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Everything-as-code - A polyglot adventure

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Everything-as-code - A polyglot adventure

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Devoxx 2017, Poland: Talk by Mario-Leander Reimer (@LeanderReimer, Principal Software Architect at QAware).

Abstract: As modern, agile architects and developers we need to master several different languages and technologies all at once to build state-of-the-art solutions and yet be 100% productive. We define our development environments using Gradle. We implement our software in Java, Kotlin or another JVM based language. We use Groovy or Scala to test our code at different layers. We construct the build pipelines for our software using a Groovy DSL or JSON. We use YAML and Python to describe the infrastructure and the deployment for our applications. We document our architectures using AsciiDoc and JRuby. Welcome to Babel!
Making the right choices in the multitude of available languages and technologies is not easy. Randomly combining every hip technology out there will surely lead into chaos. What we need is a customized, streamlined tool chain and technology stack that fits the project, your team and the customer’s ecosystem all at once. This code intense, polyglot session is an opinionated journey into the modern era of software industrialization.

Devoxx 2017, Poland: Talk by Mario-Leander Reimer (@LeanderReimer, Principal Software Architect at QAware).

Abstract: As modern, agile architects and developers we need to master several different languages and technologies all at once to build state-of-the-art solutions and yet be 100% productive. We define our development environments using Gradle. We implement our software in Java, Kotlin or another JVM based language. We use Groovy or Scala to test our code at different layers. We construct the build pipelines for our software using a Groovy DSL or JSON. We use YAML and Python to describe the infrastructure and the deployment for our applications. We document our architectures using AsciiDoc and JRuby. Welcome to Babel!
Making the right choices in the multitude of available languages and technologies is not easy. Randomly combining every hip technology out there will surely lead into chaos. What we need is a customized, streamlined tool chain and technology stack that fits the project, your team and the customer’s ecosystem all at once. This code intense, polyglot session is an opinionated journey into the modern era of software industrialization.

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Everything-as-code - A polyglot adventure

  1. 1. Everything-as-code. A polyglot adventure. M.-Leander Reimer QAware GmbH
  2. 2. #whoami Mario-Leander Reimer Chief Technologist, QAware GmbH - Senior Developer && Architect - #CloudNativeNerd - Open Source Enthusiast mario-leander.reimer@qaware.de http://github.com/lreimer http://speakerdeck.com/lreimer
  3. 3. Which programming language do real developers use?
  4. 4. My #FirstSevenLanguages • Pascal • Basic • C / C++ • Assembler • PHP • Java • C#
  5. 5. My #LastSevenLanguages • Java • Groovy • TypeScript • Ruby • Kotlin • Scala • Go
  6. 6. There is no unanimous opinion ... • http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/ the-2015-top-ten-programming-languages • http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/ the-2016-top-programming-languages • http://redmonk.com/sogrady/2017/06/08/language- rankings-6-17/ • https://jaxenter.de/programmiersprachen- rankings-q1-2017-54308
  7. 7. There is no best programming language! Every language is strong in a specific domain.
  8. 8. We are software craftsmen. The IDE is our workbench.
  9. 9. Definition of Software Industrialization • This has nothing to do with cheap labor! • Automation of repetitive and laborious tasks • Better software quality through a standardized and streamlined tool chain • A well integrated tool chain leads to a higher productivity and happiness of your team • Better cost efficiency and competitiveness
  10. 10. Software Industrialization is a key requirement for DevOps and Continuous Delivery.
  11. 11. val softwareIndustrialization = everythingAsCode() open fun everythingAsCode() = everythingIsMadeFromCode() && everythingIsMadeByCode() private fun everythingIsMadeFromCode() = true private fun everythingIsMadeByCode() = true
  12. 12. The Quest for an ideal project archetype • Which languages are used for the specific domains in our projects? • Which tools are used for Setup, Build, Code, Test, CI, Infrastructure, Documentation? • What are the the dos and don'ts of using a specific language or technology? + some Wishful Greenfield Thinking!
  13. 13. So the polyglot adventure begins.
  14. 14. SEU-as-code
  15. 15. Lightweight Developer Provisioning • [ SEU ] German acronym; Software Entwicklungs-Umgebung • Use a build tool for the automated creation and update of a software development environment • Software packages are expressed as dependencies • Gradle tasks and Groovy are used instead of shell scripting • The SEU definition is version controlled just like ordinary source code • Available open source at http://seu-as-code.io
  16. 16. plugins { id 'de.qaware.seu.as.code.base' version '2.4.0' } import static de.qaware.seu.as.code.plugins.base.Platform.isMac seuAsCode { seuHome = { if (isMac()) '/Volumes/Everything-as-code' else 'Y:' } projectName = 'Everything-as-code' } dependencies { // list of software dependencies ... software 'org.groovy-lang:groovy:2.4.7' software 'org.scala-lang:scala:2.11.8' software 'org.jruby:jruby:9.1.4.0' }
  17. 17. Build-as-code
  18. 18. Maven is good. Gradle is 100x faster. • Very flexible. Gradle can build everything. • Polyglot builds are supported easily. • Succinct build scripts. Default conventions over configuration. • Incremental builds, reduced build times. • New features: Kotlin build scripts, Composite Builds, Parallel Downloads, ... • Frequent releases. Mature and stable.
  19. 19. apply plugin: 'application' apply plugin: 'war' apply plugin: 'kotlin' apply plugin: 'groovy' repositories { jcenter() } dependencies { providedCompile 'fish.payara.extras:payara-micro:4.1.1.164' // and many more ... } task everythingAsCode() << { println 'Everything-as-code with Gradle @ DevoxxPL 2017.' }
  20. 20. Main-as-code
  21. 21. There is nothing wrong with Java as primary language!
  22. 22. But Kotlin is a serious alternative worth considering as primary language.
  23. 23. But why Kotlin? And not Scala, Clojure, et.al. • Easy to learn for Java developers. • Well-balanced universal language. • Inbuilt Null safety & Syntactic sugar & Excellent interoperability. • JDK6 compatible. Small library size. • Good IDE and tool support.
  24. 24. @JsonIgnoreProperties(ignoreUnknown = true) data class Book(val title: String, val isbn: String, val author: String) @ApplicationScoped open class Bookshelf { private val books = listOf(Book("The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy", "0345391802")) open fun byIsbn(isbn: String): Book? = books.find { it.isbn == isbn } } @Path("books") @Produces(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON) open class BookResource @Inject constructor(private val bookshelf: Bookshelf) { @GET @Path("/{isbn}") open fun byIsbn(@PathParam("isbn") isbn: String): Response { val book = bookshelf.byIsbn(isbn) return if (book != null) Response.ok(book).build() else Response.status(Status.NOT_FOUND).build() } } @ApplicationPath("api") class BookstoreAPI : Application() { override fun getClasses() = hashSetOf(JacksonFeature::class.java, BookResource::class.java) }
  25. 25. Frontend-as-code
  26. 26. Welcome to JavaScript wonderland. • A strange universe on its own! • Clear trend towards Single Page Web Applications • Some fancy JavaScript UI framework. • HTML5 + CSS3 + ? • ? = TypeScript or • ? = ECMAScript2015 + Babel • Build Backbone: node + npm + webpack
  27. 27. Test-as-code
  28. 28. Groovy and Spock for Unit & Integration Tests class BookshelfSpec extends Specification { @Subject def bookshelf = new Bookshelf() @Unroll def "Find book #title by ISBN #isbn"() { when: 'we search a book by ISBN' def book = bookshelf.byIsbn(isbn) then: 'the title and author are correct' book?.title == title book?.author == author where: isbn || title | author "0345391802" || "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" | "Douglas Adams" "0345391829" || "Life, the Universe and Everything" | "Douglas Adams" } }
  29. 29. Scala and Gatling for Load Testing class BooksPerformanceTest extends Simulation { val conf = http.baseURL("http://localhost:18080").acceptHeader("application/json") val feeder = csv("books.csv").random val scn = scenario("Book Search") .exec(http("Get all books").get("/api/books")) .during(30 seconds) { feed(feeder) .exec(http("Get book by title ${Title}").get("/api/books?title=${Title}")) .pause(1 second) .exec(http("Get book with ISBN ${ISBN}").get("/api/books/${ISBN}")) } setUp(scn.inject(atOnceUsers(10), rampUsers(50) over (30 seconds))) .assertions(global.responseTime.max.lessThan(5000)) .protocols(conf) }
  30. 30. Pipeline-as-code
  31. 31. Build Pipeline Definition via Jenkinsfile #!/usr/bin/env groovy node { stage 'Checkout SCM' checkout scm stage 'Build/Analyse/Test' sh './gradlew clean build' archiveUnitTestResults() archiveDistributions() stage 'Dockerize' sh './gradlew buildDockerImage' stage 'Generate Documentation' sh './gradlew asciidoctor' }
  32. 32. Infrastructure-as-code
  33. 33. Docker, Docker, Docker, ... FROM qaware-oss-docker-registry.bintray.io/base/alpine-k8s-openjdk8:8u121 MAINTAINER M.-Leander Reimer <mario-leander.reimer@qaware.de> RUN mkdir -p /app ADD build/distributions/everything-as-code-1.2.1.tar /app WORKDIR /app/everything-as-code-1.2.1 RUN chmod 755 bin/everything-as-code EXPOSE 18080 CMD ./bin/everything-as-code
  34. 34. Vagrant and Ruby for local VM setup require 'yaml' $setup = <<SCRIPT sudo apt-add-repository ppa:ansible/ansible sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install -y ansible sshpass SCRIPT Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| config.vm.box = "ubuntu/trusty32" settings = YAML.load_file 'src/vagrant/vagrant.yml' config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb| vb.name = settings['vm']['name'] vb.gui = false vb.memory = "512" end config.vm.provision "shell", inline: $setup end
  35. 35. Provisioning with Ansible (and Python) --- # file: jenkinsci.yml - hosts: jenkinsci remote_user: root tasks: - debug: msg="Creating a Jenkins pipeline job on {{ inventory_hostname }}" - jenkins_job: name: Everything-as-code Pipeline config: "{{ lookup('file', 'templates/pipeline-job.xml') }}" url: "http://{{ inventory_hostname }}" user: admin password: admin
  36. 36. Cluster Orchestration with Kubernetes --- apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: everything-as-code spec: replicas: 3 template: metadata: labels: tier: backend spec: containers: - name: everything-as-code image: "qaware-oss-docker-registry.bintray.io/lreimer/everything-as-code:1.2.1" ports: - containerPort: 18080 env: - name: PORT value: 18080
  37. 37. Documentation-as-code
  38. 38. Yes, we need documentation! • And no, the source code is not enough. • Writing technical docs with Word is ! " # • Documentation should be located next to the source code: change code, change docs. • It should be easy, quick and fun to write. • Support for code, images, UML diagrams, ...
  39. 39. // Beispiel Architektur-Dokumentation mit arc42 (https://arc42.github.io) :imagesdir: ./images = image:qaware-logo.png[QAware GmbH,2016] Everything-as-code :toc-title: Table of Contents :toc: [[section-introduction-and-goals]] == Introduction and Goals The introduction to the architecture documentation should list the driving forces that software architects must consider in their decisions. === Requirements Overview === Quality Goals === Stakeholders <<<< include::02_architecture_constraints.adoc[] // further includes for the remaining sections
  40. 40. AsciidoctorJ and Gradle to the Rescue plugins { id "org.asciidoctor.convert" version "1.5.3" } asciidoctorj { version = '1.5.4.1' } asciidoctor { sourceDir 'src/docs/architecture' resources { from('src/docs/architecture') { include 'images/**/*.png' include 'images/**/*.jpg' } } backends 'html5' options doctype: 'article' attributes 'source-highlighter': 'coderay' }
  41. 41. Architecture-as-code
  42. 42. Architecture documentation using Structurizr def workspace = new Workspace("Everything-as-code", "The system context of Everything-as-code.") def model = workspace.model // create a model and the software system we want to describe def bookApp = model.addSoftwareSystem("Book Application", "The best source to get info on books.") // create the various types of people (roles) that use the software system def anonymousUser = model.addPerson("Anonymous User", "Anybody on the web.") anonymousUser.uses(bookApp, "Searches for books and views details.") def browser = bookApp.addContainer("Web Browser", "Allows users to view information about books", "Edge, Chrome, Firefox") anonymousUser.uses(browser, "Views information from and makes requests to") def webApp = bookApp.addContainer("Web Application", "Hosts the browser-based web application and services", "Payara Fish") browser.uses(webApp, "uses [JSON/HTTPS]")
  43. 43. Architecture validation using QAvalidator architecture(name: "Mail Example", prefix: "tview", reflexMLversion: "1.0") { excludes "java.lang.*" api "JavaMail" : "javax.mail.*" component "Mail" { api "IMail" : "de.qaware.mail.*" impl ["de.qaware.mail.impl.*", "de.qaware.mail.impl2.*"] uses "JavaMail" component "MailSender" { api ["de.qaware.mail.sender.*", "javax.mail.*"] impl "de.qaware.mail.impl.javamail.JavaMailSender" uses "JavaMail" } } }
  44. 44. Presentation-as-code
  45. 45. These slides were written in Markdown. --- ## [fit] These slides were written in Markdown. - This is for real programmers! :smiley: - Several open source projects available - Use HTML and JavaScript alternatively. ---
  46. 46. State of the art software projects are polyglot.
  47. 47. Use the right tool for the job!
  48. 48. Use common sense! The right language and tool depends on your team, the project context and your customer.
  49. 49. Fork me on GitHub. https://github.com/lreimer/everything-as-code
  50. 50. Please vote for this ! talk.
  51. 51. Thanks! Questions?

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