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Urban action on climate change - UN-Habitat perspective

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Climate change is undoubtedly one of the most urgent, complex and challenging issues of our time. The 2015 Paris Agreement provides an ambitious and innovative framework for stabilizing the earth’s climate. Cities and local authorities have a key role to play in its implementation. The lecture will discuss the role of the United Nations in supporting urban action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change impacts. It will provide a wide range of examples of how UN-Habitat and partners have stimulated the acceleration of urban climate change action in various thematic areas across the world over the past decade. It will conclude by distilling guiding principles for effective urban action to address climate change.

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Urban action on climate change - UN-Habitat perspective

  1. 1. 1 Lecture KU Leuven 23 November 2017 The role of the United Nations in supporting urban action on climate change
  2. 2. Outline 1. Introduction: SDGs, Paris Agreement and the New Urban Agenda 2. Role of Cities & Subnational Authorities 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas 5. Upcoming initiatives 6. Guiding principles for city climate action planning 7. Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Why should UN-Habitat engage with climate change? 3 • Linkages with sustainable development, human rights, peace and security • Universal issue, with differentiated responsibilities and impacts • Complex and urgent, but still narrow window of opportunity to act • Cities as culprits, victims and solutions Bissighin, Ougadougou, Burkina Faso Chengdu, China
  4. 4. 1. Introduction 4 Sustainable Development Agenda NUA includes 22 references to climate change, climate action & related (versus 1 reference in Habitat II document) New Urban Agenda Of 169 SDG Targets, United Cities & Local Governments (UCLG) considers that 92 (54%) are relevant for Local Governments Of 160 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) reviewed, UN-Habitat found 110 (69 %) included urban mentions Paris Agreement Agendas are mutually reinforcing on urban climate action:
  5. 5. Focus on SDGs 11+13 (but also 7, 12, 17)
  6. 6. Climate Change Strategy UN-Habitat ✓ Improved policies, plans and strategies that contribute to the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change adopted by partner city, regional and national authorities. ✓ Compact, integrated, connected cities that are inclusive and resilient to climate change 6 https://unhabitat.org/un-habitats-strategic-plan-2014-2019/
  7. 7. Recognize 1. Local and subnational governments as “ governmental stakeholders“ (Para.7 of Dec.1/CP16, in Cancun in 2010) 2. Role of cities and subnational authorities in raising pre2020 ambition (Para.5b of Dec.1/CP19, in Warsaw in 2013) 3. Engaging in capacity building, adaptation and loss and damage (Paris Agreement preamble para.15, 7.2, 11.2, 8.4.h + COP21 Decision on Non-Party Stakeholders) √ 4. Ministerial-Mayoral Dialogues (COP16-2010-Cancun, COP19-2013-Warsaw) and High Level Action Days (COP20-2014-Lima, COP21-2015-Paris) 5. ADP Workstream-2 Technical Examination Process on Urban Environment and Cities and Subnational Forum 6. Compact of Mayors, Compact of States and Regions, Covenant of Mayors, Under2MoU etc. 7. Increased number of organizations of the Local Governments and Municipal Authorities Constituency (LGMA) and Special UNFCCC badges for their Political Leaders 8. Lima-Paris Action Agenda (LPAA) Declarations including 5-Year Vision and NAZCA Platform, including carbonn Climate Registry as the first data partner 9. Friends of Cities at the UNFCCC, increased local/subnational leaders in national delegations 10. Workplan of Paris Committtee on Capacity Building (para. 73.d/g of Dec. 1/CP21) 11. ~ 50% of submitted INDCs in 2015 have a focus on action at local and subnational level 12. Cities and regions contributing to global funds (City of Paris and Brussels Capital Region to GCF, Quebec to GEF-LDCF and others) 13. New resources (e.g. GEF Integrated Action Programme on Sustainable Cities, Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance (CCFLA) , Climate-KIC LoCaL, UN Subnational Climate Action Hub) 14. Transformative Actions Programme (TAP) 15. 2030 SD Agenda; Sendai-Disaster, Addis Ababa-Finance, SDGs (including Goal:11) Engage Empower √ √ From Bali/2007 to Paris/2015 Achievements of global climate advocacy of Local/Subnational Govts
  8. 8. 8 2. Role of Cities & Subnational authorities COP-21 Decision: ✓Mentions “Cities & subnational authorities” as a non-Party stakeholder ✓Invites non-Party stakeholders to “scale up their efforts” & demonstrate action on platform ✓Provides for a “work plan” on “capacity-building” that includes subnational level ✓Calls for new platform to exchange experiences & best practices
  9. 9. 9 2. Role of Cities & Subnational authorities COP-23 Decision: We are Still in Coalition ✓ To achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, we are helping to build a Grand Coalition to accelerate climate action across all nations and at every level of society ✓ Under2 Coalition now includes 189 cities, states and countries collectively representing more than 1.2 billion people
  10. 10. 2. Role of Cities & Subnational authorities 10
  11. 11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sectors 11
  12. 12. The cost of inaction 12
  13. 13. 2. Role of Cities & Subnational authorities 13  Climate Change – Migration ✓ Rising sea levels and coastal erosion ✓ Warming and acidification oceans ✓ Decreases of river and lake ice seasons ✓ Reduction in glacial mass ✓ Heatwaves, floods, storms, fires and droughts ✓ Change to crop productivity ✓ Desertification @Schuyler Null
  14. 14. 2. Role of Cities & Subnational authorities 14 China © Institute for Transportation and Development PolicyIndia © Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) “Urban & regional planners have a key role to play in helping cities… ✓ Reduce greenhouse gas emissions ✓ Build climate resilience”.
  15. 15. 2. Role of Cities & Subnational authorities “National governments can empower local governments to take climate action”. 15 Multi-level Governance
  16. 16. Global Level – normative publications 16 https://unhabitat.org/books/addressing-climate-change-in-national-urban-policy/ https://unhabitat.org/books/sustainable-urbanization-in-the-paris-agreement/
  17. 17. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas – Transportation 17 Current traffic situation on Moi Avenue, Nairobi Rendering of Bus Rapid Transit Station ➢ Global Environmental Facility - “Promoting Sustainable Transport Solutions for East African Cities” (2011-2015) ▪ Implemented by UN Habitat and UN Environment
  18. 18. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas – Transportation (continued) 18 ➢ “Urban Electric Mobility Initiative (UEMI)” ▪ Implementation concepts for the integration of e-mobility solutions in a wider sustainable transport and sustainable urbanization strategies http://www.uemi.net/
  19. 19. Oslo, Norway – ▪ Oslo’s Action Plan for Environment & Climate Change calls for expanded public charging stations & other actions to promote electric mobility. ▪ From 2009 to 2013, Oslo reduced per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 9 %. 19 Former Oslo Mayor, Mr. Fabian Stang, in a model electric vehicle. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas – Transportation (continued)
  20. 20. Bogor, Indonesia – ▪ Under the EC-funded Urban- LEDS Project (co-implemented with ICLEI), UN-Habitat assisted Bogor to chart a path towards strengthened Bus Rapid Transit. 20 ‘Roadmap to Bus Rapid Transit’ for City of Bogor, Indonesia. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Transportation (continued)
  21. 21. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas – Transportation (continued) ➢ Federal Ministry for Nature Conservation, building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)– “URBAN PATHWAYS: Supporting Low Carbon Plans for Urban Basic Services in the context of the New Urban Agenda” ▪ Implemented by UN Habitat, UN Environment and Wuppertal Institute ▪ India, Brazil, Kenya, Vietnam http://www.urban-pathways.org/ 21
  22. 22. Well designed 'green' buildings reduce GHG emissions from business as usual 22 Green roof on top of the old broadcasting building in Copenhagen, Denmark Carré Vert office building in Paris, France, awarded with an “Outstanding” BREEAM rating 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Buildings FRENCH CASE STUDY
  23. 23. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Buildings (continued) 23 Green Roof Law in Recife, Brazil (from Urban-LEDS 1) ➢ European Commission – “Promoting Urban Low Emission Development Strategies” (Urban- LEDS 1, 2012-2015) ▪ Implemented by Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) and UN Habitat ▪ Brazil, India, Indonesia, South Africa
  24. 24. 24 Sub-Saharan Africa- ▪ In 2010, UN-Habitat invited progressive builders from 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa to explore Green Building Council concept. ▪ Following conference, Nigeria launched its own Green Building Council; Kenya consolidated. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Buildings (continued) Participants at the Conference on Promoting Green Building Rating in Africa, hosted by UN-Habitat in Nairobi
  25. 25. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Buildings (continued) 25 ➢ Global Environment Facility and East African governments – “Promoting Energy Efficiency in Buildings” (2015) ▪ UN-Habitat in collaboration with UNEP ▪ Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi Burundi Source: www.bc-as.org
  26. 26. 26 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Energy Hamburg, Germany – ▪ After acquiring 25% of shares in local energy, gas & district heating utilities in 2012, Hamburg took over entire electricity distribution network in 2014 ▪ Took place under Germany’s Energiewende (‘Energy transition’) policy of 2010 ▪ Transition to distributed energy coincides with big increase in share of renewables – from 5 % (1999) to 23 % (2012) In September 2013, 51 % of Hamburg, Germany citizens voted in a referendum for the remunicipalisation of the energy distribution grid
  27. 27. 27 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Energy Solar Street Light Assembly Training for Youth in Kalobeyei, Kenya – ▪ Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies ▪ Improving the public space safety and delivering essential technical capacity ▪ UN-Habitat, UNHCR and the County Government with support from the Government of Japan Refugee community in Kalobeyei, Kenya
  28. 28. 28 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Energy (continued) Cape Town, South Africa – ▪ Kuyasa Clean Development Mechanism Pilot Project retrofitted 2,309 low-cost homes with solar water heaters, insulated ceilings & energy efficient lighting. ▪ Estimated reductions in GHG emissions 2009-2012: 10,527 tonesThe retrofitted district of Kuyasa, Cape Town, South Africa
  29. 29. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Waste Management Ämmässuo (Helsinki metropolitan area), Finland - ▪ Generates 15 MW of power. ▪ Reduces GHG emissions generated by waste treatment center by 3,000 tones per year (CO2e). 29 Landfill to gas plant in Ämmässuo, Finland
  30. 30. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Waste Management (continued) ➢ Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) – Pilot Landfill Site Construction Kiambu County (Kenya) ▪ Benefits: reduced waste, reduced GHG emissions & local economic development ▪ By UN-Habitat, Fukuoka University (Japan) and JICA 30
  31. 31. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Waste Management (continued) ➢ German foundation BASF Stiftung and UN Habitat’s Cities and Climate Change Initiative – Multifunctional Community Centre for Renewable Energy in Beira, Mozambique ▪ From human waste, bio-digester produces biogas, fuel briquettes & solar energy ▪ Benefits: reduced waste, reduced GHG emissions & local economic development ▪ Developed by UN–Habitat & Municipal Council of Beira 31 The Multifunctional Community Centre for Renewable Energy,, slum of Munhava, Mozambique
  32. 32. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Waste Management (continued) African Clean Cities Platform ▪ Knowledge sharing, waste SDG monitoring and capacity development ▪ UNEP, UN-Habitat, JICA and Ministry of the Environment of Japan 32
  33. 33. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Cross-sectoral Planning 33
  34. 34. 34 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Cross-sectoral Planning (continued) Royal Seaport district in Stockholm, Sweden Royal Seaport, Stockholm, Sweden - ▪ A new district in a former brownfield industrial land ▪ By allowing taller buildings, density of the built environment in the district is expected to nearly double compared to Stockholm’s average ▪ Carbon footprint emission projected to decrease to 1.5 tones per capita per year (compared to city-wide 4.5 tones)
  35. 35. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Cross-sectoral Planning (continued) 35 Guangzhou, China - More compact city development in China could save up to US$ 1.4 trillion in infra-structure spending - a considerable ‘co-benefit’. Source: World Bank, as cited in New Climate Economy Cities Paper 03 Transit Oriented Development centered on Bus Rapid Transit System in Curitiba, Brazil
  36. 36. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Cross-sectoral Planning (continued) ➢ European Commission – “Promoting Urban Low Emission Development Strategies” (Urban-LEDS I, 2012-2015) ▪ Implemented by Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) and UN Habitat ▪ Brazil, India, Indonesia, South Africa 36 Doornkop Community, South Africa: showcasing sustainable solutions (from Urban-LEDS 1)
  37. 37. 3. Mitigation in Urban Areas - Cross-sectoral Planning (continued) 37 Global Covenant of Mayors Day ✓ UN-Habitat on Founders’ Council ✓ Currently helping two committed cities in Least Developed Countries to comply with commitments ✓ Nacala (Mozambique) and Moroni (Comoros) Support by SIDA Cities and Climate Change Initiative, Bulletin October 2017 Greenhouse gas emission inventory workshop in Nacala, Mozambique
  38. 38. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas Cities & Climate Change Initiative (Gov’t. of Norway) ❖ Port Vila, Vanuatu Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment ✓ Used as key input into recovery after Typhoon Pam (March 2015) 38
  39. 39. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas Asia  Lao PDR – “Enhancing the climate & disaster resilience of the most vulnerable rural & emerging urban human settlements” ✓ Adaptation Fund ✓ Rapid methodology 39 Stakeholder consultation in preparation for the AF project in Laos © UN-Habitat
  40. 40. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas (continued) Africa  St. Louis – assess vulnerability, weigh options & build climate resilience in flood-prone neighborhood  Kampala – Integrated flood risk management strategy 40
  41. 41. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas (continued) 41 ➢ SIDA – “Pro-poor Planning of Climate Resilience in Marginalized Neighborhoods” (2016- 2019) ▪ City Resilience Action Planning (City-RAP) tool ▪ Jamaica, Cameroon, Solomon Islands, Burkina Faso, Fiji Bissighin, an informal settlement in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. © Felix Vollmann, UN-Habitat
  42. 42. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas (continued) 42 Following cyclone-related flooding in 2014, UN-Habitat supported development of an Urban Resilience & Climate Action Plan ✓ Developed & jointly approved by national & city governments Honiara, Solomon Islands
  43. 43. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas ➢ Adaptation Fund – Increasing the resilience of informal urban settlements ▪ UN-Habitat, Ministry of Local Government, Housing & Environment the four local councils and various NGOs ▪ Fiji 43
  44. 44. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas ➢ Adaptation Fund – Enhancing urban resilience to climate change impacts in Honiara ▪ UN-Habitat, Ministry of Lands Housing and Survey and Honiara City Council ▪ Solomon Islands 44
  45. 45. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas (continued) ➢ European Commission Myanmar Climate Change Alliance ✓ UN Environment & UN-Habitat ✓ Launched 2013 Now formulated: ▪ National Climate Change Policy, Strategy & Action Plan 45 Town planners & authorities participate in participatory hazard mapping exercise in Pakokku Town, Myanmar
  46. 46. 4. Adaptation in Urban Areas (continued) Netherlands (“Building with Nature”) – ▪ Lowering old dykes to allow water to flow freely ▪ Protecting upstream human settlements & nearby farms from flooding 46 “Room for the river” infrastructure project in Overdiepse Polder, Netherlands
  47. 47. 5. Upcoming initiatives COP-23 – Major emphasis on cities UN-Habitat – strong visibility & engagement 47
  48. 48. 5. Upcoming initiatives “Planners for Climate Action”. A new initiative involving… - National, regional, global planning associations and planning educators to promote the integration of climate change and urban planning. - Recognizes the important role that planners have to play in mitigating and adapting to climate change. - Aims to co-ordinate and amplify the voice of planners in the UNFCCC under the Marrakesh Partnership 48
  49. 49. 5. Upcoming initiatives 49 Accra, Ghana © Can Do Land Tours ➢ Climate & Clean Air Coalition – Small role in Urban Health Initiative ▪ Accra, Ghana (being implemented) http://www.ccacoalition.org/en ➢ European Climate Foundation – Grant to defray engagement in Founders’ Council of Global Covenant of Mayors (nearly signed) https://europeanclimate.org/ Accra, Ghana
  50. 50. 5. Upcoming initiatives ➢ European Commission – “Accelerating climate action through promotion of Urban Low Emission Development Strategies” (Urban- LEDS 2, signed July 2017) ▪ Existing – Brazil, India, Indonesia, South Africa ▪ New – Colombia, Bangladesh, Lao PDR, Rwanda 50
  51. 51. 5. Upcoming initiatives 51  Scientific Conference on Cities & Climate Change ✓ March 2018 ✓ Edmonton, Canada ✓ UN-Habitat on Organizing Committee ✓ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change co-organizer ✓ 4 commissioned papers Visit of Organizing Committee to Edmonton
  52. 52. 5. Upcoming initiatives 52  Public spaces in informal settlements – climate change ✓ Challenge: How might urban slum communities become more resilient to the effects of climate change? ✓ Streets and public spaces have often been overlooked and undervalued, but are increasingly being considered the backbone of cities ✓ Support informal settlement to improve designing and development of public spaces for Neighborhood Resilience through Social Cohesion
  53. 53. 5. Upcoming Initiatives 53 ➢ System of Environmental & Social Safeguards ✓ Dec 2016 – approved ✓ 2017 – Gradually being implemented ✓ Complements & goes beyond our system of cross-cutting Markers ✓ Key pre-condition to accreditation by Green Climate Fund
  54. 54. Guiding Principles for City Climate Action Planning 54 Ambitious Inclusive Fair Comprehensive and integrated Relevant Actionable Evidence-based Transparent and verifiable https://unhabitat.org/the-guiding-principles/
  55. 55. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 55 Copenhagen Targets: ▪ 2015 – Cut emissions 20 % from 2005 ▪ 2025 – Carbon neutral Progress: ▪ By 2014, had decreased total annual emissions from base year by 31 % How? ✓ Transform city’s energy supply. - Establish @ 100 wind turbines - Make district heating carbon neutral ✓ “All municipal plans must ensure the creation of neighborhoods with minimal transport and energy requirements” ✓ Reduce emissions to 1.15 M tonnes in 2025 ✓ Offset: “Remove as much CO2 as we produce” – Invest in more windmills - Plant forests that absorb CO2....
  56. 56. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 56 Sorsogon, Philippines ✓ Community hazard mapping Balikpapan, Indonesia (Urban-LEDS Project) ✓ City’s Corporate Social Responsibility Committee gathered input from businesses & industries, aims to leverage private sector funds for low emission development
  57. 57. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 57 Gorakhpur City, India Share benefits ✓ Pilot ‘micro-resilience planning’ ✓ Complement city-wide planning Shenzhen Share costs ✓ Carbon trading ✓ “Put a price on carbon” ✓ Involved 637 key enterprises to control CO2 emissions ✓ Co-benefit: AQ improvement
  58. 58. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 58 Ho Chi Minh City Horizontal integration ✓ Action: preserve mangrove forests in neighboring provinces Semarang, Indonesia Vertical integration ✓ City plan aligns with Indonesia climate change (CC) Roadmap ✓ Seek funding via national budget, CC Trust Fund
  59. 59. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 59 Tshwane, S. Africa ✓ “Food & Energy Centre demonstrates multiple co-benefits: sustainable livelihoods, food sovereignity, renewable energy, rainwater harvesting, poverty reduction, skills development, & entrepreneurship” Quito ✓ “The sustainability mobility action will create 2,200 temp & 1,155 full time jobs” Shenzhen ✓ Improve air quality while reducing GHG emissions Copenhagen ✓ “We see climate as an opportunity for making Copenhagen even more attractive”
  60. 60. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 60 Ho Chi Minh City Many priority actions identified as: ✓ No regret – justified under all plausible scenarios ✓ Win-win – co-benefits ✓ Increase flexibility – measures that are reversible or can later be adjusted… keep options open
  61. 61. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 61 Quito Inadequate housing on steep slopes prone to landslides ✓ Established Panel on Climate Change – commission scientific studies by experts & scientists to better understand impacts of climate change ✓ Complement bottom-up info
  62. 62. 6. What are the Guiding Principles? 62 Chicago ✓ Annual public reports on-line Tshwane, S. Africa 4x/yr. report to mayor on progress: ✓ 20 MW solar farm ✓ Retrofit street lights ✓ Biomass powered electricity ✓ Buses to be fueled by compressed natural gas from Food & Energy Centre
  63. 63. 7. Conclusions 63 A. Regarding urban climate action, the major global agendas of 2015 & 2016 are mutually reinforcing
  64. 64. 64 7. Conclusions B. Truly effective urban climate policies in a number of sectors – ✓ ecosystem-based adaptation, ✓ sustainable transportation, ✓ solid waste management, ✓ renewable energy, ✓ urban food chains – transcend municipal boundaries & require a city-regional approach. This may involve municipal cooperation – “horizontal integration”. In some cases a ‘city-region’ may cross an international boundary.
  65. 65. 65 7. Conclusions C. The Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy encourages cities to take climate action in a manner consistent with national level reporting. It has the potential to be the most important global initiative to encourage ambitious urban climate action.
  66. 66. 66 7. Conclusions D. Effective city-level climate action also requires "vertical integration" From national to local level – - Empower local action - Provide enabling framework, resources, standards, etc. From local to national level - - "MRV" reporting of climate results suitable to include in NDC reporting
  67. 67. World Urban Forum 9, Kuala Lumpur 67 Theme: Cities 2030, Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda
  68. 68. 68 THANK YOU! Raf.Tuts@unhabitat.org