2. WHAT IS LISTENING?
Listening is a process of receiving, interpreting and reacting to the
messages received from the communication sender.
It is an active, purposeful process of making sense of what we hear.
It is the first skill that learners develop while acquiring first language.
This is the most basic skill which may be considered as indispensable for
learning all other skills.
3. FALLACIES ABOUT LISTENING
Listening is not my problem!
Listening and hearing are the same.
Good readers are good listeners.
Smarter people are better listeners.
Listening improves with age.
Listening skills are difficult to learn.
4. LISTENING VS HEARING
Hearing involves the vibration of sound wave on our eardrums and the
firing of electrochemical impulses from the inner ear to the central auditory
system of the brain.
Listening involves paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we
Thus hearing is the first step of listening.
5. SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION: PROFILE
Communication Order Learnt Extent Used Extent Taught
Listening First First Fourth
Speaking Second Second Third
Reading Third Third Second
Writing Fourth Fourth First
6. PRE REQUISITES FOR LISTENING
Discriminating between sounds.
Identifying stressed words and grouping of words.
Identifying functions (such as apologizing) in conversations
Distinguish between literal and implied meanings.
Using background knowledge and context to predict and confirm meaning.
Recalling important words, topics and ideas.
Giving appropriate feed back to the speaker.
Reformulate what the speaker has said.
8. TYPES OF LISTENING
9. APPROACHES TO LISTENING
Bottom up processing -With Bottom-up processing, listeners start with the
component parts: words, grammar and the like
Top down processing - Top down process is the opposite of Bottom-up,
listeners start from their background knowledge
During listening process, a combination of the two processes is used to make
the text sensible for the listener. Thus, it is generally accepted that top-down
and bottom-up processes are utilized together during the listening process.
10. PURPOSE OF LISTENING
Listening for gist: listening to get a general idea
Listening for specific information: listening just to get a specific piece of
Listening in detail: listening to every detail, and try to understand as much as
Listening to infer: listening to understand how listeners feel
Listening to questions and responding: listening to answer questions
Listening to descriptions: listening for a specific description
11. IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING
God gives us two ears but only one mouth, because listening is twice as hard as
Better understanding of assignments and what is expected of you.
Build rapport with friends, co-workers, bosses, and clients.
Work better in a team-based environment.
Resolve problems with customers, co-workers, and bosses.
Answer questions; and find underlying meanings in what others say.
12. BARRIERS TO LISTENING
Lack of background knowledge
Content is too difficult
13. LISTENING AS SOFT SKILL
Be attentive while listening
Do not hurt the speaker’s feeling.
Provide problem solving environment.
Understand emotion and feeling of speaker.
Use body language while listening
Use words like “I understand you‟ or “I see‟
Do not interrupt/interrogate/teach/give advice/rehearse in your own head.
Use open ended question
15. PRE LISTENING STAGE
In this stage called" introductory or preparatory", listeners are
required to bring their attitudes, previous knowledge about the
topic etc., they are going to tackle. They should be given a reason
to listen, a chance to discuss and predict what they are going to
16. WHILE LISTENING STAGE
This phase refers to the duration of listening. While- listening
activities guide the listeners to collect or catch the necessary
information for an overall listening comprehension. Those
activities ensure the active nature of the process in the fact that
grasping every word while listening is not necessary. It consists of
getting the information and immediately performing something
17. POST LISTENING STAGE
This phase includes feedback to a listening activity. This, in
general, is very important. It is good for listeners to realize that
they have been doing something useful and interesting. For that
reason, post listening activities refer to all activities which can be
practiced after the while-listening phase. Those listening activities
are used as a springboard onto other language skills such as
reading, speaking and writing.
18. ACTIVE LISTENING
It is the process of converting an idea or thought into message with complete
Listener encourages the speaker to express his ideas by showing interest in the speech.
It is a two way process where listener plays an active role.
Active listener never neglects the physical aspects of the speaker such as appearance,
expressions, and bodily movements
To encourage the speaker active listener responds verbally or non-verbally
Active listening leads to effective and sound listener-speaker relationship.
Active listener shows his thirst for knowledge by asking relevant questions frequently
19. VERBAL PROMPTS FOR ACTIVE LISTENING
“Tell me more…”
“Why do you say that?”
20. PASSIVE LISTENING
It is the process of just absorbing the message without any involvement.
The listener discourages the speaker by expressing boredom on his face.
It is a one way process where the listener plays no role.
Passive listener has nothing to do with these physical aspects as he wants to
bring out no meaning from the spoken words.
Passive listener also responds non-verbally by yawning and showing boredom
on face and discourages the speaker.
No scope for listener-speaker relationship and in fact the speaker wants to
avoid such listeners.
21. HOW TO LISTEN EFFECTIVELY
Stop Talking –Be Silent
Maintain Eye Contact
Avoid or eliminate distraction
Try to gather information about the topic to develop interest and familiarity.