Introduction to management.pptx_ch_1[1]

Prime University
Prime UniversityDhaka University um Prime University
Introduction to Management
Prepared By:
Jannatul Ferdous
Assistant Professor
Department of Business Administration
Prime University
Chapter Outline
What is management?
Meaning of management
Purposes of management
Functions of management
Principles of management
Need for organization manager
Types of managers
Managerial skills
Managerial roles.
What is Management?
According to Harold Koontz,
"Management is the art of getting things
done through and with people in formally
organized groups.“
According to Henri Fayol,
"To manage is to forecast and to plan, to
organize, to command, to co-ordinate and
to control."
What is Management?
According to Peter Drucker,
"Management is a multi-purpose organ that
manages business and manages managers and
manages workers and work.“
According to Mary Parker Follet,
"Management is the art of getting things done
through people."
Meaning of Management
According to Theo Heimann, management has
three different meanings:
•Management as a Noun : refers to a Group of
Managers.
•Management as a Process : refers to the
Functions of Management i.e. Planning,
Organizing, Directing, Controlling, etc.
•Management as a Discipline : refers to the
Subject of Management.
Meaning of Management
•Management is an individual or a group of individuals that
accept responsibilities to run an organization. They Plan,
Organize, Direct and Control all the essential activities of
the organization. Management does not do the work
themselves. They motivate others to do the work and co-
ordinate (i.e. bring together) all the work for achieving the
objectives of the organization.
•Management brings together all Six M’s i.e. Men and
Women, Money, Machines, Materials, Methods and
Markets. They use these resources for achieving the
objectives of the organization such as high sales,
maximum profits, business expansion, etc.
What Is the Purpose of Management?
•The purpose of management is to plan,
direct, organize and ensure the success of a
business at various levels through a number
of methods including customer satisfaction
and employee training. Management,
normally made of a manager and their
assistants, is key to running an organization
on what could be considered microscopic
levels.
What Is the Purpose of Management?
•A manager is responsible for the tiniest
details in their business or department. They
are in control of operating hours, scheduling,
training and dealing with customers who
cannot be dealt with by other employees
directly. Someone in management may not be
referred to as a manager because different
companies and organizations use different
terms. It is possible to hear management
referred to as team leaders, coordinators and
sometimes coaches.
Functions of Management
There are basically five primary
functions of management, these are:
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Staffing
4. Directing
5. Controlling
1. Planning:
“Planning is the continuous process of making present
entrepreneurial decisions systematically and with best
possible knowledge of their futurity, organizing
systematically the efforts needed to carry out these
decisions and measuring the results of these decisions
against the expectations through organized and systematic
feedback”.
Planning is future oriented and determines an
organization’s direction. It is a rational and systematic way
of making decisions today that will affect the future of the
company.
Functions of Management
2.Organizing :
Organizing requires a formal structure of
authority and the direction and flow of such
authority through which work subdivisions
are defined, arranged and coordinated so that
each part relates to the other part in a united
and coherent manner so as to attain the
prescribed objectives.
Functions of Management
2.Organizing:
The function of organizing is concerned with:
1.Identifying the tasks that must be performed
and grouping them whenever necessary
2.Assigning these tasks to the personnel while
defining their authority and responsibility.
3.Delegating this authority to these employees
4.Establishing a relationship between
authority and responsibility
5.Coordinating these activities
3. Staffing:
Staffing is the function of hiring and retaining
a suitable work-force for the enterprise both at
managerial as well as non-managerial levels.
It involves the process of recruiting, training,
developing, compensating and evaluating
employees, and maintaining this workforce
with proper incentives and motivations. Since
the human element is the most vital factor in
the process of management, it is important to
recruit the right personnel.
Functions of Management
4. Directing:
•The directing function is concerned with
leadership, communication, motivation and
supervision so that the employees perform their
activities in the most efficient manner possible, in
order to achieve the desired goals.
•The leadership element involves issuing of
instructions and guiding the subordinates about
procedures and methods.
Functions of Management
•The communication must be open both ways
so that the information can be passed on to
the subordinates and the feedback received
from them.
•Motivation is very important, since highly
motivated people show excellent
performance with less direction from
superiors.
•Supervising subordinates would lead to
continuous progress reports as well as assure
the superiors that the directions are being
properly carried out.
4. Directing:
5. Controlling:
The controlling function involves:
• Establishment of standard performance.
• Measurement of actual performance.
• Measuring actual performance with the pre-
determined standard and finding out the
deviations.
• Taking corrective action.
All these five functions of management are
closely interrelated.
Functions of Management
Principles of Management
1. Division of Work
2. Authority and Responsibility
3. Discipline
4. Unity of Command
5. Unity of Direction
6. Subordination of Individual Interest
7. Remuneration
8. The Degree of Centralization
9. Scalar Chain
10. Order
11. Equity
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel
13. Initiative
14. Esprit de Corps
Principles of Management
1. Division of Work:
According to Henri Fayol specialization promotes
efficiency of the workforce and increases productivity. In
addition, the specialization of the workforce increases their
accuracy and speed.
2. Authority and Responsibility:
The accompanying power or authority gives the
management the right to give orders to the subordinates.
The responsibility can be traced back from performance
and it is therefore necessary to make agreements about this.
Principles of Management
3. Discipline:
It is often a part of the core values of a mission and vision
in the form of good conduct and respectful interactions.
4. Unity of Command:
The management principle ‘Unity of command’ means that
an individual employee should receive orders from one
manager and that the employee is answerable to that
manager. If tasks and related responsibilities are given to
the employee by more than one manager, this may lead to
confusion which may lead to possible conflicts for
employees.
Principles of Management
5. Unity of Direction:
All employees deliver the same activities that can
be linked to the same objectives. All activities must
be carried out by one group that forms a team.
These activities must be described in a plan of
action.
6. Subordination of Individual Interest:
The primary focus is on the organizational
objectives and not on those of the individual. This
applies to all levels of the entire organization,
including the managers.
Principles of Management
7. Remuneration:
This management principle of the 14
principles of management argues that
the remuneration should be sufficient to
keep employees motivated and
productive. There are two types of
remuneration namely non-monetary (a
compliment, more responsibilities,
credits) and monetary (compensation,
bonus or other financial compensation).
Principles of Management
8. The Degree of Centralization:
Centralization implies the concentration of
decision making authority at the top
management (executive board). Sharing of
authorities for the decision-making process
with lower levels (middle and lower
management), is referred to as
decentralization.
Principles of Management
9. Scalar Chain:
Hierarchy” management principle states
that there should be a clear line in the
area of authority (from top to bottom and
all managers at all levels). This can be
seen as a type of management structure.
Each employee can contact a manager or
a superior in an emergency situation
without challenging the hierarchy.
Principles of Management
10. Order:
Employees in an organization must have the right
resources at their disposal so that they can function
properly in an organization. In addition to social
order (responsibility of the managers) the work
environment must be safe, clean and tidy.
11. Equity:
Employees must be treated kindly and equally.
Employees must be in the right place in the
organization to do things right.
Principles of Management
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel:
Management strives to minimize employee turnover
and to have the right staff in the right place. Focus
areas such as frequent change of position and
sufficient development must be managed well.
13. Initiative:
Henri Fayol argued that with this management
principle employees should be allowed to express
new ideas. This encourages interest and
involvement and creates added value for the
company.
Principles of Management
14. Esprit de Corps:
Managers are responsible for the
development of morale in the workplace;
individually and in the area of
communication. Esprit de corps
contributes to the development of the
culture and creates an atmosphere of
mutual trust and understanding.
Principles of Management
Need for Organization Management
1.Helps to Create a Clearer Picture of the Goals
within Each Department.
2.Effective Implementation of Business Plan to
Achieve Targeted Goals
3.Better Coordination in the Various Departments
4.Enables Employees to Deliver Assigned Projects
Within Deadline
5.Creates a Positive and Peaceful Work
Environment
Types of Managers
Four basic levels of management: top, middle, first
line, and team leaders.
Top-Level Managers:
Top-level managers are the “bosses” of the
organization. They have titles such as chief
executive officer (CEO), chief operations officer
(COO), chief marketing officer (CMO), chief
technology officer (CTO), and chief financial officer
(CFO) etc. Top managers are ultimately responsible
for the long-term success of the organization. They
set long-term goals and define strategies to achieve
them.
Types of Managers
Middle Managers:
Middle managers have titles like department head,
director, and chief supervisor. They are links
between the top managers and the first-line
managers and have one or two levels below them.
Middle managers receive broad strategic plans from
top managers and turn them into operational
blueprints with specific objectives and programs for
first-line managers. They also encourage, support,
and foster talented employees within the
organization.
Types of Managers
First-Line Managers:
First-line managers are the entry level of management, the
individuals “on the line” and in the closest contact with the
workers. They are directly responsible for making sure that
organizational objectives and plans are implemented
effectively. They may be called assistant managers, shift
managers, foremen, section chiefs, or office managers.
First-line managers are focused almost exclusively on the
internal issues of the organization and are the first to see
problems with the operation of the business, such as
untrained labor, poor quality materials, machinery
breakdowns, or new procedures that slow down production.
Types of Managers
Team Leaders:
A team leader is a special kind of manager
who may be appointed to manage a particular
task or activity. The team leader reports to a
first-line or middle manager. Responsibilities
of the team leader include developing
timelines, making specific work assignments,
providing needed training to team members,
communicating clear instructions, and
generally ensuring that the team is operating
at peak efficiency.
Managerial Skills
Managers at every level in the management hierarchy must
exercise three basic types of skills: technical, human, and
conceptual.
Technical skills:
•Technical skills refer to the ability and knowledge in using
the equipment, techniques and procedure involved in
performing specific tasks.
•These skills require specialized knowledge and
proficiency in the mechanics of a particular.
•Technical skills lose relative importance at higher levels of
the management hierarchy, but most top executives started
out as technical experts.
Managerial Skills
Human skills:
•Human skills refer to the ability of a
manager to work effectively with other
people both as individual and as
members of a group.
•Human skills are concerned with
understanding of people.
•These are required to win cooperation of
others and to build effective work teams.
Managerial Skills
Conceptual skills:
•Conceptual skills involve the ability to see the
whole organization and the interrelationships
between its parts.
•These skills refer to the ability to visualize the
entire picture or to consider a situation in its totality.
•These skills help the managers to analyze the
environment and to identify the opportunities.
•Conceptual skills are especially important for top-
level managers, who must develop long-range plans
for the future direction of their organization.
Managerial Roles
The ten roles are divided into
three groups:
• Interpersonal
• Informational
• Decisional
Introduction to management.pptx_ch_1[1]
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___________________
THANKS TO ALL
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Introduction to management.pptx_ch_1[1]

  • 1. Introduction to Management Prepared By: Jannatul Ferdous Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Prime University
  • 2. Chapter Outline What is management? Meaning of management Purposes of management Functions of management Principles of management Need for organization manager Types of managers Managerial skills Managerial roles.
  • 3. What is Management? According to Harold Koontz, "Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups.“ According to Henri Fayol, "To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
  • 4. What is Management? According to Peter Drucker, "Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business and manages managers and manages workers and work.“ According to Mary Parker Follet, "Management is the art of getting things done through people."
  • 5. Meaning of Management According to Theo Heimann, management has three different meanings: •Management as a Noun : refers to a Group of Managers. •Management as a Process : refers to the Functions of Management i.e. Planning, Organizing, Directing, Controlling, etc. •Management as a Discipline : refers to the Subject of Management.
  • 6. Meaning of Management •Management is an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run an organization. They Plan, Organize, Direct and Control all the essential activities of the organization. Management does not do the work themselves. They motivate others to do the work and co- ordinate (i.e. bring together) all the work for achieving the objectives of the organization. •Management brings together all Six M’s i.e. Men and Women, Money, Machines, Materials, Methods and Markets. They use these resources for achieving the objectives of the organization such as high sales, maximum profits, business expansion, etc.
  • 7. What Is the Purpose of Management? •The purpose of management is to plan, direct, organize and ensure the success of a business at various levels through a number of methods including customer satisfaction and employee training. Management, normally made of a manager and their assistants, is key to running an organization on what could be considered microscopic levels.
  • 8. What Is the Purpose of Management? •A manager is responsible for the tiniest details in their business or department. They are in control of operating hours, scheduling, training and dealing with customers who cannot be dealt with by other employees directly. Someone in management may not be referred to as a manager because different companies and organizations use different terms. It is possible to hear management referred to as team leaders, coordinators and sometimes coaches.
  • 9. Functions of Management There are basically five primary functions of management, these are: 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Staffing 4. Directing 5. Controlling
  • 10. 1. Planning: “Planning is the continuous process of making present entrepreneurial decisions systematically and with best possible knowledge of their futurity, organizing systematically the efforts needed to carry out these decisions and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectations through organized and systematic feedback”. Planning is future oriented and determines an organization’s direction. It is a rational and systematic way of making decisions today that will affect the future of the company. Functions of Management
  • 11. 2.Organizing : Organizing requires a formal structure of authority and the direction and flow of such authority through which work subdivisions are defined, arranged and coordinated so that each part relates to the other part in a united and coherent manner so as to attain the prescribed objectives. Functions of Management
  • 12. 2.Organizing: The function of organizing is concerned with: 1.Identifying the tasks that must be performed and grouping them whenever necessary 2.Assigning these tasks to the personnel while defining their authority and responsibility. 3.Delegating this authority to these employees 4.Establishing a relationship between authority and responsibility 5.Coordinating these activities
  • 13. 3. Staffing: Staffing is the function of hiring and retaining a suitable work-force for the enterprise both at managerial as well as non-managerial levels. It involves the process of recruiting, training, developing, compensating and evaluating employees, and maintaining this workforce with proper incentives and motivations. Since the human element is the most vital factor in the process of management, it is important to recruit the right personnel. Functions of Management
  • 14. 4. Directing: •The directing function is concerned with leadership, communication, motivation and supervision so that the employees perform their activities in the most efficient manner possible, in order to achieve the desired goals. •The leadership element involves issuing of instructions and guiding the subordinates about procedures and methods. Functions of Management
  • 15. •The communication must be open both ways so that the information can be passed on to the subordinates and the feedback received from them. •Motivation is very important, since highly motivated people show excellent performance with less direction from superiors. •Supervising subordinates would lead to continuous progress reports as well as assure the superiors that the directions are being properly carried out. 4. Directing:
  • 16. 5. Controlling: The controlling function involves: • Establishment of standard performance. • Measurement of actual performance. • Measuring actual performance with the pre- determined standard and finding out the deviations. • Taking corrective action. All these five functions of management are closely interrelated. Functions of Management
  • 17. Principles of Management 1. Division of Work 2. Authority and Responsibility 3. Discipline 4. Unity of Command 5. Unity of Direction 6. Subordination of Individual Interest 7. Remuneration
  • 18. 8. The Degree of Centralization 9. Scalar Chain 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel 13. Initiative 14. Esprit de Corps Principles of Management
  • 19. 1. Division of Work: According to Henri Fayol specialization promotes efficiency of the workforce and increases productivity. In addition, the specialization of the workforce increases their accuracy and speed. 2. Authority and Responsibility: The accompanying power or authority gives the management the right to give orders to the subordinates. The responsibility can be traced back from performance and it is therefore necessary to make agreements about this. Principles of Management
  • 20. 3. Discipline: It is often a part of the core values of a mission and vision in the form of good conduct and respectful interactions. 4. Unity of Command: The management principle ‘Unity of command’ means that an individual employee should receive orders from one manager and that the employee is answerable to that manager. If tasks and related responsibilities are given to the employee by more than one manager, this may lead to confusion which may lead to possible conflicts for employees. Principles of Management
  • 21. 5. Unity of Direction: All employees deliver the same activities that can be linked to the same objectives. All activities must be carried out by one group that forms a team. These activities must be described in a plan of action. 6. Subordination of Individual Interest: The primary focus is on the organizational objectives and not on those of the individual. This applies to all levels of the entire organization, including the managers. Principles of Management
  • 22. 7. Remuneration: This management principle of the 14 principles of management argues that the remuneration should be sufficient to keep employees motivated and productive. There are two types of remuneration namely non-monetary (a compliment, more responsibilities, credits) and monetary (compensation, bonus or other financial compensation). Principles of Management
  • 23. 8. The Degree of Centralization: Centralization implies the concentration of decision making authority at the top management (executive board). Sharing of authorities for the decision-making process with lower levels (middle and lower management), is referred to as decentralization. Principles of Management
  • 24. 9. Scalar Chain: Hierarchy” management principle states that there should be a clear line in the area of authority (from top to bottom and all managers at all levels). This can be seen as a type of management structure. Each employee can contact a manager or a superior in an emergency situation without challenging the hierarchy. Principles of Management
  • 25. 10. Order: Employees in an organization must have the right resources at their disposal so that they can function properly in an organization. In addition to social order (responsibility of the managers) the work environment must be safe, clean and tidy. 11. Equity: Employees must be treated kindly and equally. Employees must be in the right place in the organization to do things right. Principles of Management
  • 26. 12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel: Management strives to minimize employee turnover and to have the right staff in the right place. Focus areas such as frequent change of position and sufficient development must be managed well. 13. Initiative: Henri Fayol argued that with this management principle employees should be allowed to express new ideas. This encourages interest and involvement and creates added value for the company. Principles of Management
  • 27. 14. Esprit de Corps: Managers are responsible for the development of morale in the workplace; individually and in the area of communication. Esprit de corps contributes to the development of the culture and creates an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding. Principles of Management
  • 28. Need for Organization Management 1.Helps to Create a Clearer Picture of the Goals within Each Department. 2.Effective Implementation of Business Plan to Achieve Targeted Goals 3.Better Coordination in the Various Departments 4.Enables Employees to Deliver Assigned Projects Within Deadline 5.Creates a Positive and Peaceful Work Environment
  • 29. Types of Managers Four basic levels of management: top, middle, first line, and team leaders. Top-Level Managers: Top-level managers are the “bosses” of the organization. They have titles such as chief executive officer (CEO), chief operations officer (COO), chief marketing officer (CMO), chief technology officer (CTO), and chief financial officer (CFO) etc. Top managers are ultimately responsible for the long-term success of the organization. They set long-term goals and define strategies to achieve them.
  • 30. Types of Managers Middle Managers: Middle managers have titles like department head, director, and chief supervisor. They are links between the top managers and the first-line managers and have one or two levels below them. Middle managers receive broad strategic plans from top managers and turn them into operational blueprints with specific objectives and programs for first-line managers. They also encourage, support, and foster talented employees within the organization.
  • 31. Types of Managers First-Line Managers: First-line managers are the entry level of management, the individuals “on the line” and in the closest contact with the workers. They are directly responsible for making sure that organizational objectives and plans are implemented effectively. They may be called assistant managers, shift managers, foremen, section chiefs, or office managers. First-line managers are focused almost exclusively on the internal issues of the organization and are the first to see problems with the operation of the business, such as untrained labor, poor quality materials, machinery breakdowns, or new procedures that slow down production.
  • 32. Types of Managers Team Leaders: A team leader is a special kind of manager who may be appointed to manage a particular task or activity. The team leader reports to a first-line or middle manager. Responsibilities of the team leader include developing timelines, making specific work assignments, providing needed training to team members, communicating clear instructions, and generally ensuring that the team is operating at peak efficiency.
  • 33. Managerial Skills Managers at every level in the management hierarchy must exercise three basic types of skills: technical, human, and conceptual. Technical skills: •Technical skills refer to the ability and knowledge in using the equipment, techniques and procedure involved in performing specific tasks. •These skills require specialized knowledge and proficiency in the mechanics of a particular. •Technical skills lose relative importance at higher levels of the management hierarchy, but most top executives started out as technical experts.
  • 34. Managerial Skills Human skills: •Human skills refer to the ability of a manager to work effectively with other people both as individual and as members of a group. •Human skills are concerned with understanding of people. •These are required to win cooperation of others and to build effective work teams.
  • 35. Managerial Skills Conceptual skills: •Conceptual skills involve the ability to see the whole organization and the interrelationships between its parts. •These skills refer to the ability to visualize the entire picture or to consider a situation in its totality. •These skills help the managers to analyze the environment and to identify the opportunities. •Conceptual skills are especially important for top- level managers, who must develop long-range plans for the future direction of their organization.
  • 36. Managerial Roles The ten roles are divided into three groups: • Interpersonal • Informational • Decisional