What is caregiving?
Who is the person
What are the 3
classification of tools
and equipment in
1. Infrared thermometers are
commonly called laser
2. Temperature is a measurement of
the amount of heat in the body. The
balance between heat produced and
heat lost is the body temperature.
3. The first step in washing clothes is
sorting them according to color and type
4. Iron should cool down before storing.
5. When measuring the client’s
temperature, it is not important for the
wash his/her hands because he/she does
not come in contact with the client’s
• Now that you have successfully identified the
different equipment, tools, and
paraphernalia used in providing health care,
it is a must that you master the proper
utilization of each. As an efficient and
dependable caregiver, you must learn the
procedures in operating them, since you will
be expected to use them in your particular
Caregiving Module for Grade 8
1.Choose a flat, dry surface on which to
operate your blender.
2.Make sure that all the parts are placed
in their appropriate places
3.Put the pitcher onto the base and plug the
4.Place the ingredients in the pitcher
and put the lid on firmly.
5.Start operating by choosing the
setting appropriate for the task you
are going to do.
6. You may add food or ingredients
through the secondary lid while the
blender is running.
7. Clean the blender after use.
1.Fill the carafe with water
according to the number of
cups of coffee you need to
2.Pour the water from the
carafe into the reservoir of the
coffee maker, and place the
carafe back into position.
3. Place a coffee filter into the filter
basket. The amount of coffee you'll
need to add depends on how
strong or weak your clients like it.
Then, add the coffee into the filter
using a spoon.
4. Turn on the coffee maker and
wait for your coffee to brew.
Electric Can Opener
1.Plug the electric can opener into an
2.Lift up the lever that raises the
cutting wheel into the air. Place the
lip of the can under the wheel.
Put the lever down and press hard
enough so that the wheel gets into
Caregiving Module for Grade 8
3.Turn on the opener
while holding the bottom
of the can and it will
automatically turn as the
wheel slices through the
4. Remove the can from the opener
when it reaches
the end and you feel a slight drop of the
can. The lid will remain attached to the
magnet on the opener and the can is
ready to dump.
5.Unplug the opener from the outlet.
1. Remove the food processor from its
2. Place it on a stable, flat surface.
3. Plug it on the electrical outlet safely.
4. Remove the cover and put the food
Caregiving Module for Grade 8
5.Put back the cover and turn on
the processor to start with the
6.As soon as you have reached the
desire size or texture for your food
ingredients, remove the cover and
pour the ingredients into your bowl or
7.Unplug the food processor and
clean it based on the manufacturer’s
1.Place the recommended amount of
water as specified in the manufacturer’s
instructional manual. Then, plug in the
2.Place the bottle upside down (use the
prongs to support them individually).
Place the nipples, nipple rings and caps
in such a way that they do not touch each
3.Cover the sterilizer and turn on the unit.
Sterilization typically takes about 10
minutes with an automatic cycle that
raises water temperature to a sufficient
level to kill off any bacteria (212 degrees
Fahrenheit). Once this cycle ends, the
unit automatically begins to cool. Some
models or units will not allow you to open
the cover until the cooling cycle is
4.Unplug the unit.
5.Remove the feeding bot
1.Check the label of every garment before
ironing. This is necessary as some fabrics need
special care instructions.
2.Unfold your ironing board near the outlet. Plug
in your iron and choose the appropriate setting
based on the material of the clothes you are
3. Preheating the flat iron should be done
before starting. You will have to wait about 2-5
minutes to let the iron warm up.
4. Stretch the garment across the ironing board
to make sure it is flat.
5. Run the iron over one part of the garment
such as the hem just to be sure that it is not too
6. Move the iron over the pants, blouse, or
shirt and take note of pleats and pockets.
1.The very first step in washing is sorting
the clothes of your client. Separate white
and light-colored from dark-colored clothes.
Also, they should be sorted according to
their material. Wash clothes with heavy
fabrics together and clothes with light fabrics
2.Put detergent into the washing machine.
Let the detergent go to the bottom of the
3. Put the clothes loosely into the washing
4. Load the laundry as high as the
manufacturer specifies or to the top row of
holes in the tub.
5.Close the lid and choose the setting of the
washing machine according to what you are
6.Turn on the machine. Let the unit work
through all of the cycles. Wait for the
machine to turn off before you unload the
7.Load the next batch of clothes and do
steps 5 and 6 again until you are done with
8.Turn off and unplug the unit.
If you will going to wash your
clothes, socks, pants, underwear
and your handkerchief,
what should be washed first?
what could be washed together?
what would be washed for the last?
Look for the example of
manual of washing
machine or iron. Read
and make a summary
1. What can you say about this picture shown?
2. Are you familiar with what the caregiver is doing in
3. Are you familiar with those instrument she is
handling? What are those?
4. What are their functions?
5. Do you know how to operate those instrument?
6. Did you experienced taking blood pressure to
•When caring for an infant, toddler,
child, elderly or person with special
needs, measuring the vital signs is
of utmost concern.
•This is also a concern of your client.
Hence, he/she has the right to
know her vital signs.
Caregiving Module for Grade 8
This module will walk you through
the basics of taking two of the
As you learn the different
processes, you will also get your
hands on the crucial pointers
necessary in obtaining an accurate
But first, let us talk about vital
Vital signs are bodily functions that reflect the
body’s state of health and are easily
In some cases, the fifth vital sign is considered
to be the pain that a person experiences.
The taking of TPR rate is important
because it serves as an indicator of
Most institution have routine times of
taking TPR rate, often every 4hours, but a
patient’s illness or certain other
conditions may indicate more frequent
Routine TPR is usually taken on a number
of patient at one time, and the readings
Body temperature is a measurement of the
amount of heat in the body.
The normal adult body temperature
ranges to 36.5-37.5 degree Celsius.
Many factors ---time of day, age,
presence of infection, temperature of the
environment, amount of excise,
metabolism and emotional status can
raise or lower a patient’s temperature.
If the patient has been drinking
liquids that are either hot or cold,
delay taking the patient’s temperature
for at least 30 minutes.
Different sites of the body can be
used to get the temperature. Like you
can get body temperature orally,
rectally, axillary (armpit), and
a. Axillary Temperature --using Clinical
1. Expose the client’s axilla (armpit)
2. If axilla is moist, pat it dry using the client’s
3. Place the thermometer at the center of the
4. Assist the client to place the arm tightly across
the chest to keep the thermometer in place.
5. Leave the thermometer in place for 9 minutes;
for infants 5 minutes.
b. Axillary Temperature--Using Digital
1. Wash your hands and take the thermometer from
2. Clean the probe (pointed end) of the thermometer
with rubbing alcohol or soap and then rinse it in cool
3. Inform the client that you are going to take his
temperature under the armpit.
4. Place the thermometer under the client’s armpit.
(You may have to hold the thermometer specially if
your client is very sick and weak that he/she cannot
even hold the thermometer with his/her armpit.
5. Leave the thermometer in place until the
thermometer signals it is finished. When the
thermometer beeps, it means it can be removed.
6. Remove the thermometer carefully
and read the temperature on the
7. Clean the tip of the thermometer
with a cotton ball soaked in alcohol.
8. Put the thermometer’s tip cover.
9. Place the thermometer in its
10. Record the reading and wash your
1. Put on gloves.
2. Place some lubricant on a cotton ball. In a
rotating motion, lubricate the thermometer up to
2.5 cm (1inch) from the bulb. 15
3. Provide privacy before draping the patient to
expose the buttocks.
4. Assist the client to assume a lateral position.
A newborn can be placed in lateral or prone
position, a young child in a lateral position with
knees flexed or in prone position across the lap.
5. Ask the client to take a deep breath, lifting the
buttocks with the non-dominant hand, insert the
thermometer into the anus 1.5 cm to 4cm (0.5-
1.5inches) depending on the age of client.
6. Hold the thermometer in place for 2 minutes for
adults and 5 minutes for a neonate.
7. After the designated length of time of
assessment, remove the thermometer. Wipe the
thermometer in a rotating manner from the stem
to the bulb. Discard cotton ball.
8. Read the temperature.
9. Place the used thermometer in the waste
receptacle and do after care.
d. Rectal Temperature (anus)-using digital
1. Wash your hands and take the
thermometer out of its holder.
2. Clean the probe (pointed end) of the
thermometer with rubbing alcohol then
rinse it in cool water.
3. Put a probe cover over the pointed end
of the thermometer. If your thermometer
did not come with a probe cover then you
can use it without one.
4. Lubricate the end of the probe with a
small amount of lubricant jelly.
5. Place your child (taking temperature
through the rectum is usually done on
children) on his stomach across a firm
surface or your lap before taking his
6. Gently slide the probe of the
thermometer into the rectum about a half
inch. Stop inserting the thermometer if it
becomes difficult to insert. Never force the
thermometer into the rectum.
7. Continue to hold the thermometer the
entire time you are taking the temperature.
Always stay with your client while taking
8. Keep the thermometer in place until it
beeps then remove the thermometer.
9. Read the numbers on the LCD. These
numbers are your client’s temperature.
10. If you used a probe cover, remove it
and throw it away.
11. Wash the probe of the
thermometer with soap, water and
rubbing alcohol when you are
done. Put the thermometer’s tip
cover. Place the thermometer in its
12. Record the reading.
13. Wash your hands.
e. Oral Temperature—using clinical thermometer
1. Ask client to open mouth. Place the
thermometer at the base of the tongue to
the right or left of the frenulum, in the
posterior sublingual pocket.
2. Ask the client to close the lips (not the
teeth) around the thermometer.
3. Leave the thermometer for 3-5 minutes.
f. Oral Temperature—using digital thermometer
1. Wash your hands and take the
thermometer from its holder.
2. Clean the probe (pointed end) of the
thermometer with rubbing alcohol or soap
and then rinse it in cool water.
3. Inform the client that you are going to
take his temperature orally.
4. Ask the client to wet his/her lips and
pick up his tongue.
5. Place the thermometer under the
client’s tongue on one side of his/her
mouth. Ask him/her to close his/her
lips. (You may have to hold the
thermometer especially if your client is
sick and weak enough to even hold the
thermometer with his/her lips).
6. Leave the thermometer in place until
the thermometer signals it is finished.
When it beeps, it signifies that it can
7. Remove the thermometer
carefully and read the temperature
on the digital display. Clean the tip
of the thermometer with a cotton
ball soaked in alcohol. Put the
thermometer’s tip cover. Place the
thermometer in its container.
8. Record the reading and wash
1. Temperature is taken by
inserting thermometer probe into
ear canal and position properly.
2. Children 1 year and
older/Adults: Gently pull top of ear
back, up and out.
3. Children less than 1 year, gently
pull top of ear straight back and
4. Point tip towards nose.
5. Snugly fit probe tip in ear canal
and do not move.
6. Positioning the pinna of ear
correctly straighten the auditory
canal so the probe will point
directly at the tympanic membrane
Another important measurement that you should
learn and develop the skill is how to take the
blood pressure of the person.
Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing
against the walls of the blood vessels.
The heart contracts as it pumps the blood into
the arteries. When the heart is contracting, the
pressure is highest.
This pressure is what we know as the Systolic
Blood Pressure. Now, as the heart relaxes
between each contraction, the pressure
When the heart is at its most relaxed state, the
pressure is lowest. And we call this as Diastolic
Generally speaking, blood pressure
increases with age, being lowest in the
newborn (approximately 40/20) and
gradually increasing during childhood and
adolescence to adult level (approximately
Blood pressure however, varies
considerably with the individual. Hence,
normal reading is usually identified as
being within a certain range. For example,
the normal range for adults is 120-
A systolic pressure over 140 or a
diastolic pressure over 100 is
termed as HYPERTENSIVE,
A systolic below 100 is termed as
activity, anxiety, strong emotion,
recent intake of food, disease, pain
and drugs can all cause a rise in blood
pressure. Fall in blood pressure is
caused by blood loss or anything that
cause blood vessels to dilate. The
average pressure of a healthy adult is
What are the tools
needed in taking
a stethoscope is a medical
instrument used to listen to
sounds, produced in the
body, especially those that
emanate from the heart
is a device used to measure
blood pressure, composed of
an inflatable cuff to restrict
blood flow, and a mercury or
mechanical manometer to
measure the pressure.
1. Prepare the client and
explain the procedure.
2. Wash hands and put on
3. Put out needed equipment.
4. Place the client in a comfortable
position with forearm supported
and palm upward. Ask the client not
to speak when BP is being
5. Apply the cuff with its lower
border located at about 2.5 cm
above the antecubital space.
6. Wrap cuff smoothly around arm
and tucks ends securely.
7. Position manometer vertically at
eye level. Caregiver should be no
further than I meter away.
8. Insert the earpiece of the
stethoscope in your ears so that
they tilt slightly forward. Be sure
sounds are clear, not muffled.
Ensure that the stethoscope hangs
freely from the ears to the
9. Use fingertips to feel for
pulsation in antecubital space.
Locate brachial artery and place the
diaphragm of the stethoscope over
the brachial pulse.
10. Close the valve of pressure bulb
clockwise until tight. Rapidly inflate
cuff to 30mmHg above palpated
11. Slowly release pressure bulb
and allow mercury or needle of
aneroid manometer gauge to fall at
a rate of 2-3 mmHg per second.
12. Note point on manometer where
first clear sound is heard. The
sound will slowly increase in
intensity. That is the SYSTOLIC
13. Continue to deflate cuff
gradually, noting point at which
sounds disappear. Listen for 10-20
mmHg after the last sound, and
then allow remaining air to escape
14. Note reading on manometer
when last distinct loud sound is
heard. That is the DIASTOLIC
15. Remove cuff
and do after care.
16. Wash hands.
Directions: Watch the video by following the links
provided. Work with a partner at home and
answer the questions that follow. Write your
answer on your notebook.
Video No. 1
1. What is the video all about?
2. What are the three most important steps you
have seen in the video? Explain your answer.
3. Do you think the caregiver who demonstrated
the procedure on taking body temperature using
the different sites performed them well? What are
some of the issues that a caregiver may encounter
in performing the procedure?
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