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DISTINCTION TEST
FOR FUNCTIONAL
GROUPS
A PRESENTATION BY
RAKSHIT DOGRA
Presentation on
CONTENTS OF THIS PRESENTATION
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS AND THEIR TESTS OF DISTINCTION
Tests for Unsaturation There are two tests for determining unsaturation in an organic
compound.
Tests for Phenolic
group
Phenols are compounds containing a hydroxyl group attached to an
aromatic ring
Tests for Aldehydic and
Ketonic Groups
Aldehydes and Ketones are compounds containing carbonyl group
Tests for Carboxylic
group
Carboxylic acids are organic compounds containing carboxyl
functional group
Tests for Amines Amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen
atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
INTRODUCTION
What are functional Groups?
The atom or group of atoms that replaces
hydrogen atoms from hydrocarbon are
called functional groups. They may be –OH,
-COOH, -CO, -CHO, -Cl, -COCl, -COOR etc.
Functional groups are responsible for the
characteristics of a molecule.
Tests for Unsaturation
01 Bromine Test
There are two tests for determining unsaturation in an organic compound.
Tests for Unsaturation
02 Baeyer’s Test (Alkaline KMnO4 Test)
Tests for Alcoholic Group
01 Sodium metal test
The alcoholic group can be detected by the following tests:
Tests for Alcoholic Group
02 Ester test
Tests for Alcoholic Group
03 Ceric ammonium nitrate test
Tests for Alcoholic Group
04 Acetyl chloride test
Tests for Alcoholic Group
05 Iodoform test
Tests for Phenolic group
01 Litmus test
02 Ferric chloride test
Tests for Phenolic group
03 Liebermann’s test
Tests for Aldehydic and Ketonic Groups
01 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine test (2,4-DNP test
Tests for Aldehydic and Ketonic Groups
02 Sodium bisulphite test
Differentiating tests for aldehydes
01 Schiff’s Test
Differentiating tests for aldehydes
02 Tollen’s Test
03 Fehling’s Test
Differentiating tests for Ketones
01 m-dinitrobenzene Test
The following are the tests for aldehydes but not for ketones:
Ketones react with m-dinitrobenzene to give a violet colouration.
02 Sodium nitroprusside Test
Tests for Carboxylic group
01 Litmus Test
The following tests can be used to identify carboxylic acids:
02 Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Test
Tests for Carboxylic group
03 Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Test
04 Ester Test
Tests for Amines
01 Solubility Test
02 Litmus Test
Tests for Amines
03 Carbylamines Test
Tests for Amines
04 Azo-Dye Test
A PRESENTATION BY RAKSHIT DOGRA
THANKS YOU

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Distinction test for functional groups