uk/oyster
1. PublicTransport@SG[Online]. Available : http://www.publictransport.sg/
1. Buses in London [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_bus
1. Transport for London [Online]. Available: http://www.tﬂ.gov.uk/