1. 3.5 Washing Department
Organogram of Washing Dept.
Floor in Charge
3. Types of garments washing
The different types/methods of washing are mentioned below: Primarily garments washing are two
I. Dry process/Mechanical process
II. Wet process/Chemical process
Types of Dry process/Mechanical process Tarasima Apparels ltd.
Over all wrinkles
Broken and tagging
Grinding and destroy
PP spray and PP sponging etc.
Types of Wet process/Chemical process
Normal wash/ garment wash/rinse wash.
Stone Enzyme wash.
Tinting (Tie) & Over Dyeing (Dip Dyeing).
An example of determining the required capacity for a particular style is given below:
Working hours=20 hours=1200 min
Required time for one lot of denim wash= 240 min
Total order qty. =20,000
Lot weight= 114 kg Lot qty.= 200 pcs
For “Yilmak 3860s”, Capacity= 380 kg
4. Loading factor= 30%
So, acceptable capacity= 114 kg
No. of lot per machine= 1200/240 =5 lot.
So, acceptable qty. for per machine=5*200 pcs = 1000 pcs
Let us assume that the ex-factory date is 10 days for this denim lot.
So, per day delivery target = 20,000/10 = 2,000 pcs.
So, number of machine needed= 2,000/1,000=2 m/c.
So, the required capacity for this particular denim style is 2 m/c for 2,000 pcs. per day.
List of machines with capacity
Types and total number of machines
Types Total Number Total M/C
Dryer 13 39
List of machines with capacity
Names and capacity of machines (Washing)
Name Model No. Number of M/C Capacity(KG)
TONELLO G1420LD1 2 400
YILMAK HBM50245 4 500
YILMAK HBM38605 3 380
GREENMAC BELLEY CM550 5 250
PANYUXIN TW-W-30 1 250
YILMAK 3860-C 6 380
5. List of machines with capacity
Names and capacity of machines (Dryer)
Name Model Number Number of M/C
YILMAK HNS 6000 3
YILMAK HNS 4069 5
TRIVENTA GRANDI E/300 2
YILMAK HNS 3000 3
6. Names and numbers of machines (Hydro)
Name Model no. Number of m/c
YILMAK HG120 4
GREEN MAC `1
Types of washes we do
There are two types of washes we do.
7. Dry process:
Whiskers are one of the most important designs of a used look garment. The idea of whiskers is
taken from the worn out lines and impression patterns generated by natural wearing on hips and
front thigh area. On old jeans, a number of patterns can be finding consequential to fabric, body
shape of user or sitting posture. It is also known as Cat's Whisker
8. Hand scraping
To create the impression or visibility of pocketing fabric of any inside materials visibility to the
face side of the jeans pants with the help of emery paper is called hand scraping. Emery paper
comes in different number generally starts from 40 till 600 and above, higher the number finer
the emery paper, lower the coarseness of the paper. In garment industry from 220, 320 & 400
number papers are most popular & widely used.
The process is kind of resin finishing process. In this process of applying resin on textile
material, resin form cross-linking inside the amorphous region and block the free hydroxyl (OH)
group and preventing hydrogen bond formation thus improve wrinkle free finishing. Mainly it is
applied on twill fabric, single jersey and denim fabric.
Improve resistant and recovery to crease.
Good water repellency and moderately soil repellency.
Improve handle and draping properties.
Increase wet and dry fastness.
Tagging is doing on garment for fashion and value added fashion wear. Tagging is doing by
Tagging is also by needle and manually.
After wash upper portion of garment occur crease mark and inside of tagging occurs dark
Tacking: is a process which is being done by swift tag machine with the help of plastic or
nylon tag pins in rigid form of garment to get very heavy contrast ( rigid & washed ) on
waistband, bottom hems, back pocket & front pocket corners etc.. After completing wash
cycle, it must be removed from garment before making softening.
9. Grinding: is being done on pocket edges & bottom hems edges by running against abrasion
surface or stone to achieve worn out effect. Many different make of machines & pen grinding
tools are available in the market which runs with pneumatic system
One of the most popular distressing effects currently, ‘Destruction’ is an art which make denim
look unique & used. To make destruction pen type of stone tools being used in mid of wash
process to apply on desired area. It can also be achieved by cutting it thru knife the warp yarns &
keep the weft yarn as is to show white thread. Holes also can be made by cutting weft & warp
Potassium Permanganate Sponging/ Brushing:
PP Spray is being done on denim garments to achieve local abraded area to appear whiter than
back ground indigo color shade. This can be applied by sponges dipped in to PP Solution &
rubbed on desired area followed by neutralization in wet process. This process can be done in
rigid after doing hand scrape or in the middle of the wash. Doing after enzyme or bleach cycle
will give more natural & white effect that doing in rigid. There are many additives can be added
in order to achieve desired intensity and look.
10. Resin Application (3D Effect):
Resin (Formaldehyde free) being used for achieving 3D effect (3 Dimensional), Rigid Look etc.
This process can be done by spraying or dipping the garments in to Resin, Catalyst, Silicone &
PU solution in right combination according to the fabric strength & desired effect needed.
After application of resin solution in right proportion, make manual designing as needed on the
thigh, hip & back knee area to get 3Dimentional effect. After making it , it should be manually
dried with hot press or hair dryer & then must be cured in oven at right temperature, time as
mentioned in resin product manual.
11. Wet wash process
Desize is the first process on garment washing.
Object of enzyme wash:
To remove size material from the garments.
To remove the starch present on the garments.
To improve the anti-pilling properties.
Enzyme wash: Enzyme wash is done on the garments made from heavy fabrics like
jeans and denim. Cellulose enzyme is used for this types of wash.Thease cellulose
Enzyme hydrolyses the projecting hairy cotton of the garment fabric surface and also
Object of enzyme wash:
To remove size material from the garments.
To achieve the buyer reference sample /washing standard.
Enzyme attack as chemically not mechanically for this reason low damage.
Enzyme improves anti-pilling properties
Types of enzyme: mainly two types of enzyme.
Object of Pumic stone:
The pumice stone are the perforated stones, produced from volcanic explosion.
At first these stones are soft but becomes cold, it becomes the stones with
Pumice stones float on water.
Pumice stones come from Indonesia and Turkey.
Indonesia stone color is slightly brown and Turkey stone is white color.
Pumice stones are available in 3 size i.e. small 2-3 cm, medium 3-5 cm and
large size 5-7 cm.
12. Two to Three times can be used are pumice stone.
Every bag contain 22 kg to 25 kg and price 400/= to 425/=/ bag (varies).
Stone enzyme wash:
Object of stone enzyme wash:
To create or produce irregular fading or old looking effect on garment.
Especially developed the “bio-polishing “effect of cotton/denim. To remove dust, dirt, spot,
and impurities from the garment.
For soft feeling to wear the garment.
To achieve the buyer washing standard.
Object of bleach wash:
To produce fading affect or old looking effect on garment.
To remove size material from, starch from the garment.
For soft hand felling to wear the garment
To achieve the buyer washing standard.
Object of softener:
To increase softness of the garment. As if the consumer
To achieve the buyer washing standard.
13. Liquor Ratio
In a washing procedure the chemical which will use in the machine is mixed with water first. To
get a perfect wash these mixtures have to good.
Liquor ratio is the ratio between water and the chemical that is used in the washing machine to
get a perfect washing.
Depending on wash type based on different chemical loading factor of the machine should be
minimize to get the best quality of wash.
Load factor is basically the amount of loading of each machine’s capacity
14. Process Cycle Time
Cycle time of washing is the total time from the beginning to the end of the washing process.
To get a cycle time for the total washing procedure; CycleTime =Time + (Time*25%)
The process by which unwanted crease and crinkle are removed with view of increasing
smoothness , brightness and beauty of the garment is called pressing.In the garments industries it
is called ironing .This process plays an important role to grow attractiveness to the buyers.
Machine used in garment finishing:
Materials used in garments finishing:
The Following are the matters must be inspected during pressing:
Inspected for fused area or fused stain if any. Inspected for water spot if any .
Inspected for shade variation area if any.
Inspected for broken chain or button if any .
Inspected for correct folding.
Inspected for crinkle area.
Inspected for stretched garment during Pressing.
Inspected for unexpected area in lining.
Inspected for proper shape.
This is also informed that, the temperature, pressure of pressing head and time during
pressing must be inspected.
TAL followed several folding style.
Packing is very important step in garment industry.
TAL use following several types of packing system.
Solid color and solid size.
Solid color and assort size.
Assort color and assort size.
Assort color and solid size.
Cartooning is very important every production manufacturing company for final production
Types of cartoon:
1. Depend on paper:
2. Depend on stitching.
Gum pasting cartoon/metal free cartoon.
3. Depend on ply:
3 ply cartoon.
5 ply cartoon.
7 ply cartoon.
4. Depend on liner
Both side liner Carton
Outside liner Carton
5. Depend on size
19. 3.7 Industrial Engineering Dept.
The garment manufacturing industry faces many global challenges due to various factors including
competition, increased production costs, less productivity/efficiency and labor attribution. So, there is a
need to focus and concentrate on identifying the real issues, taking corrective actions suited to the specific
industrial center of the unit, empowering the technical and managerial staff by enhancing their knowledge
and ability, analyzing orders efficiently and deciding whether actions are viable for the company.
Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated
system of man, machine and equipment drawing upon specialized knowledge and skill in the
technical, economics and human sciences, either with the principles or methods of engineering
analysis and design to specify, predict or evaluate the results to be obtained from such system.
To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently,
1. Study the product and its requirements
2. Use mathematical methods to meet product requirements
3. Design manufacturing and information systems
4. Develop management control systems for financial planning and cost analysis
5. Design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and control
6. Design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services
7. Determine which plant location has the best combination of raw materials availability,
transportation, and costs
8. Develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs
Responsibility of IE
1. Planning layouts
2. Monitoring Production flow system
3. Deicide the machines and attachments for all style
4. Pay system
5. Monitoring and improve the operator performance
6. Operator training
7. Production control system
8. Quality control
Basics Techniques of Industrial Engineering
20. There are some basic terms, which are important to know before learning IE. Short descriptions
of these terms are highlighted below:
It is exactly the measure of the operator same as capability. It means the operator is capable of achieving
the performance measured by the study. The major Need for capacity study is to set Quotas, to motivate
operator, and to measure the productions section capacity. By measuring the individual operator
capacities, supervisor can determine the overall capacity of their section. It is simply the sum of
1. Use of stop watch
2. Measure the time study
3. Average the time cycle
This average cycle time measures the operator ability to do the particular job. It’s the measure
of the skill of particular operator. Because the Industrial Engineers want to measure the skills
and ability of the operator in their average cycle time.
Benefits of Capacity Study:
1. Check targets
2. Motivate operators
3. Measure section production capability
Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of
doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing
The procedures which need to do follow while doing method study are given as follows.
There are seven steps to be followed by industrial engineers to do method study
1. Select the work to be studied
2. Define the objective
3. Record the relevant information and data
4. Examine information and data
5. Develop the improved method
6. Install improved method
21. 7. Maintain the improved method
8. Work measurement
Work measurement is carried out by time study. Time study is a work measurement
technique for recording the times and rates of working for elements of a specified job carried out
under specified conditions and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for
carrying out the job at a level of performance. The concept of Rating is fundamental of time
study. Rating is the process used by industrial engineer to compare the actual performance of the
operator with operator mental concept of normal performance. The rating is the numerical values
used to denote the ratio of working. In order to rate the operator ether must be a defined level
of performance to compare with, an average level. For this the industrial engineers apply
the concept of a “Standard operator”. A standard operator is a fully trained and motivated to
perform a defined task and is, by definition average in terms of his /her work place.
The steps to do the time study is as follows,
1. Observe the job and analyse to determine the element
2. Rate each element to compare with the accepted standard
3. Use the stopwatch to time each element
4. Average the selected element times
5. Multiply average element time by rating
6. Add the basic time for all the element
7. Add allowances
Here the elements are the small components into which an operation is divided for
study purpose. They are selected for the convenience of the observation, measurement and
analysis. These elements should be clear and fully describable during the data presentation and
Basically the operator performance can be monitored with the help of three efficiency factors.
1. Single cycle efficiency
2. On-standard efficiency
3. Global efficiency
The time spent by an operator at his work under a condition that is not considered as productive.
Types of off-standard
1. Machine break down (m/c failure, thread cuts, needle breakage, etc.)
2. Waiting time (No WIP , Waiting for the bundle)
22. 3. Quality problems
4. No feeding
5. Un familiar job (Working other than her regular operation)
Global efficiency = [Operator production × SAM per piece for the operation] / [Working time in
Here, the total working time is considered (even unproductive time is also considered).
This requires that someone checks on and stays with something until desired results are
achieved. Any project being implemented successfully may fail if the follow-up is not consistent.
Here we are going to concentrate on operator performance follow up.
Benefits of Operator Follow-ups:
1. Improve performance (motivate)
2. Prove job quotas
3. Spot troubles
Types of follow-ups
1. Bundle by bundle follow-up
2. Bundle diagnosis
Why Industrial Engineering is Need in Apparel Industry?
Industrial way of garment production needs a thorough preparation of production because in the
same time, it is necessary to combine a few factors: people, time, machines and place of
production, organization and material in a coordinated and rational system. Technological
system of garment production must enable expected quality of product, necessary scope of
production, delivery of ready-made garments in the expected time, maximum use of capacity
with minimum expenses. An Industrial Engineer can perform several activities to fulfill their
task, Processes and Procedures of manufacturing or service activities can be examined through
Process Analysis. Industrial engineers can use Work Study comprehending Method Study and
Time Study. The mentioned activities are also called operations Management. Furthermore can
Industrial Engineering involve inventory management to make a manufacturing process more
feasible and efficient.
3.8 Quality Department
23. Quality process from fabric to the pack garment
Quality Process in Fabric:
Different types of spot checking Side-Centre-Side shade check
End-End shade check
Quality Process in Cutting:
Panel inspection after numbering Dimension check
Pattern size variation check
100% of cutting table inspection
Quality Process in Sewing:
Traffic light inspection system
End of line inspection or table checking
For both front part and back part inspection before assembling
Total garment inspection after assembling
Quality Process in finishing:
Initial finishing inspection
Final finishing Inspection
Internal final audit
Shade control system from fabric to the pack garment
24. Shade variation in fabric may appear as:
Within same fabric roll there may be shade variation like 'centre to selvage' and 'salvage to
• Within same fabric roll length wise shade variation
• Shade variation in between fabric rolls
Shade control system from fabric to the pack garment
Shade control in different areas:
Fabric inspection: All fabric rolls need to inspect for shade variation. Categorize fabric
rolls based on fabric shades. If there is a wide range of shade variation and fabric shade is out
of the standard one, management team should be informed.
Preparing Shade band: Develop shade bands and get approval for all shade bands you have
in your bulk fabric. Mark shade band no. to each fabric roll / than. Shade bands help in fabric
layering and shorting in cutting room.
Communicate with clear information: With varied shades of fabrics, information must be
shared with cutting department as well as production department.While issuing fabric to cutting,
intimate cutting department that fabric has different shades and fabric lots should not be get mixed.
Fabric layering: Categorizing rolls according to shade band.While spreading fabrics for cutting,
spread fabrics of same shade band no.
In a layFabrics roll of different shades.When need to spread fabric of another shade on the same lay
place separator to identify cutting of different rolls easily at the time of shorting and bundling.
Two Bitopi Group facilities have installed the Effluent Treatment Plant to purify water and
remove any toxic and non-toxic materials or chemicals from it. Electro catalytic oxidization
technology is innovative, and for the first time in Bangladesh the reactor synthesizes nano
catalysts that continuously enter the wastewater and accelerate treatment processes. TAL
installed an Electro Cascade Reactor at its on-site ETP that runs at a capacity of 70m3/hr. ETP is
essential to purify the waste water coming from different types of water usage, and through this
process, the waste water can serve different purposes such as washroom flush with zero
Water recycling is a former wastewater which is collected from Rain Water harvest plant and
through ETP by disaggregating chemicals and impurities from the water that has been used in
washing. This water is used in sustainable landscaping irrigation, industrial water needs, and
26. What is waste?
Waste is any substance or object which is discarded, intended to be discarded or is required to be
discarded. Waste can include expired raw materials generated from a process for which there is
no further use on-site, expired finished products, process or non-process by-products, customer
returns, redundant equipment, etc. It can also include electronic waste (or “e-waste”). (Higg 2.0-
How to Higg Guide, V1.0, pg 66).
Waste generated in a facility can be classified mainly into two categories:
1) Hazardous waste
2) Non-hazardous waste
"A hazardous waste is a waste that could cause harm to public health and/or the environment
because of its chemical, physical or biological characteristics (e.g., it is flammable, explosive,
toxic, radioactive, or infectious). Hazardous wastes that is dangerous or potentially harmful to
our health or the environment. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, gases, or sludge. They
can be discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides, or the by-products of
manufacturing processes. (The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)"" (Higg 2.0-How to
Higg Guide, V1.0, pg 66).
Waste can also be defined as
1) Process/ Production waste and
2) Non-process/ Non-Production waste
27. Process Waste: Directly related to prodcution process
Waste from, dyeing, washing, printing, embroidery, cutting, sewing, finishing, packaging &
Waste from warehouse/ storeroom
Waste from printing, embroidery
Rejected / unused dyes & chemicals
ETP sludge & Unused ETP chemicals
Non- Process Wastes: Not derectly related to production process
Office waste – paper, cartoons, used printer/photo copier ink/toners
Electronic waste- used bulbs, tube lights, batteries, monitor
Oil, grease, leftover diesel
Metallic and maintenance wastes
Chemical drums & containers
Waste Treatment Process
To minimize the volume and disposal costs of the wastes generated at the different units, TAL
installed a 2 ton incineration boiler, which uses factory wastes - fabric waste, thread cones, and
carton boxes/paper as combustion fuel.
Biogas is the product of the natural biological breakdown of organic & carbon-rich waste when
the supply of oxygen is restricted. Our technology extracts the value contained in non-recyclable
waste by producing 'biogas', a methane-rich natural gas.
It is renewable Source of Energy where wastage food has been using as a row material. Instead
of disposing of the food waste used every day, the factory uses it as feedstock for its biogas plant
28. Energy Management
Prismatic skylights enable Prismatic Operation by harnessing the sun so that electric lights can
be dimmed or turned off for a portion of the day, conserving energy while making the interior
more pleasant for occupants.
Our 125 kw solar panel on the rooftops meet 5% of the total electricity required by the factory.
Unlike fans usually used in offices, factories and houses, ours are set on top of the sewing floor
of the factory building, to evenly distribute cool air.
Maintenance of machinery is very essential mechanical effort for achieving smooth running of
different machines. Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in such a Way
that trouble free. Services and increased machine life can be ensured and specific product
Quality required by the customers is sustained. On time maintenance increase m/c lifetime &
ensures trouble free services.
There are two types of maintenance are done.
Break down maintenance
Object of maintenance:
To keep the factory plants, equipment, machine tools, in an optimum working condition.
To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer.
To keep me downtime of machines to me minimum must to have control over e
To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range.
Maintenance System used in TAL:
30. Some details about Breakdown Maintenance.
Breakdown maintenance: Breakdown maintenance is basically the run it till it breaks
Maintenance mode. No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment as the Designer
originally intended to ensure design life is reached.
Low cost and Less Staff.
Increased cost due to unplanned downtime equipment.
It is critical piece of equipment that needs to be back on line quickly, have to pay Maintenance
TAL itself make own boiler house under self-production unit. Utility refers to gas, electricity, water
treatment plant, and ETP whereas maintained by TAL team takes all the facilities from govt. alliances.
Source of Utility:
1. Water- Own supply (Pump)
2. Steam-Own supply (Boiler)
3. Electricity-Generator & PDB
4MVA Generator 33/11KV substation
Diesel generator -500 kw & 800 kw
Gas generator -1030 kw
Emergency generator-35.2 kw
4. Gas- Titas Gas Transmission & Distribution Co. Ltd.
5. Compressed air- Own supply (Air compressor)
BMS =Building Management system
31. 3.10 Compliance:
Compliance means conformity of certain standard. TAL maintains a moderate working
condition for their employees. Though it is well established project, there is some lacking
of proper compliance issue.
The term compliance describes the ability to act according to an order, set of rules or request.
In the context of financial services businesses compliance operates at two levels.
Level 1 - compliance with the external rules that are imposed upon an organization as a
Level 2 - compliance with internal systems of control that are imposed to achieve
compliance with the externally imposed rules.
TAL is totally a compliance factory and it ensured itself by proving all the condition in
Duty, objective and responsibility does a Compliance Officer fulfill:
Duty: to identify and manage regulatory risk.
Objectives:- The overriding objectives of a compliance officer should be to ensure
that an organization has systems of internal control that adequately measure and manage
the risks that it faces.
Responsibility - The general responsibility of the Compliance Officer is to provide an
in-house compliance service that effectively supports business areas in their duty to
comply with relevant laws and regulations and internal procedures.
The five key functions of a Compliance Department:
1. To identify the risks that an organization faces and advise on them (identification)
2. To design and implement controls to protect an organization from those risks
3. To monitor and report on the effectiveness of those controls in the management of an
organizations exposure to risks (monitoring and detection)
4. To resolve compliance difficulties as they occur (resolution)
32. 5. To advise the business on rules and controls (advisory)
List of the compliance issue:
Compensation for holiday.
Leave with wages.
National festival holiday.
Weekly holiday fund.
Sexual harassment policy.
Child labor abolition.
Anti -discrimination policy.
Health and safety committee.
Child care home.
Tarasima Apparel Ltd (TAL) has now established in the world as a manufacturer of reputed
fabric and capable of Producing value added products and executing difficult orders at very short
lead time. The Planning, organizing, controlling, designing, creativity, the technical skill and
above all the Quality conscious have cemented the base of this leading textile industry. With
highly advanced Technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, its seems to
Clear that Bitopi group of textile has the potential to make an important contribution to the
Nation growing readymade, garments export sector and makes an example for others.
We have found ourselves fortunate to have our industrial training at TAL. It has a huge
Production capacity with a very efficient production team TAL. Has very well, well Equipped
and modern Machineries and producing a wide range Product. During our training Period we
have noticed that TAL is very concern about their quality and them rarely
Have any quality complain. The management of TAL is very organized, pre-active and Co-
At the end of the day we realized that industrial training make our knowledge’s application
practically and make us confident to face any problem of our job sector.