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Clean Infrastructure as Code

  1. Clean Infrastructure as Code Software Craft Community @ DATEV Mario-Leander Reimer @LeanderReimer “To Boldly Go Where No DevOps Engineer Has Gone Before”
  2. 2 QAware
  3. QAware | 3
  4. QAware | 4
  5. QAware | 5
  6. 6 Mario-Leander Reimer Geschäftsführer | CTO @LeanderReimer #cloudnativenerd #qaware #gernperDude
  7. Many of the principles on clean code and architecture also apply to infrastructure (as) code. QAware | 7
  8. The 3 essential views of software architecture define the fields of clean code, clean architecture and quality assurance. QAware | 8
  9. The 3 essential views of software architecture define the fields of clean code, clean architecture and quality assurance. QAware | 9 Biz Dev Ops
  10. The infrastructure with its technologies and frameworks, as well as the responsibilities have changed. QAware | 10
  11. The architecture and code for our infrastructure also needs to address many of the 8 -illities for good software quality. QAware | 11 Software Product Quality (ISO 25010) ● Modularity ● Reusability ● Analysability ● Modifiability ● Testability ● Adaptability ● Installability ● Replaceability ● Confidentiality ● Integrity ● Non-repudiation ● Authenticity ● Accountability ● Maturity ● Availability ● Fault Tolerance ● Recoverability Maintainability Portability Security Reliability ● Co-existence ● Interoperability Compatibility ● Time Behaviour ● Resource Utilization ● Capacity Efficiency ● Completeness ● Correctness ● Appropriateness Functional Suitability ● Operability ● Learnability ● UI Aesthetics ● Accessibility Usability
  12. Clean Infrastructure Code has an impact on continuously shipping high quality products to your end users! QAware | 12 Continuous Delivery Low Risk Releases Less Rework Fast Time to Market Better Products Lower Costs Happier Teams Happier Users Loosely Coupled Architectures Maintainable Code Empowered Teams Continuous Security from Day 1 Test Automation Continuous Integration GitOps Deployment Automation Monitoring and Alerting
  13. Trial and Error seems to be the predominant approach to get infrastructure code up and running. QAware | 13 Write some code Run code Write some code Run code Write some code Run code ? Write Dockerfile docker build docker run Change Dockerfile docker build docker run Change Dockerfile docker build docker run ? Write K8s YAML kubectl apply Change K8s YAML kubectl apply Change K8s YAML kubectl apply ? Write Terraform Definition terraform apply Change Terraform Definition terraform apply Change Terraform Definition terraform apply ?
  14. QAware | 14 Big Ball of Infrastructure Code Mud Karl Emily Steve
  15. The usual suspects! As always there are many excuses, myths or reasons for bad and smelly (infrastructure) code. QAware | 15 ■ High cognitive load or missing know-how within teams – Young and inexperienced teams are often lacking the required know-how – High cognitive load due to many new tools and technologies ■ High (infrastructure) complexity and costs for quality assurance of IaC – Integrative test approach required, especially for declarative tools like Terraform – Dedicated infrastructure and environments required ■ Urgent deadlines or unrealistic plans – The standard reason excuse for bad code quality for ages! – When will we ever learn? Learn to say No! ■ Feature greed and missing awareness from product owners – Ops and infrastructure related tasks and acceptance criteria are often missing in user stories. – Incomplete Definition of Done.
  16. “Too much cognitive load will become a bottleneck for fast flow and high productivity for many DevOps teams.” QAware | 16 ■ Intrinsic Cognitive Load Relates to fundamental aspects and knowledge in the problem space (e.g. used languages, APIs, frameworks) ■ Extraneous Cognitive Load Relates to the environment (e.g. console command, deployment, configuration) ■ Germane Cognitive Load Relates to specific aspects of the business domain (aka. „value added“ thinking)
  17. A Platform team and its engineers are a key enabler for high productivity of stream-aligned DevOps teams. QAware | 17 ■ Responsible to build and operation a platform to enable and support the teams in their day to day development work. ■ The platform aims to hide the inherent complexity to reduce the cognitive load for the other teams. – Standardization – Self-Service ■ Fully automated software delivery is the goal! Karl & Steve Emily
  18. QAware | 18 You have to work in layers!
  19. Cloud-native Application Engineering Cloud-native Platform Engineering The 5 Layers of Cloud-native Software Engineering QAware | 19 IaaS Network, Compute, Storage (VPC, EC2, NLB, ALB, ...) CaaS (Kubernetes Services) PaaS (Software Infrastructure Blueprints with Helm and Continuous Delivery Toolchain) Application-specific Software Infrastructure Cloud-friendly & cloud-native Applications Architect Build Run Atlantis
  20. The conceptual architecture of your infrastructure will have a significant impact on the source code and its structure. QAware | 20 ■ Which cloud regions do we need to run in? Which parts of the infrastructure and system need to be replicated? ■ How do we model environments (INT; PROD)? VPCs? K8s Namespace? ■ Which layers and components are required? What are their dependencies? ■ How do we structure the Git repositories and source code to represent the components?
  21. SoC Separation of Concerns. Modules, layers and components. Loose Coupling and High Cohesion.
  22. KISS Keep it Simple, Stupid. Emergent Design and Evolutionary Architecture
  23. DRY Don’t Repeat Yourself. “Every piece of knowledge or logic must have a single, unambiguous representation within a system.” Andy Hunt & Dave Thomas, “The Pragmatic Programmer”
  24. SOLID
  25. Single Responsibility Principle Open Closed Principle Liskov Substitution Principle Interface Segregation Principle Dependency Inversion Principle
  26. QAware | 26 Clean Code Good overall summary can be found at 1. Follow standard conventions. 2. Keep it simple stupid. Simpler is always better. Reduce complexity as much as possible. General 1. Keep configurable data at high levels. 2. Prevent over-configurability. 3. Use dependency injection. Design 1. Be consistent. If you do something a certain way, do all similar things in the same way. 2. Use explanatory variables. 3. Avoid negative conditionals. Understandability 1. Don’t be funny. 2. Choose descriptive and unambiguous names. 3. Use pronounceable names. 4. Use searchable names. Names 1. Always try to explain yourself in code. 2. Don't be redundant. 3. Don't add obvious noise. 4. Don't comment out code. Just remove. 5. Use as clarification of code. 6. Use as warning of consequences. Comments 1. Fast. 2. Independent. 3. Repeatable. 4. Self-validating 5. Timely Tests 1. Keep lines short. 2. Use white space to associate related things and disassociate weakly related. 3. Don't break indentation. 4. Dependent definitions should be close. 5. Structure should clearly express modules, layers, components or conceptual architecture. Source Code 1. Prefer data structures. 2. Hide internal structure. 3. Should be small. 4. Small number of variables. Data Structures
  27. There are many constructive and analytical options and measures of quality assurance available. QAware | 27 Measures of quality assurance Constructive Analytical Defined Processes Document Templates Methods and Tools Know-How Transfer Education Processes Results Assessments Audits Appraisals Static Analysis Reviews Walkthroughs Test Measure Static Validation Dynamic Validation
  28. Demos and Examples
  29. Declarative VS Imperative
  30. Imperative Tools like CDK or Pulumi enable Developers and SRE to apply Engineering Practices to Infrastructure code. QAware | 30 ■ Tame overall complexity and reduce cognitive load. ■ One consistent approach to Infrastructure as Code and cloud engineering for many cloud providers, Docker and Kubernetes. ■ No breach between application development and DevOps engineering. ■ Rich programmable cloud interfaces with abstractions and reusable packages. ■ Apply clean code and general engineering practices to infrastructure code: automation, modularity, testing, and CI/CD.
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