Recognise that much of our behavior is
shaped through our contact with others
Define the difference between gender and
Understand how children are canalized to
be boys or girls
Define the difference between PRIMARY
and SECONDARY socialization
THINGS RARELY JUST
We learn how to be responsible
members of our society and we also
learn that we can’t do exactly what we
want at all times – there are
constraints on our behaviour.
We gradually develop our own
identity through a collection of
important happenings, through a
never-ending social process.
The process of learning to be a
participating member of society
is known as socialisation
... and the process of social
control regulates our behaviour
and brings about conformity to
the norms and laws of society.
SOCIALIZATION AS SOCIAL
Case studies involving feral children have provided
insight into the process of socialization.
John Ssabunnya and Oxana Malaya grew up with very
little contact with other people. Read your handout on
John or Oxana and:
Think of five aspects of your behaviour as a five-year old
that John or Oxana would know nothing about.
If either had joined your familiy aged five, what would have
been the main barrier they would have faced in becoming
one of us?
This is the term used to
describe the informal process
through which you learn the
norms, attitudes, values, and
actions of your culture.
It takes place in early childhood
and the main shaping influence
is usually the family and the
The family is one of the most
important agencies of
It is here that you eventually learn such
basic things as: how to communicate
with others, how not to eat with your
fingers, how and when to use a potty,
the difference between right and wrong,
and how to share with others.
Many of these skills are copied and
learned by watching what parents do.
Good behaviour is praised whereas
unacceptable behaviour is frowned
SEX AND GENDER
Sociologists distinguish between sex and
The term sex refers to whether a person is
considered male or female.
It concerns biological differences between
men and women, in relation to their bodies
and role in reproduction.
These physical characteristics are ascribed
at birth and are usually fixed throughout life.
It is in the family where you first
develop your gender identity.
This is where you learn what is
seen as acceptable masculine and
Canalisation results in girls and
boys having different experiences
in their early years.
Although things are changing,
there is still a pink/blue,
female/male colour preference.
Male Female Masculine Feminine
Born this way Socialised
Gender describes the different
social practices, expectations and
ideas that are associated with
masculinity and femininity.
Families often socialize their sons
and daughters differently and so
children develop a gender identity
– they come to see themselves as
masculine or feminine.
BOYS AND GIRLS
Many girls use pink as an
expression of their femininity and
few parents would choose to
dress their baby boy in pink.
Many parents and most toy shops
make distinctions between boys’
toys and girls’ toys.
We differentiate between girls
and boys in the names we give
them, the style and colour of
clothes we dress them in, the way
we speak to them etc.
Many sociolgists have concluded
that the process of socialization is
By this they mean that socialization
prepares us for social roles related to
our gender, such as breadwinner or
YOUTUBE CLIP – INTERVIEWS WITH
KIDS ON GENDER ROLES
AIMS OF SOCIALIZATION
A To instill disciplines
Eg. Don't walk in front of a moving car
n To develop aspirations and ambitions
Eg. I want to be a nun, rock star, great sociologist.
To develop skills
Eg. Reading, driving, etc.
v To enable the acquisition of social roles
Eg. male, female, helper, worker etc.
Refers to the socialization
process when there exists a
deliberate and purposeful
intent to convey values,
attitudes, knowledge, skill,
Parents telling a child to
always say "please."
Socialization which occurs
as a result of spontaneous
interaction with no
purposeful or deliberate
attempt on the part of
anyone involved to train,
The child learning to use
vulgarity in a frustrating
traffic situation by
EDUCATION – FORMAL
School delivers knowledge and
skills to prepare you for the big
wide world through the formal
The formal curriculum is what
students learn in their timetabled
lessons, for example, maths and
EDUCATION – HIDDEN
There is also another side to the
socialisation process in schools through
the hidden curriculum.
Schools have rules e.g. particular dress
code or uniform (which is different for
boys and girls).
You are expected to be on time and
respect the authority of your teacher in
You are expected to conform to the rules
and you encounter problems if you don’t.
Education and school plays a vital role in teaching
the values and norms of society to each new
Marxists see education as
socializing individuals into
accepting the values of the
For example, the stress placed on the importance of
hard work in schools and colleges is seen as
preparing for accepting hard work as normal when
entering the workplace.
reward for positive
INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL actions or penalty for
If you stick to the rules you
are rewarded through
positive sanctions such as
praise, presents or just
If you break the rules,
negative sanctions are
applied in the form of
disapproval or punishment.
FORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL
The main agency of formal social control is the
criminal justice system.
the police who make sure we conform to the laws
created by the legislature and investigate cases of
the judiciary who deal with those who are accused
of breaking the law the probation
the prison service who look after people who have
been found guilty of breaking the law.
MARXIST / FUNCTIONALIST
Marxist: Education system
seen as an agency of formal
social control. Schools,
colleges and universities all
have formal rules and impose
negative sanctions on anyone
who breaks them.
Functionalist: For society to
run smoothly there must be
some means of regulating
people’s behaviour and
MARXIST / FUNCTIONALIST
The education system has a role in socializing,
controlling and politically educating people in society.
Functionalist perspectives see these roles as positive
and of benefit to the society.
Marxist perspectives see education as having a
beneficial role for privileged groups in society and
reinforcing existing inequalities.
Formal curriculum: learnt in lessons
Hidden curriculum: attitudes and behaviours
Sanction: agreed reward for positive actions or
penalty for negative actions.
Legislature: the section of the government that is
responsible for making laws.
Judiciary: the section of the government that has
the power to apply the law, that is, the court system
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