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Remot sensing

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Remot sensing

  1. 1. DR. B. L. SINHA Scientist/ Assistant Professor (Soil Water Engineering) DKS College of Agriculture and Research Station Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalay (Chhattisgarh) Bhatapara Remote Sensing
  2. 2. Remote Sensing Definition Science and art of obtaining information about an object, area or phenomenon through an analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in direct contact with the area, object or phenomenon under investigation.
  3. 3. What is remote sensing? The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) defined Remote Sensing (RS) as: “The art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment, through the process of recording, measuring, and interpreting imagery and digital representation of energy patterns derived from non contact sensor system " . This definition considered photogrammetry as sub-field of remote sensing –via cameras recording on film, which may then be scanned (aerial photos) –via sensors, which directly output digital data (satellite imagery)
  4. 4. Remote sensing Aero-plane Satellite
  5. 5. History of remote sensing • 1783: The Marquis d’Arlandes and Pilatre made a voyage near Paris using a balloon. • Photography using balloon, pigeon • 1860: Aerial photos in Russia and the USA • 1914-19: The first World War and the second World War (1939-45) had seen tremendous development in photography • 1927: Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. • 1955: Work began on the Baikonur launch site in central Asia. • 1957: Sputnik 1 launched from Baikonur (first satellite) • 1961: Yuri Gagarin launched in the Vostok 1 capsule, becoming the first human in space. • 1969: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon. • 1971: The first Space Station in history, the Russian Salyut 1 • 1972: (US Landsat1) the concept of imaging from satellites is introduced • 1986: France launched the first stereo-image satellite (SPOT1) • 1992: The space year (the maturity of remote sensing - 20 years of operation) • 1995 The Shuttle-Mir Program (1st phase of the International Space Station (ISS). • 2000 The first 3 astronauts (2 Russian and one American) start to live in the ISS
  6. 6. Remote Sensing Organizations • ISPRS- International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing • IGARSS- International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium • NASA -National Aeronautic and Space Administration (USA) • ESA- European Space Agency (Europe) • NASDA- National Space Development Agency (Japan) • CNES- Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (France ) • DARA- German Space Agency • CSA - Canadian Space Agency • NRSA- National Remote Sensing Agency of India
  7. 7. Remote sensing web sites • http://ftp.geog.ucl.ac.be/~patrick/geogr/Eteledetec.html - remote sensing index • http:// www.esrin.esa.it - Eurpopean Space Agency • http://geo.arc.nasa.gov - NASA program http://www.spot.com - French satellite SPOT • http://www.nasda.go.jp/ - Japan space agency • http://www.rka.ru./ Russian Space Agency (RSA) • http://www.coresw.com - Russian imagery source • http://www.space.gc.ca/ Canadian Space Agency (CSA) • http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ccrs/ -Canada Center for Remote Sensing • http://www.inpe.br/ National Institute for Space Research (Brazil) • http://www.asprs.org - American Society • http://www.man.ac.uk - Manshester Univ. • http://www.idrisi.clarku.edu - Idrisi site • http://www.amazon.com - Bookstore • http://www.brevard.cc.fl.us/BTR_Labs/bober/martin/rs/overview.htm Dr. Martin McClinton, (*.ppt) format (V. Good)
  8. 8. Remote sensing literature-Journal/Conferences • Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote sensing (PE & RS) • Photogrammetric Record • International Journal of Remote Sensing • ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing • ISPRS conference proceedings • IGARSS conference proceedings
  9. 9. Remote sensing literature -Books • Askne, J. (1995). Sensors and Environmental applications of remote sensing, Balkema, Rotterdam, NL • Campbell, J. B. , 1996. Introduction to Remote Sensing. 2nd ed.,Taylor and Francis, London • Dengre, J. (1994). Thematic Mapping from satellite imagery: Guide book, Elsevier ltd, Boulevard • Lillesand, T. M. and R. W. Kiefer, 2000. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York • Simonette, D. S. (ed) (1983) Manual of remote sensing, the Sheridan Press, Falls church
  10. 10. Remote sensing basic processes • Data acquisition (energy propagation, platforms) • Processing (conversion of energy pattern to images) • Analysis (quantitative and qualitative analysis) • Accuracy assessment (radiometric and geometric correction) • Information distribution to users (hard copy, CCT, CD-ROM, X-BYTE)
  11. 11. Receiving station processing Archiving Distribution 12
  12. 12. Remote sensing basic processes
  13. 13. Main stages in remote sensing are the following. A.Emission of electromagnetic radiation •The Sun or an EMR source located on the platform B. Transmission of energy from the source to the object • Absorption and scattering of the EMR while transmission C. Interaction of EMR with the object and subsequent reflection and emission D. Transmission of energy from the object to the sensor E. Recording of energy by the sensor • Photographic or non-photographic sensors F. Transmission of the recorded information to the ground station G. Processing of the data into digital or hard copy image H. Analysis of data
  14. 14. Advantages of remote sensing • Provides a regional view (large areas) • Provides repetitive looks at the same area • Remote sensors "see" over a broader portion of the spectrum than the human eye • Sensors can focus in on a very specific bandwidth in an image or a number of bandwidths simultaneously • Provides geo-referenced, digital, data • Some remote sensors operate in all seasons, at night, and in bad weather
  15. 15. Remote sensing applications • Land-use mapping • Forest and agriculture applications • Telecommunication planning • Environmental applications • Hydrology and coastal mapping • Urban planning • Emergencies and Hazards • Global change and Meteorology
  16. 16. Remote Sensing data and agriculture statistics Remote Sensing data area used in agriculture statistics mainly for: •Land cover monitoring •Area Frame construction •Support field data collection •Crop area estimation •Crop monitoring and yields forecasting
  17. 17. Applications
  18. 18. Thanks.......

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