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Ginger plant presentation

Ginger is a medicinal plant which has a lot of health benefits.

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Ginger plant presentation

  1. 1. NAME RAFIULLAH,ROLL NO450, DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY,UAP, SESSION 2012-2015 GINGER Common Name: Ginger Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale Family Name: Zingiberaceae Urdu Name: Adrak Origin: South - East Asia, India Life Cycle: herbaceous perennial, grown as an annual plant. Morphology: Rhizome: The rhizome (underground stem) is brown, with a corky( light brown substance) outer layer and pale-yellow scented(distinctive, pleasant smell) center. Shoot: The above ground shoot is erect with linear leaves that are arranged alternately on the stem. The shoots originate from a multiple bases and wrap around one another. Leaves: Narrow green. The leaves can reach 7 cm in length and 1.9 cm broad. Flowers: Flowering heads are produced on shorter stems and the plant produces cone shaped, pale yellow flowers. Plant Height: The ginger plant can reach 2-4 ft in height. Part Used: The fresh and dried rhizomes are used and an essential oil is also extracted. Uses  Ginger is popularly used as a spice in cooking and can be used fresh, dried or powdered.  The fresh rhizome can be used to extract ginger essential oil which is used in ginger ale (dark and bitter beer), beer (alcoholic drink made from grain) and wine (alcoholic drink usually made from grapes or other fruits or flowers).  Ginger may also be used to flavor beverages.  Used in the preparation of confectionaries.  Green ginger is used in salads and dried in Preserves, “achars” and “chaat”.  Ginger continues to be a popular folk remedy in China and India.
  2. 2. NAME RAFIULLAH,ROLL NO450, DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY,UAP, SESSION 2012-2015 Chemical Composition: The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols, and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Medicinal Use:  Increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract (Prevents constipation, colic, flatulence).  Tea made from ginger is a common folk remedy for colds.  Ginger and a local sweetener are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.  Ginger is a common home remedy for coughing.  Ginger has been historically used to treat inflammation (red,painful andoftenswollenarea inthe body).  Ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache.  Ginger with lemon and black salt is used for nausea (feeling to vomit).  Reduce fatigue (extreme tiredness).  Prevent and cure rheumatism (joints pain).  Control poor dietary habits.  Relieve sore throat.  Used to prevent motion sickness (vomitinginamovingvehicle) and morningsickness (feeling of wantingtovomitexperiencedbysome womenduringthe firstmonthsof pregnancy).  Massaging with ginger oil works as an antiseptic. Soil: Deep, well-drained, loamy soil, rich in organic matter. Optimum soil pH for growth of ginger is between 6.0 and 6.5 Climate:  Tropical crop requires warm and humid climate. Grows well in areas with annual rainfall between 250 to 300 cm. Cultivated up to 1500 m above sea level. Cool and dry climate is best for rhizome development. Shade loving plant and requires ample moisture for normal growth.  The plant requires a minimum temperature of 15.5°C (59.9°F). PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Land Preparation: 1) Land is ploughed 2 times (crosswise) in summer (March - April) to a depth 15 to 22 cm 2) Exposed clods are crushed with harrow. 3) 3-4 crosswise harrowing are given to make soil loose and friable(easily broken into small pieces). 4) Temporary ridges are opened to prevent soil erosion on sloppy lands. 5) 15 tons of FYM/ha is applied before last harrowing,
  3. 3. NAME RAFIULLAH,ROLL NO450, DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY,UAP, SESSION 2012-2015 Propagation: Ginger is propagated by using portions of mother rhizomes called sets. Each healthy set to be used for planting should be 2.5 to 5 cm long, weighing 20-25 g and having two or three buds each. Seeds and Sowing: a) Selection of Planting Material: 1) Select healthy rhizomes free from diseases (rhizome rot and leaf spot) and pests (rhizome fly). 2) Sprouted rhizomes are broken into pieces keeping 2-3 sprouted eye buds on each rhizome. 3) Each piece should be 2.5-5 cm long and 20-25 g in weight. b) Time of Planting: Ginger can be planted from start of May up to middle of June. c) Seedrate: 1500 kg/ha mother rhizomes Spacing: 30 x 30 cm. Methods of Planting: Planting of ginger is done by two methods. A) Flat Bed Method: 1. This method is followed in light – soil. 2. The flat beds of 4 x 4 m size are prepared. 3. The sets are planted 10 cm deep and at 20 to 30 cm apart from each other. 4. Only one set is planted at each hill and covered by soil. 5. Light irrigation is given immediately after planting. B) Broad Ridge Method: 1. This method is followed in medium to heavy soils. 2. Raised beds 20 to 30 cm high and 75 to 100 cm broad at the tops are prepared. 3. The length of beds varies from 6 to 10 m depending upon the slope of the land. 4. Sets are planted 30 cm apart from each other and 10 cm deep. 5. Only one set is planted at each spot and covered by soil. 6. Light irrigation is given immediately after planting. 7. This method gives about 50% more yield than flat bed method.
  4. 4. NAME RAFIULLAH,ROLL NO450, DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY,UAP, SESSION 2012-2015 Manures and Fertilizers: Sr. No. Time of application F.Y.M. (ton/ha) N (kg/ha) P2O5 (kg/ha) K20 (kg/ha) 1. Preparatory tillage 15 - - - 2. At planting 15 60 50 50 3. 45 days after planting - 50 - - 4. 120 days after planting - 40 - - Total 30 150 50 50 Irrigation: 1) First light irrigation is given immediately after planting. 2) Subsequent irrigations are given at 10 days intervals. 3) Total 16-18 irrigations. Harvesting: 1. For green ginger, harvesting is done 210-215 days after planting. 2. For curing purpose, harvesting is done 245-260 days after planting when the leaves start yellowing and pseudo stem begins to dry. 3. Ginger roots are harvested by digging. Commercially produced ginger is harvested with the use of cutter bar which is pulled by a tractor. After harvest, the ginger should be cured for 3 to 5 days to prevent the development of mildew on the rhizomes. Yield: 10-15 tons/ha green ginger (Green rhizomes). If there is a market glut (supply >demand) at the time of harvesting, irrigation is continued instead of harvesting at an interval of 8-10 days. Manures and fertilizers are applied as per recommendations and harvesting is done in the month of August, In this case, average yield obtained is about 30 to 40 t/ha. Yield of Cured Ginger: 15-20 % of fresh produce. Common Diseases 1. Bacterial soft rot Erwinia spp. Symptoms Light yellow lower leaf tips, yellow leaves, drooping, withered leaves Comments Favors water logged fields
  5. 5. NAME RAFIULLAH,ROLL NO450, DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY,UAP, SESSION 2012-2015 Management Treating seed with Bordeaux mixture prior to planting and solarizing the soil can help to reduce the incidence of the disease. 2.Bacterial wilt Pseudomonas solanacearum Symptoms Green leaves infected with the pathogen roll and curl ("green wilt"), leaves turn yellow then necrotic, plants become stunted and die, rhizomes are discolored and water-soaked and may be rotting inside. Comments Disease is spread via movement of infested soil; bacteria survive in the soil on plant debris. Management Plant ginger in well draining soils where ginger had not previously been grown, plant only pathogen free seed, plant ginger on hills to aid soil drainage and promote air flow around the rhizome, rotate ginger with non-hosts of bacterial wilt 3.Rhizome rots(fungi) Fusarium spp. Pythium spp. Rosellinia spp. Symptoms Stunted plant growth, yellow leaves and stems, brown discoloration of water conducting tissue within stem, root system rotted, mushy and turning black, rotted rhizome gives off a foul odor. Comments Disease favors warm, moist soils, spread primarily through use of infected seed pieces which may not show any outward signs of disease Management Plant ginger in well-draining soils or on hills created by tilling; do not plant any seed pieces which show symptoms of disease; seed pieces can be treated with hot water (50°C/122°F for 10 min) or appropriate fungicides prior to planting; destroy all crop debris after harvest; keep fields weed free; do not grow ginger for more than one year in same area Pests 1.Chinese rose beetle Adoretus sinicus Symptoms
  6. 6. NAME RAFIULLAH,ROLL NO450, DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY,UAP, SESSION 2012-2015 "Shot-hole" appearance of leaves; entire leaf consumed with the exception of the leaf veins; adult insect is a reddish-brown beetle which feeds on plants at night Comments Chinese rose beetles are nocturnal Management Chinese rose beetles are attracted to dim light and repelled by bright light, shining bright light on plants may help deter them from feeding; covering young plants with e.g. floating row covers can help to protect plants until they are old enough to withstand attacks by the beetle 2.Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. Symptoms Water soaked lesions on roots; Gallsgon roots which can be up to 3.3 cm (1 in) in diameter but are usually smaller; reduction in plant vigor; yellowing plants which wilt in hot weather Comments Galls can appear as quickly as a month prior to planting; nematodes prefer sandy soils and damage in areas of field or garden with this type of soil is most likely Management Plant resistant varieties if nematodes are known to be present in the soil; check roots of plants mid-season or sooner if symptoms indicate nematodes; solarizing soil can reduce nematode populations in the soil and levels of inoculums of many other pathogens Pakistan Position Pakistan imports ginger to meet its domestic demand as the majority of people prefer to season (add as spice to food) meat, pulses and vegetables with it. The agro-climatic conditions in Sindh where ginger is being successfully grown, now is encouraging for research to save millions on its import every year. Area: 19 hectares 2013 (factfish statistics) Production: 124 tons 2013 Ranking in the world: 30 Top: India followed by China